Country of origin labeling (COOL) Assignment

Country of origin labeling (COOL)
Country of origin labeling (COOL)

Country of origin labeling (COOL)

The U.S. regulation at issue required beef and pork products sold in the US to have a label identifying the country of origin of the beef.

The WTO ruling is an example of the power of international trade law to constrain the regulatory powers of WTO member nations.

Starting with the links provided, identify and analyze at least 3 different perspectives on the recent WTO Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) dispute (e.g., U.S. industry, US consumer rights organizations, environmental organizations, the WTO, countries which brought the dispute against the US to the WTO, among others).

Spend some time noting the contrasting Participants (who is involved), Perspectives (what views on the WTO decision do they espouse), and Ideas (what ideas do they invoke as perspectives on the WTO decision).

Finally, reflect on which position you agree with most and why. Make a poster or powerpoint where you contrast the participants, perspectives. Video tape yourself presenting the project. Videos should run 6-8 minutes (not to exceed 10 minutes).

Need to read these links for the project too:

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Subsistence Strategies Research Paper

Subsistence Strategies
Subsistence Strategies

Subsistence Strategies

Subsistence Strategies There are very few foragers left in the world. For this discussion, do a little bit of research online and find information on a foraging culture. Some examples of such groups could be (but not limited to): the Inuit of the Arctic regions, the Mbuti of Central Africa, or even modern nomadic peoples of Europe (the Roma peoples).
1. A general overview of the people and your opinions about their traditional life.
2. The link of the information that you found online.
3. Discuss their current situation and what are their prospects for the future?

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Agricultural insurance programs Term Paper

Agricultural insurance programs and income protection contracts
Agricultural insurance programs and income protection contracts

Agricultural insurance programs and income protection contracts: Designs and benefits

Here are some points to consider in the paper: 1. The effectiveness of insurance in managing agricultural risks 2. Benefits of agricultural insurance subsidies 3. Cost-effectiveness of income protection/revenue insurance programs 4. Adoption rates for agricultural insurance 5. The link between insurance provision (including subsidies) and the adoption of environmentally friendly practices 6. Agricultural insurance uptake across the globe (evaluating the effectiveness of income protection schemes) Thank you.

I also would like references to be within the last five years, i.e. from 2014 henceforth. do not use websites as sources, use only scholarly sources. Ensure zero plagiarism. I also need a 2 page draft as soon as possible, at most 15 hrs of commencing work. Thanks

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Growth of Radish and Carrots in Aquaponics and Soil

Growth of Radish and Carrots in Aquaponics and Soil this is an oral presentation summary. I didn’t go to listen to the presentation.

Growth of Radish and Carrots in Aquaponics and Soil
Growth of Radish and Carrots in Aquaponics and Soil

But I have the topic, and I wish this topic can help me to finish this paper and get the extra credit. you can pick at least two of any these blow topic to write as a summary.

The topics are:

(1) Comparison of the growth of radish and carrots in Aquaponics and Soil.

(2) The development and use of the Trebuchet as a weapon of war

(3) Analyzing the manifestos of shooters

(4) The ecological destruction of post-war Iraq

(5) Using economic data of the Weimar Republic to predict the future of America’s economy

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Biogas Plants Methane fuel Dissertation 

Biogas Plants Methane fuel Dissertation 
Biogas Plants Methane fuel Dissertation

Biogas Plants Methane fuel Dissertation


From Blueprint to reality of Self Sustainable Farming:

The emergence of Natural Gas Powered Eco Systems in the United Kingdom’s Agricultural

industry with the aid of New Hollands Methane Powered Tractor in the market

Research Questions:

How does the New Holland methane powered tractor prove revolutionary in the quest for sustainable agriculture?

To what extent can Bio-Methane utilised as a fuel thrive in UKs agricultural fuelling market?

To what extent do Biogas Plants prove to be a profitable option for farm businesses in the UK?

What is the potential of AD plants in the country in the future?

Research Aims and Objectives

Outline why the vehicle is considered a groundbreaking innovation that enables farming enterprises to achieve a new level of sustainability.

Analyse the current Biogas Infrastructure of the United Kingdom and its potential future growth.

Consideration and Evaluation of the prevalence of Business Drivers for British farms with AD plants (Food or Energy ó Food and Energy)

Data Collection Procedures and Research Approach

As this project aims to research the emergence of BioGas Plants in the Agricultural industrywith a focus on the viability of an innovative vehicle that is not yet on the open market, it was decided that the best method was to take a Mixed Method approach, which involved

Literature review, Interviews, and Document analysis.

Literature Review

Van Basshuysen, R. (2016). Natural gas and renewable methane for powertrains. Cham [etc.]: Springer.

Anaerobic Digestion making Biogas Making Energy by Tim Pullen 2005

Biogas Energy by Tandem Abbasi 2012

Methane Production from Agricultural and Domestic Waste by P.N Hobson 1981

Grundlagen der Gastechnik Gasbeschaffung ñ Gasverteilung  Gasverwendung, Benno Lendt, G¸nter Cerbe 2016 Erdgas und erneuerbares Methan f¸r den Fahrzeugantrieb : Wege zur klimaneutralen

Mobility, Van Basshuysen R 2015

Bio-energy and renewable power methane in integrated 100% renewable energy system, Sterner M 2009

Biogas Trends on the German and International Market, Clemens Findeisen, Consultant Development Cooperation German Biogas Association

Mastering Future Challenges with Gas Innovations (2019). [online]

European Biogas Association 2017/18 Statistical Report

Connect all information in order to sustain my thesis:

The UKs Agricultural Sector has the ability to use large amounts of waste produced annually by farms across the country with Biogas Implants and the utilisation of Bio-Methane as a fuel is a reality that will boost agriculture profitability and sustainability levels.

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Urban Agriculture and vertical farming

Urban Agriculture and vertical farming

Urban Agriculture and vertical farming

Can 600 square meter farm footprint, support the +600k residents of Vancouver city?


Consider cost analysis whether the vertical farm is viable option.

  • sustainability of this project.
  • social impact in terms of jobs creation and support community.
  • variety of crop we can grow in vertical farming system.
  • Multi-story building refurbished (renovated) to use for growing food.
  • Renewable energy utilization and other energy sources to support this system of production.
  • LED lighting and other innovation horticulture production system that can be used in vertical farm.

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Genetic modified foods Annotated Bibliography

Genetic modified foods
Genetic modified foods

Genetic modified foods

Essay 2: Annotated Bibliography

For your second major assignment, we will continue our discussion of food production issues pertaining to sustainability and the need to feed a growing world population. In this essay you will communicate your exploration, research, and reflection as you listen to, evaluate, and record the conversation surrounding food production. Acceptable topics include a discussion of GMO foods, the Green Revolution, or Nobel Prize Laureate Norman Borlaug. This could build from the interests you explored in your first essay on sustainability, or you can follow a different track. Was there something about your definition of sustainability that piqued your curiosity and warrants further exploration? This could also be an opportunity for you to delve deeper into an issue or question surrounding your chosen field.

This assignment won’ be a formal essay but a document that demonstrates your engagement with the research process. At its completion your assignment will consist of three (3) parts, each of them recording the steps you’ve taken in researching your ethical problem or issue, understanding your sources, and evaluating the direction you’ll take for the final research-supported argumentative essay. This assignment will tell your research story from inquiry (exploration of a research question) to claim (tentativ thesis).

For guidance in successfully completing this assignment, consult RRW, Ch. 1 (summary/paraphrase, embedding direct quotations in your prose), Ch. 12 (finding and evaluating sources, preparing an annotated bibliography), Ch. 13 (studying sources) and Ch. 14 (formal documentation for MLA or APA documentation style).

The most important thing to understand is that this is not an assignment you can write in one sitting from beginning to end. Itís a construction project that, in many ways, builds from the inside out.

Think of the finished product in terms of the following general outline:

Part I: Exploratory Narrative (500+ words)

The first section of the assignment will be a 1st person narrative that tells the story of your intellectual journey, beginning with your research question. You should use your research question as the title of the document. This portion of the assignment will let the reader know how your process began and progressed, what sources you found, what they were saying, and where they led you. Iím interested here in the chronological path of your process. As you can imagine, you can be drafting this section throughout the process. Consider also that books, articles, database materials, and websites are not the only relevant sources available. An interview with someone in your field, for example, might give you further insight and background into the question.

Important:Your sources here will reflect how your research develops. There is no expectation that these sources are the ones that will appear in the final paper or that they will be balanced, that is, so many for or against an issue. In fact, it’s unlikely

that all the sources will appear in the final paper. Also, resist the impulse to select only those sources that support any opinions or judgments you may already have about your topic. Reserve judgment and see where the research leads you.

Part II: Annotated Bibliography (minimum of 6 entries – 150+ words each). At least 2 sources should be accessed using the library’s ENGL 1304 Research Guide.

An annotated bibliography is like an expanded Works Cited (MLA) or References (APA) page where your reader sees not only the formal citation but a paragraph containing a summary and explanation of each source. You’ll list your sources alphabetically according to MLA or APA citation style as you would in a Works Cited or References page. Each formal citation will be followed by a short paragraph containing description and summary, an indication of the credibility, authority, or bias of the source, and a statement of how the source might fight into an argument.

Part III: Reflection and Tentative Thesis (200+ words)

The final section will give the reader a sense of where your research stands now, what’s left to be done, and what conclusions you may have drawn from participating in the conversation surrounding your question. Like the first section of the assignment, 1st person makes sense here. You can think of your final document as a rhetorical sandwich: an objective 3rd person annotated bibliography between two 1st person narratives. You’ll have a chance to flex your voice and tone muscles with this assignment.

Conclude Part III with your tentative thesis. What stand can you take, now that you’ve looked at the sources? Will you have a definitional claim? An evaluative claim? A causal claim? A proposal? The thesis is tentative and can be revised or changed in the final assignment.

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Sustaining Our Agricultural Resources

Sustaining Our Agricultural Resources Instructions: Using the term that you have selected from the list provided in the classroom, please complete the following template.

Sustaining Our Agricultural Resources
Sustaining Our Agricultural Resources

Create a minimum of 5 to 7 well-crafted sentences per paragraph. In your response, you are expected to cite and reference, in APA format, at least two outside sources in addition to the class text. The sources must be credible (from experts in the field of study); scholarly sources (published in peer-reviewed academic journals) are strongly encouraged. Delete these instructions before submitting your work to Waypoint.

Sustaining Our Agricultural Resources Your Term

Instructions: In the first paragraph;

  • Thoroughly define your term.
  • Describe how the term relates to this week’s theme. Provide specific examples.

Delete these instructions before submitting your work to Waypoint.

[Enter your information here]

Instructions: In the second paragraph;

Again, be as specific as possible and include examples to support your explanations.

[Enter your information here]

Instructions: In the third paragraph;

  • Determine at least two specific actions that we can take in order to promote environmental sustainability in relation to this term.
  • Be creative and concrete with your suggestions. For example, you might recommend supporting a particular organization that is active in the field of your term.
  • Consider actions that might be taken

1) on the individual level, in our daily lives;

2) at the community level;

3) via national and global organizations working on behalf of the environmental issues associated with your term; and/or 4) at the ballot box (though voting).

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Toulmin Argument on Positives of Animal Rights Testing

Toulmin Argument on Positives of Animal Rights Testing It is a Toulmin Argument on the positives of Animal Testing and how it is beneficial to us as humans.

Toulmin Argument on Positives of Animal Rights Testing
Toulmin Argument on Positives of Animal Rights Testing

My main focus on this will be to discuss the benefits for animals and humans in regards to testing.

Student Name: John Doe

Instructor: Tony Ruggiero

English 122 Section # XXXXX

Essay Type: Toulmin Argument

28 September, 201X

Far Better or Maybe for the Worse?

Introduction: Once upon a time and happily thereafter are terms that we are all familiar with and have even grown accustomed to.  Likewise, many people imagine the future marriage that will allow them to spend the rest of their life with their soul mate. However, almost all people in this day know of at least one marriage that has failed due to various circumstances. In 2014 divorce has become such a frequent result of marriages that people should be wondering why marriages are failing in the first place. Divorce is not always simply the result of failed love. Divorce tends to be the result of high assumptions of economic provision, lack of expected health quality, or infertility within marriages that couples may seek standards that are unreachable for even the strongest loves and dissolve the bedrock of modern day society.

Evidence 1: Upon entering a marriage, the newlyweds each have their own beliefs that their personal economic and education standards will be met.  People say that money is not everything when it comes to love, but statistics from research by scholars Bradford Wilcox and Elizabeth Marquardt, report those harder economic times have had an impact. The percentage of a lasting first marriage differs among education levels with those “highly educated”, or obtaining at minimum a bachelor’s degree, with 56% intact, those “moderately educated”, or those with a high school diploma, with 45%, and “least educated”, or those who did not complete high school, with 39% (Wilcox and Marquardt). The chance of divorce also changes among these standards as “highly educated” having an 11% chance of divorce within 10 years, “moderately educated” with a 37% chance and “least educated” with a 36% chance (Wilcox and Marquardt ). Clearly depicted through the documented studies, the education status correlates directly with income conditions. This imbalance shows staggering evidence of a marital divide that also affecting marriage and the very fabric of that binds our society together.

Evidence 2: Although many wedding vows include the promise that the couple will be there in sickness and in health, this pledge to one another can be tested if a spouse is later diagnosed with a chronic illness that puts a strain on the ideal relationship. Research specialist and Social Family Advocate Recipient, Alexandra Sifferlin, reviewed a 2010 study from the University of Michigan of 2,717 couples and found that “31% of marriages involving at least one sick partner end in divorce” (Sifferlin). Although this percentage seems low, taken in a different angle, this means that a little over 3 out of every 10 marriages facing medical issues ends in divorce. With emerging diseases yearly, the category of couples with health problems will only increase, therefore this statistic will apply to more of the population. Once embedded onto a host, this terminal illness will eat away at the foundation of family and society.

Evidence 3: A common goal of many marriages is to produce children to fulfill an idea of a family; but what if this dream cannot be fulfilled due to infertility?  Erica Berman, a doctor in psychology with over thirty-five years’ experience, states infertility can “create a substantial financial burden for people; it can destroy a couple’s intimacy; it can cause serious significant emotional distress and interfere with everyday functioning”  (Berman). The emotional effects of this incapability to provide what was expected can become a divide in marriages with blame felt on either side of the situation.  If the relationship is built on the foundation to reproduce as an outpouring symbol of their love, couples can feel as if they have lost their identity as a pair and the definition of a family when this is not a possibility and therefore feel left out and potentially withdrawing from society.

Rebuttal: There are circumstances during which divorces are solely the result of lack of intimacy, passion or commitment. Perhaps a wrong choice is made at too young of age or in a moment of idealistic passion. However, the absence of these sentimental connections can be “rooted within the broader emotion of resentment that has underlying causes which are greater than a sudden change of heart” (Pilossoph).  Even marriages that have intentions to endlessly love one another can be damaged by societal demands of a basic standard of living and initial dreams that are broken by unforeseen situations.

Warrant/Backing: People with a long-term commitment to others provide communities with healthier and more productive individuals that contribute to society positively. Those that have made continuous responsibility to one another “are 1.3 times more likely to participate in volunteer opportunities to promote the welfare of others” (Keyes).  Further Cohen reports that people who make an abiding promise to stand by another person through any circumstance “tend to report higher life satisfaction and lower psychological distress than single people.”  Clearly, the suggestion of higher life satisfaction can make a stronger bedrock of society.

Conclusion: With marriages lacking commitment to promises made during wedding ceremonies to take their partner for life, society needs to begin to set the example for future marriages that divorce should not be the easy outcome when the future does not unfold as planned. Social classes have been placed at odds in yet another dimension with dramatic differences in the expectancy of success in marriage. As health conditions impact adults of various ages, these medical concerns become weights on the potential for a long-term marriage. The expectation of children to create a family has left infertile spouses to create a break in a relationship due to feelings of inadequacy. Since divorce is a high trend in recent years, couples considering marriage should evaluate mistakes of past marriages in order to prevent unreachable standards and prepare to stick with the vows made to be together “for better or worse” in order to create a future with higher standards of commitment so that society has the chance to live happily thereafter.

1009 WORDS

Toulmin Argument on Positives of Animal Rights Testing Works Cited

Berman, Erica, Ph.D. “When Infertility Affects Your Marriage.” The Huffington Post. 23 Jan. 2013. Web 25 Sept. 2014.

Cohen, Lisa J, Ph.D. “What Makes a Marriage Work?” Psychology Today. 2 May 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.

Keyes, Corey L. M., “Social Civility in the United States.” Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 72, No. 3 (2002), pp. 393-408.

Pilossoph, Jackie. “There Really Is Only One Reason People Get Divorced.” The Huffington Post., 26 Sept. 2014. Web. 04 Oct. 2014.

Sifferlin, Alexandra. “Divorce More Likely When Wife Falls Ill.” Time. 1 May 2014. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.

Wilcox, Bradford W., and Marquardt, Elizabeth. “When Marriage Disappears: The Retreat from Marriage in Middle America.” The State of Our Unions 2010. Dec. 2010. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.

English 102-Writing Project 2 Assignment Sheet

NOTE: All assignments should in MLA format and submitted through the appropriate assignment link on Blackboard. Each major writing project will go through an extensive drafting process that will include prewriting, drafting and revising. You MUST be prepared for, and participate in, the peer review before submitting the final draft.

Project 2: Toulmin Argument

Purpose/Goal: Utilizing sources and research developed from the preliminary study of a topic in Writing Assignment 1, each student will write an individual argumentative paper. The object of this writing assignment is to develop an argumentative paper on a position directly related to the topic which is assigned to the group. Students may use any articles discovered from Writing Project 1 and may add additional sources as required.

Group Focus: The group should divide their focus on a common position on the topic. For example, if the group is exploring the topic of free education, the group will split its focus by having half of the group members develop an argument by pursuing the positive aspects while the other half develops an argument by pursuing the negative aspects of such a system keeping in mind trying to avoid completely extremis points of view, those that will not seek compromise under any circumstance, if possible.

Group Requirement: Students cannot duplicate sources in their papers. Each member of the group must utilize different sources in the production of this argument. A coordinated effort is essential to this assignment.

Toulmin Argument on Positives of Animal Rights Testing Paper Requirements

  1. Length: 1000-1200 words. Utilize example posted under course documents and under the assignment.
  2. Use a minimum of (4) four and a maximum of (6) six sources.
  3. Include works cited list.
  4. Perform peer review on scheduled days.
  5. Essays will be submitted through Blackboard drop box in accordance with the course calendar. Format as a .doc or rtf file only.

Due Dates:

See Course Calendar

Paper Outline:

Toulmin Argument on Positives of Animal Rights Testing Introduction: 20 Points

(1) Grabber is to get the readers interest. A grabber should not give away the topic of the paper. It begins with the title of the paper.

(2) Next, provide a basic overview of the issue so that the reader can get a basic idea.

(3) Provide a clearly defined/SPECIFIC claim that states (at a minimum) position on the issue–what are you examining—how you are examining—why you are examining (greater purpose). Optional questions to be answered in the thesis are who-where-when.

(Reviewing the PowerPoint presentation under the course documents is a must! A poor thesis lowers the grade by at least ONE to TWO grade levels because it affects EVERY part of the paper.

3-5 Body Paragraphs- 30 Points – Each body paragraph MUST contain:

(1) A topic sentence that correlates to the thesis statement.

(2) Introduces your source (applies to Ethos).

(3) Show the source support/evidence (applies to Logos).

(4) Discuss how to support/evidence supports topic (may apply to Pathos).

(5) Make a direct connection to the greater purpose of a thesis statement (applies to Pathos).

Rebuttal 15 Points:

(1) State what the opposing point of view (generally the most common one) believes in and why. If you can’t find an opposing point of view–you do not have an argument!

(2) Produce evidence that suggests that the opposing point of view is weak or incorrect. You do not have to prove it wrong but at a minimum, it should cast doubt upon the opposing point of view.

Warrant/Backing 15 Points:

(1) Select as GENERAL a warrant as possible. You WILL NOT mention the actual topic of the paper. The more specific you make it the fewer people will agree with you. Break your issue down to its simplest foundation. This is what you want to use. Think of the basic needs of food-shelter-clothing, human interaction…etc.

(2) Add additional evidence to support your warrant, not the paper topic although there will obviously be some type of relationship.

Toulmin Argument on Positives of Animal Rights Testing Conclusion 20 Points:

(1) Restate the major claim/thesis of your paper-what you set out to do.

(2) Summarize the results of your findings AND make a connection to the claim you began with to show emphasis on how they work together toward the common goal.

(3) Look to the future by recognizing that your issue is part of something greater. This can be in the form of statement-a questions or some form of acknowledgment that may apply to the next paper.

Sustainability – Intensive animal farming/Industrial livestock production

Sustainability - Intensive animal farming/Industrial livestock production
  Sustainability – Intensive animal  farming/Industrial livestock production

Sustainability – Intensive animal farming/Industrial livestock production

This essay must be about the topic of SUSTAINABILITY and INTENSIVE ANIMAL FARMING

“A sustainable food system provides us with a diet that is low in environmental impact, which delivers food and nutritional security, and thus supports a healthy life for present and future generations. A sustainable food system is also protective and respectful of our food animals, biodiversity and ecosystems; delivers food to society in a manner that is culturally acceptable, accessible, economically fair and affordable; is nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy; is not dependent on non-renewable resources or exhaustive of conditionally renewable ones; and is not exploitative or abusive of human resources, especially its labor pool”, how does topic fit in? What is/are your thesis/es with respect to this topic – what aspect of the current unsustainability of our current food system does your chosen topic illustrate and why? How will understanding this topic/aspect help us better understand, with respect to our food system, what is unsustainable and what is not and why? If you are researching an aspect of the food system held up to us as an illustration or example/model of sustainability, what makes it so and what standard/alternative is it being compared against? How can we better understand what is unsustainable by looking closely at this alternative?

Your essay is expected to be research based, using source of information to support it – peer-reviewed journal articles, both open-access and via our library (e.g. from Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, Sustainable Production and Consumption, International Journal of Sustainable Development, etc.); governmental, institutional or reputable non-governmental reports (e.g. from FAO, World Resources Institute, etc.); and high-quality journalistic reporting (e.g. from The Economist, The Guardian, the NYT, National Geographic, etc.). All uses of published material must be cited.
You should not rely on small number of sources for the majority of your facts and figures but seek out a topic and sources by multiple authors and works.

You must make it clear in your introductory section, what the purpose of your essay is, what the thesis/es is/are (i.e. what your arguments are), and what the reader will know and understand having read your essay. Your essay will be judged, in part, on whether these stated expected learning outcomes for your essay are supported by the subsequent content.

Please write your essay using the following style guide.
• No larger than 12 point font
• Margins (1” left and right, 1” top and bottom)
• Name at the end of your paper (i.e. on the last page only) after all references, figures, etc. next to word count
• 2.0 spacing of text
• Indented first line of new paragraphs (1”)
• No widows or orphans (single line or heading stranded at start of paragraph at bottom of a page, single line or heading stranded at end of paragraph at top of a page)
• Title (UPPER CASE BOLD – centered)
• Major sub-headings (Lower case bold – left margin) – please use these to break up and structure your essay
• Sub-headings to be informative (i.e. guide the reader, must not be merely Introduction, Conclusion, etc.)
• Supporting figures and/or tables to be included, numbered sequentially, and cited in the text where they are first referred to – all graphics like phtotos, graphs, maps, etc. are figures (Figure 1), (Figure 2) and all data sets in a matrix are tables (Table 1), (Table 2), etc. All figures or table must have a caption and shall be cited as to its source as with all other information (e.g. Smith 2001).
• All material used from the literature to be cited in text using author-date (person or agency responsible if no byline) e.g. (Smith 2001) with citations at the END of the paper in REFERENCES section – absolutely NO referencing materials in footnotes or end notes.
• Pages to be numbered in header, right adjusted (do not include your name or the title of the paper, just the page number).
• All acronyms to be printed in full on first usage, thereafter in abbreviated form e.g. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) first usage, FAO 2nd and thereafter.
• Word count to be included at bottom of essay next to your name (can use auto counter in MS Word). Only include words in main body of essay (not References, etc.)

Citations and referencing

Please use the Geographical Review format when listing sources in your REFERENCES section. These are the general instructions that the Geographical Review provides for authors about referencing which you should use:

Use the in-text, author-date system of documentation described in The Chicago Manual of Style. Locate the citations discreetly in the text, preferably at the end of a sentence, so that prose flow is uninterrupted (e.g. Smith 1989 p13-14). Specify the page numbers on which direct quotations or statistics appear otherwise, if you are merely paraphrasing, you don’t need the page number, just the author and year (e.g. Smith 1989). If a citation contains more than one reference, list the oldest first and the most recent last (e.g. Taft 1934; Hart 1984, 1990; Smith 1989). The first time someone is named in the text, use the full name; thereafter, use only the surname e.g. In 1989, John Smith said that…. (Smith 1989). Smith also said ……. In the REFERENCES, include only works cited in the text, captions, and notes pertaining to illustrations and tables. If you did not cite it in your paper, then it should not be entered in your REFERENCES. Conversely, make sure that all cited works have entries in the REFERENCES. Arrange entries in your REFERENCES alphabetically by author; list works by the same author in chronological order, with the oldest first and the most recent last. If an author has two or more entries with the same year of publication, place an a, b, c and so forth after the date in your citation based on which is first cited in your paper and repeat this notation in your REFERENCES (e.g. Smith 1990a, Smith 1990b). Here is the citation guide from the Geographical


Book by a single author (include the subtitle):
Zelinsky, W. 2001. The Enigma of Ethnicity: Another American Dilemma. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Book by multiple authors (include every author, as well as the subtitle):
Moore, A. M. T., G. C. Hillman, and A. J. Legge. 2000. Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra. London: Oxford University Press.
Edited book (include the subtitle):

Nostrand, R. L., and L. E. Estaville, eds. 2001. Homelands: A Geography of Culture and Place across America. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Chapter in an edited book (always include the page numbers):
Sheridan, T. E. 2000. Human Ecology of the Sonoran Desert. In A Natural History of the Sonoran Desert, edited by S. J. Phillips and P. W. Comus, 105-118. Tucson: Arizona–Sonora Desert Museum Press; Berkeley: University of California Press.

Nora, P., ed. 1996-1998. Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past. Translated by A. Goldhammer. Edited by L. D. Kritzman. 3 vols. New York: Columbia University Press.
Journal article (include the issue number, if any):
Mills, A. 2005. Narratives in City Landscapes: Cultural Identity in Istanbul. Geographical Review 95 (3):441–462.
Newspaper article (if no author, cite the name of the newspaper; for example, Economist):
Thompson, G. 2001. An Exodus of Migrant Families Is Bleeding Mexico’s Heartland. New York Times (National Edition), 17 June, §1, 1, 8.
Dissertation or thesis:
Skop, E. H. 2002. Saffron Suburbs: Indian Immigrant Community Formation in Phoenix. Ph.D. diss., Arizona State University.
Marsh, S. 2001. Interview with the author. Amarillo, Tex., 13 June.
Web page URL (use only publicly accessible Web sites; do not force a break in the URL at the end of a line; and if the Web site no longer exists, insert “Formerly at” before the URL):
PRC [People’s Republic of China]. 2000. The Bai Ethnic Minority. Washington, D.C.: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China. []. (Last accessed 10 October, 2018).

Do not use footnotes for references.
Cite all references in the text (e.g. Mason and Lang 2017)
and then include the full reference in the references
section at the end of your paper. Be sure to cite every
time you paraphrase the literature you are using,
sentence-by-sentence, not just at the end of a long
paragraph. Cite the sources of figures, photos, etc.
also. Your essay should aim to weave information from multiple sources together in a coherent narrative and thus should be interspersed by multiple citations, not just the same article ten times in ten sentences, for example. If you quote something verbatim, please place it in quotation marks and include the page number with your citation (e.g. Mason and Lang 2017 p17).
If your quote is more than a single sentence, include it as a separate paragraph indented 1” from both margins.

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