American politics Assignment Research Paper

American politics
American politics

American politics Assignment Research Paper

American politics

Order Instructions:

Basically, you will need to read 20 pages and answer these questions below in an essay form please.

1- Statement of the issue – one or two sentences.
2- Review of the authors arguments – one or two paragraphs stating at least three major points made by each author.
3- Comparison of arguments – at least one paragraph contrasting what each author had to say.
4 – Your opinion – at least one paragraph explaining either
a) why you agree with one of another, or
b)why you disagree with all the authors.
5- Discussion Question – an open ended question that you derive from the readings.

This is the textbook name just in case you need to know or if you want to quote anything. “The Enduring Debate (Norton, 2014)


Statement of the Issue

The issue of concern here, pertains the level of spending by both corporate and unions during electioneering period whereby the Conservative judges of the Supreme Court declared that unions and corporate have constitutional right to embark on spending as much as they wish on television commercials that are election related, especially those which support and/or target a particular candidate.

Review of Authors Arguments

Bradley A. Smith

According to Bradley A. Smith, the discussions with regards to “Citizen United we stand” raises fundamental concerns particularly those about restriction of political speech, which may also be considered as the campaign finance reform. This was in the 2008 presidential elections when the Citizens United, a conservative activist group formed by Koch brothers was engaged in a legal tussle challenging provisions that prohibited airing of a documentary they had prepared. This was attributable to the fact that, the provisions had given the government the mandate of limiting any form of political communication as long as the source funding was from corporate, even for Citizens United which is a nonprofit organization. However, despite the ongoing battle between Americans on the limitation or prohibition on campaign spending, there has been a mixture of outcomes where the Supreme Court has issued various judgments with regards to violations of campaign finance laws.

 Ronald Dworkin

In the author’s article, the decisions that threaten democracy the author puts forward three main arguments with regards to the controlling of campaign and electioneering period. For instance, the author puts forward a discussion on the Supreme Court decision by a bench of five conservative justices on their own initiative in which they stated that unions and corporations have constitutional right to spend as much money as they wish on television commercials regarding to elections. The author also presents an argument on political activity based on First Amendment rights from the perspective of various court rulings, especially those banning electioneering and campaign funding corporations or unions controlled by foreigners as well as political commercials funded by multinational corporate.

Matt Bai

The author agrees with argument that critics have been overstating the impact of Citizens United and that a lot of the things that took place in elections since the ruling was already in course. Bai states that court decision critics put across a useful organizing device perpetuated by liberal politicians considering that many other liberals are in strong disapproval of the ruling. The author also highlights the reasons for current surge of money in elections including the strong views attributed to Obama and Bush presidencies as well as the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002.

Comparison of Arguments

Dworkin concludes by making a plea on formulating public financing and disclosure laws that are stronger for congressional elections in order to ensure that American electoral campaigns are not left at the influence of foreign corporations. Bradley Smith strongly disagrees on the prohibition or limitation of election campaign funding by foreign corporations and refers the decision as overstated. He also notes that allowing the spending as a decision it empowers not only labor unions but also corporations, which are interested in spending in elections. Matt Bai agrees with Bradley Smith’s argument that critics have been overstating the impact of Citizens United and that a lot of the things that took place in elections since the ruling was already in course. Bai states that court decision critics put across a useful organizing device perpetuated by liberal politicians considering that many other liberals are in strong disapproval of the ruling.

My Opinion

I agree with Dworkin’s argument that funding of campaigns should be controlled through stronger public financing and disclosure laws in order to ensure that foreign corporations are not allowed to fund campaigns.

Discussion Question

Based on the discussed arguments, the open-ended question would be “Discuss the underlying issues which are making it necessary to control campaign funding from the perspective of Republicans and Democrats”.


Canon, D. T., Coleman, J. J., & Mayer, K. R. (2014). The Enduring Debate: Classic and Contemporary Readings in American Politics, (7th ed.). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

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Consequences of Policemen of the World in US

Consequences of Policemen of the World in US Order Instructions: By the mid-20th century, the United States had become the dominant force in international relations.

Consequences of Policemen of the World in US
Consequences of Policemen of the World in US

Some have argued that the United States’ military functions as the world’s “police.” This assignment covers the manner in which this shift occurred and the consequences the United States faces as a result of its status as “policemen of the world.” Using the Internet and reputable news sources, research two (2) real-life international incidents from the past five (5) years in which:
State your thesis on the significance of the current role of the US military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response..
For the next part of this assignment you will create an outline of the main points you want to address in this paper. This will serve as the basis for your Assignment 2.2 Final Draft. (Note: Please use the Purdue Owl Website to assist you with this assignment; this website can be accessed at:

Consequences of Policemen of the World in US Sample Answer

Policemen of the world

The world has turned out to be a global drama where different countries come to interact with each other. This feature is clearly evident from the American kind of leadership where the politics is military: “The Policemen of the World.” Putting in mind incidences like gulf war of 1990 and the cold war of 1945-1991; it is not that deep that these kinds of actions are essentially justified; however, it is because of the dynamic issues which have been taking place for the last few years. These are things that cause chaos.

To begin with, America attained its independence many years ago and through many geo-political activities which appointed them as the World Police. World Police involved many activities, for example, American is well-recognized nation with a sizable navy which protects the ships in any international forms of piracy. Also, it is fought to slow communism from spreading out. Finally, due to US economic interest, it struggles to fights the drug cartels in different parts of the world, South African being among them (Rosenberg, & Guillermo, 2007).

The above points are evident from the life situation which came about in the aftermath of World War 2. In this case, America had turned out to be a world power just after the Battle of New Orleans which took place 1812; however, it did not become the superpower until Second World War (Hickey, 2015). This is also evident from the infrastructural damages that were caused by the war. It shows that America had a strong military that could not be worn. As a result, it gained a lot of goodwill and power after restructuring Europe through the Marshal plan. These factors therefore are what put Americans in the position they are at present.

Consequences of Policemen of the World in US References

Hickey, D. R. (2015). Glorious victory: Andrew Jackson and the Battle of New Orleans. JHU Press.

Rosenberg, M., & Guillermo, S. R. (2007). The United States and the Central America: Geopolitical realities and the regional fragility. New York City: Routledge.


Changing the constitution of the United States argument

Changing the constitution of the United States argument
Changing the constitution of the United States argument
Changing the constitution of the United States argument

Changing the constitution of the United States argument

Order Instructions:

These questions need to be answered for the paper please.

1- Statement of the issue – one or two sentences.
2- Review of the authors arguments – one or two paragraphs stating at least three major points made by each author.
3- Comparison of arguments – at least one paragraph contrasting what each author had to say.
4 – Your opinion – at least one paragraph explaining either
a) why you agree with one of another, or
b)why you disagree with all the authors.
5- Discussion Question – an open ended question that you derive from the readings.

This is the textbook name just in case you need to know or if you want to quote anything. “The Enduring Debate (Norton, 2014)


Changing the constitution of the United States is undeniably one of the most difficult processes as it was set by its framers with an intention of maintaining it stability by discouraging unwarranted alterations unless there is an almost universal agreement among the citizenry.
Statement of the issue

The main issue discussed in this chapter mainly concerns the difficulty of the process of changing the Constitution of the United States through ratification and approval.

A review of the authors’ arguments

A review of the arguments presented by the authors of these two chapters show a significant variation between the underlying issues and approaches that ought to be addressed in order to make sure that the Constitution stability is guaranteed. A critical evaluation of the arguments revives the long standing discrepancy among the Americans on how the constitutional change process should proceed to allow any ratification or approval. For instance, Sanford Levinson presents crucial arguments in support of the strict construction approach in making any amendments to the Constitution. The author makes various key points that not only highlight the need for the people’s power to make choices but also the strict procedures through which they have to be made. In fact, the three poignant point made by the author are: 1) in the attempts to make any constitutional changes, the people’s power to make informed choices must always be respected and carried out through the laid down strict procedures such as convention referenda or general elections clauses such as the one in the New York state constitution which allows the people to make a choice on whether they need a referendum after every 20 years; 2)  the people have to acknowledge institutional practices by not only adjusting to them but also adjusting to goals of institutional practices; and 3) the need to defend the framers compromises entrenched in Article V through stringent adherence to the strict approach to constitutional change, while giving an opportunity for amendments based on changing realities e.g. through courts.

On the other hand, Eric Lane and Michael Oreskes raise pertinent issues with democracy as the modality through which the Constitution must be changed. For example they discuss vital points on why democracy has been used by most governments across the world as a mob rule through which choices are forced down people’s throats. The authors also point that democracy in America is long overdue and its hindered by compromising where the majority will always have their way while the minority have their say without necessary action been taken. In addition, the authors point out that democracy is fragile because in pursuit of self-interests, there would be willingness to trample the democracy of others in the form of compromising and consensus which may be rarely achieved.

Comparison of arguments

A comparison of argument presented in the two sets of discussion, it is evidently clear that significant difference still exist on the appropriate approach to guide the process of constitutional change in America. For instance, Levinson supports the strict construction approach which makes it extremely difficult to make changes to the constitution while at the same time acknowledging other methods to achieve so with regards to the power vested on peoples to make their own choices. Alternatively, Lane and Oreskes point out the need for democracy to be in the forefront to initiate such changes through compromise and consensus. However, they also highlight critical issues that must be considered carefully since democracy is fragile and tendency for its use in pursuit of self-interest at the expense of others is also possible.

 My opinion

My opinion as to why I agree with arguments presented by Sanford Levinson on his support for the more rigid and strict construction of the Constitution is because this approach plays a critical role in making sure that the integrity and stability of the Constitution is maintained. It is due to the strict construction of the Constitution as discussed by Levinson that has made sure very few constitutional changes have been ratified and/or approved despite the numerous amendment proposals that have been received since its promulgation. Through this approach to constitutional change the Congress has been allowed minimal implied powers to always ensure that the government remains small and that it does not overstep its mandate by making unwarranted amendments to the Constitution in the disguise of democracy, which not only allow the majority to have their irrespective of the dissenting voices of the minority.

Discussion Question   

From the readings provided in chapter 10 and 11, it is highly imperative to consider the underlying issues that inform the quest of Americans to amend the Constitution with regards to changing realities and modalities of how the Constitution has guided policies of previous and current governments. Hence, this begs the discussion question that follows: “In the quest for compromise and consensus on the amendments required on the Constitution, what are the key issues that ought to be addressed to promote Americans’ connection with the Constitution rather than drifting from it?”

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Americans political history;maryland Paper

Americans political history;maryland
Americans political history;maryland
Americans political history;maryland

Americans political history;maryland

Order Instructions:

The purpose of this paper is to provide practical application of material learned by developing concepts presented in the presentations. The body of the paper must be at least 6 pages (double spaced, 12-pt font). In addition to the body there must be a separate title page and a page of references. A separate abstract is not necessary and must be omitted.

Do not attempt to write the paper without carefully studying the related presentations. To achieve more than a passing grade, you must demonstrate a mastery of the presentations and factual information and incorporate those ideas into your papers. Naturally, stylistic points such as grammar and spelling will be considered in grading. Your paper must be in current APA format. Doing the minimum amount of work does not guarantee a perfect score.

-The research paper has 2 steps. First, you will analyze the background of your congressional district and your U.S. Representative. Second, you will analyze the political background of your state and 1 of your U.S. Senators. You may choose which senator to study; however, if one senator is newly elected and does not have interest group ratings, choose the other one. Note that these are United States Representatives and Senators. Do not use members of your state legislature.


-Begin by reviewing the presentation on “Becoming an Informed Voter.” After reviewing the presentation, you will write an essay with 2 parts. The first part will deal with your congressional district and congressman; the second part will deal with your state and senator. As explained in the presentation, interest group scores may be found at


A helpful source to find information for this paper is The Almanac of American Politics by Michael Barone and Chuck McCutcheon.

This essay will address a number of questions:

• What is the recent political history of your district and state?
• How have they voted in recent presidential and congressional elections?
• Can your district or state be considered to be leaning Republican or leaning Democratic?
• Are the parties relatively even or does one party dominate the elections?
• Does your district have a long tradition of supporting one party or has it been changing in recent years?
• How did your representative and senator come to power? (Thoroughly describe their backgrounds.)
• How do the interest groups (ADA, ACLU, ACU, CC or FRC) rate your representative and senator? (Note: If the Christian Coalition score is not available, you may substitute the Family Research Council score. Include the exact scores from each of these groups. The rationale for this is explained in the presentation.)
• Based on these ratings, would you classify your representative and senator as conservative or liberal? Justify your answer.

Be sure to list your sources.




The 3rd congressional district in the state of Maryland consists of Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Howard and other considerable parts of the independent city of Baltimore. Currently, Maryland’s 3rd congressional district is represented by a Democratic John Sarbanes. Some of the landmarks in this district include the Maryland Science Centre, Annapolis, Fort McHenry and the state’s capital. Three previous individuals to represent Maryland in the US Senate include the former representative of the 3rd district such as the retired senator Paul Sabarnes, current senators Barbara Mikulski and Ben Cardin.  The 3rd district’s gerrymandering resulted from the support for a Democratic candidate in the 2000 and 2010 consensus. In 2012, the 3rd district was the least congressional district across the US (Barone and Cohen, 2013).                                                        

 Consequently, the 3rd district is among the 61 districts that elected a representative to the first US Congress. It was initially included Maryland, Prince George’s County, and Anne Arundel. In 1792, the district was moved to comprise eastern half of Fredrick, Montgomery and Maryland counties (Pedersen, 2001). Again, in 1853, the 3rd district was redrawn to include Baltimore County apart from western and northern regions of the county and a third of the eastern part of Baltimore city. In the 1860 census, Maryland was cut to about five congressional districts while the 3rd congressional district was extended to include areas of the Baltimore, which were not part of the district before 1863 (Pedersen, 2001).

 What is the recent political history of your district and state?

The recent political history of the 3rd congressional district is the most gerrymandered not only in Maryland but also across the US. The 3rd congressional district and Maryland the assembly is especially aggressive as well as creative. The assembly has been able to shift the majority of black electorates from Al Wynn’s majority-minority fourth district into eighth district, to expel the Republican representative. Again, in 2012 the Maryland’s assembly removed the current. Roscoe Bartlett by cutting his district into a half while merging it to a prosperous, democratic neighborhood near D.C, which made Bartlett lose by about twenty, points (Barone and Cohen, 2013). Currently, the Democrats control 7 out of 8 House seats.

As a matter of fact, gerrymander issue has been exaggerated; Marylanders still uphold the law and voted for Barack. The 3rd district under John Sarbanes includes metro regions of D.C; Annapolis and Baltimore are the ugliest and least compact across the United States. Much as Sarbanes was not likely to lose the race, the recent amendments offered him a position to get hold of the rich Democrats from the county of Montgomery- likely supporters of the future senatorial campaign. Some Democrats were not happy with such a move that was as a result of Donna Edwards., a black congresswoman.

How did your representative and senator come to power? (Thoroughly describe their backgrounds.)

John Sarbanes sought the Democratic nomination for the third district following a decade incumbent Ben Cardin, who forfeit the seat to run for the senatorial position of John Sarbanes’s father, Paul Sarbanes. The primary campaign involved Paula Hollinger the state senator, Peter Beilenson the former Baltimore City Health Commissioner and Oz Bengur the former Maryland Democratic Party Treasurer. During the September 2006 nominations, John Sarbanes won with approximately 31.9% votes (Barone and Cohen, 2013). In the general election, his Republican rival was John White, the Annapolis, and marketing executive. Nevertheless, Maryland’s 3rd district is mainly democratic from 1927 and some expected that Sarbanes to experience challenges in the elections. Furthermore, some allege that Sarbanes won the election following the popularity of his father, Paul Sarbanes, who was the representative of the 3rd district from 1971-1977. During November 2006 elections Sarbanes worn with about 64 percent, the White gained 34% votes while Charles Curtis McPeek the Libertarian got 2 percent. Sarbanes has been reelected four times without practical opposition.

Campaign funds

 John Sarbanes campaign income in 2008 was about USD 1,012,936 and spend about USD 799,506 (Barone and Cohen, 2013).  His chief supporter was Veneble LL6; USD 38,854, a place he spent 18 years (1989-2006) for his legal career, which represents non-profit health care facilities providing quality care to Marylanders. Other supporters were Chesapeake Partners Management, Johns Hopkins University, Carpenters & Joiners Union. The main industries that contributed funds to Sarbanes campaign are interest groups, lawyers, health, labor and real estate.

How have they voted in recent presidential and congressional elections?

Maryland’s 3rd congressional district held elections in November 2014 for US general elections. John Sarbanes, a Democrat, defeated his opponent Charles Long a Republican with 128,594 votes or 59.6 percent. Sarbanes also won the Democratic primary against his challenger Mathew Molyett. On the other hand, Charles Long won the Republic nominations against Thomas Harris and Michael Jackson.  Moreover, in 2012 presidential election Barrack Obama, a Democratic candidate garnered majority votes in Maryland’s 3rd congressional district; he won with 49.39 percent against Mitt Romney with 49.31%. The state of Maryland is among the 21 states associated with the mixed primary structure. The parties have the right to elect who can vote in the primary and close the process to all electorates apart from those registered under their party.

Does your district have a long tradition of supporting one party or has it been changing in recent years?

Political parties

The Democratic and Republican parties are central political parties commanding huge following in Maryland and especially the 3rd district. Towards the Civil War, the Democratic Party drew a significant part of their ability from eastern shores and their enemies from Whigs, who were common across Baltimore. The collapse of the Whigs led to the rise of the Native American party, which viewpoint on anti-immigrant and anti-Catholics attracted Marylanders as they believed that their wellbeing was vulnerable to Roman Catholics immigrants. Maryland was the only state to vote for the presidential candidate of the American Native party. Nevertheless, declined remarkably and Maryland started to support the Democratic Party, electing John Breckinridge, the secessionist. In the 1970s corruption and peddling afflicted the main parties and in 1973 Spiro T. Agnew, a Republican and the Vice President of US during that period was accused taking money from individuals engaged in business dealings in the state especially when they were in Baltimore County and Maryland’s governor.                                                                          In 2000, the majority of Marylanders supported the Democratic party, for example, 57% voted for Al Gore a Democrat, 40% for the Republican George Bush and three percent to Ralph Nader, the Green, party candidate. Two years later, John Kerry a Democratic challenger won 55.7% votes against Bush with 44.6 percent in 1994, governor election was a major race in the history of Maryland, Democrats won and reelected in 1998 and 2002 Robert L. Ehrlich Jr. a Republican was elected. In 2000 and 2004, both Sarbanes and Mikulski, from Democratic Party got re-election. As of 2004, approximately 3,105,000 voters were registered, of which 58% were Democrats, 20% Republicans and 12 percent independent members. Additionally, the congressional delegation comprised of 6 and 2 democrats and republicans respectively.

 How do the interest groups (ADA, ACLU, ACU, CC or FRC) rate your representative and senator?

Interest Group

Some interest groups periodically publish congressional scores to assess the representatives as well as senators position on particular issues. These scorecards are mainly obtained from determining the manner in which member voted to how the group could have voted on a given legislation and provide a score to demonstrate how vote match up (Mitchell, 2007). This means interest groups rate representatives and senators in the way they vote. Common awareness groups consist of the American Conservative Union (ACU) and Americans for Democratic Action. They stem from the conservative and progressive wings respectively. These groups give the score of 8 and the mean of every senator. Nevertheless, the scores are not independent. In most cases, senators who get a good score from ADA are likely to score poorly from ACU and vice versa (Mitchell, 2007). When 4 progressive and four conservative groups are used, then each senator will score 50%, which is not interesting. To address this issue, it is appropriate to use progressive groups, since a legislator with a high rating is rather prospective, that is, they support every progressive project, and he becomes a liberal thinker (Barone & Cohen, 2013). On the contrary, a conservative senator has a low ranking, as such, against all ongoing projects.

Table 1: Interest Group Ratings


Maryland Paul Sarbanes 78 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 97
Maryland Ben Cardin 78 90 89 85 95 100 100 100 92

Political background Maryland and Senator Ben Cardin

Maryland is one of the first thirteen colonies that joined the Union in 1788, and it has taken part in all the 57 presidential elections. Furthermore, Maryland has been mainly “blue” state following the introduction of contemporary political parties during the period of Civil war. From 1960, Maryland has been voting for Republicans in the landslide such as Nixon in 1972, Reagan in 1984 and Bush in 1988. In 2012, Obama easily defeated Romney. On politics, there are two Marylands. The Democratic Maryland is multiracial and includes all socioeconomic groups stretching to parts of Washington and Baltimore metropolitan regions (Sheckels, 2006).

The second part is the Republican Maryland that is primarily rural, dominated by white community and conservative. It includes Maryland Tidewater and western counties of Maryland.   The early 21st-century Republican Party Maryland is not similar to the previous one, which was progressive compared to social and fiscally conservative Democrats. Modern Republican candidates demonstrate policy standpoints of the party such as protection of property rights, Anti-tax, anti-government and anti-abortion. Republicans opposition to the dominance of democratic is not only deep-seated but also the degree of politics generated by this problem is intense compared to the present day history of Maryland.                                  Cardin joined politics while in law schools and served in the Maryland House of Delegates from 1967 -1968. In 1986, when Barbara Mikulski, a US representative, declared to view for the senatorial seat; Cardin joined the race in the House of Representative and was victorious by a decisive margin. He served from 1987 to 2007, an era he became well known for his efforts in social works such as health as well as other initiatives (Mitchell, 2007). Cardin is known for his support for child welfare, the bill to expand child programs, health benefits and high tax credits for children. In 2005, when Senator Paul Sabres announced his retirement, Cardin joined the race, he was successfully in the tight contested Democratic primary and defeated his challenger Michael Steel a Republican. In 2007, Cardin assumed office and set the record straight as a liberalist (Mitchell, 2007). He was considerably interested in the environment, enforced a law to safeguard the Chesapeake Bay while seeking to reinforce standards of clean water. Also, he is an active foreign policy fun and became a member of Foreign Relations in the Senate committee.


Barone, Michael; Richard E. Cohen (2013). The Almanac of American Politics 2010.         Washington, D.C.: National Journal Group.

Estache, A., & Foucart, R. (2013). Benchmarking Politicians.

Mitchell, C.W. (2007). Maryland Voices of the Civil War. JHU Press. 548pp.

Pedersen, V. L. (2001). The Communist Party in Maryland, 1919-57. University of Illinois Press.

Sheckels, T. F. (2006). Maryland Politics and Political Communication, 1950-2005. Lexington                 Books.

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British Royal Marines Research Paper

British Royal Marines
British Royal Marines

British Royal Marines

British Royal Marines

Order Instructions:

Moreland and Levine (1994) suggest that entry into groups can often be marked by some initiation ceremony or ritual. Analyse the case of the British Royal Marines and discuss why members go to such lengths to mark the entry of a new comer? Additionally, discuss why you think newcomers might accept being humiliated and sometimes even being abused?


British Royal Marines

The operations of armed forces and any security forces are kept secret from the public limelight. The reason for the high-level secrecy is said to be for good of the country. Therefore, it becomes difficult for an outsider to understand the operations of these forces. Whether these forces practice initiation ceremonies and other kinds of rituals is something that is open to discussion. The recent incident caught on camera where marines fought in nudity has caused mixed reactions on the operations or workings of the marines. The case study of the British Royal marines provides the basis of this analysis. Reasons for such incidences on the camera against new comers and reasons why new comes may agree to be subjected to such humiliations and abuse are deliberated.

In this case study, two naked marines are forced into combat in what is seen to be an initiation ceremony (The Guardian, 2005). Young Royal Marines fight one another. One of them is beaten unconscious and slumps on the floor. The incidence triggered mixed reactions from the leaders and the marines’ leaders. This case study therefore, marks the basis of the analysis (The Guardian, 2005).

Many reasons explain why members may go to such extreme when welcoming new comers. One of the reasons is to exercise initiation ceremony or ritual. Different organizations and institutions have different rituals they conduct to demonstrate maturity or passage to the next stage of adulthood. According to Moreland & Levine (1994), entry into a new group may require passing through initiation ceremony. The ceremony will depend on the kind of duties or responsibilities that one anticipates. Marines’ nature of work may involve combat and therefore, it is likely that they may use this combat or fights to welcome the new entrants in their world. This is tip of an iceberg or a clue to what they should be expected. The fighting witnessed therefore, may have been used to jig jag the minds of the new recruits that they are in a different world and they must prepare for the turf times to come. Strength is therefore expected and one must live up to the standards and strive to defend themselves. The episodes in the video suggest that this was a ceremony initiation aimed at testing the strength of the new recruits. In this video shooting a man in surgeon outfit gives instruction for the two marines to roll their mats around their arms and fight with bare fists. One of them seems reluctant, is beaten, and becomes unconscious. This footage actually, shows that the fight was under instructions of the senior marines (The Guardian, 2005). The denial may persist but the fact of the matter remains that this might have been an initiation ceremony. The fact that bullying is prohibited in the military and military people known to observe law, it is indeed true that such incidences helps to initiate new and younger recruits.

The law of the jungle or the warriors have since a long time been expected to face each other or to undergo a certain rituals to earn a badge. According to Weinberger (2015), hazing and babooning are some of the ways that these warriors used to earn their badge. For instance, Vikings treated new crewmembers at the back of the ships and dragged them through freezing waters to ensure that they become rightfully qualified to become crewmembers. This ritual made the new crewmembers to gain courage (Lambert, 2015). The tribe people in Borneo on the other hand, forced their young men to engage is risk and painful events using sharp sticks to exemplify their maturity and for them to graduate to the next stage in the society.

Therefore, such practices have also extended in the modern times and in the armies as they still practice the same. Army is a field that requires boldness and therefore, any person must be taken through very difficult situations to test their capability and endurance levels. The tasks that await them require total dedication, endurance, and perseverance. Other terms used to describe the actions that are practiced as rites of passage may include japing, hazing, breasting sprog Olympics and joining runs.

According to Weinberger (2015), initiation ceremonies aims at indoctrinating ideologically rooted identifies of new members to a certain group of members. The ideology of   a certain group defines who they are and show they perceive certain things. In an organization for instance, rituals are conducted to enable new member fit in the organization. The process of induction of new employees for that matter allows the new recruits to understand the culture and the ideology of the rest of the members. For that matter, it is important in the context of the marines that they also conduct some of these initiation rituals and ceremonies to pas on the ideology to the new recruits. To civilians it might have gone to the extreme but to the members of the marines it is not something to be skeptical about. In the situation, the other marine members appear to cheer. They are as well naked and the two marines in combat are also in their nudity. This, therefore cleanly shows that, this was something practices and was aimed at passing on the ideologies to the new recruits. The nudity of all other marine members is a show of identify and unity among themselves. They have nothing against each other but it is very important for them to go through such hardships as part of their development into real warriors.

Another reason for such acts on new entrants in the Marines and even other fields or areas is for human connection. It helps to cultivate relationships among the members of the marines (de Grave, 2014). This is equated to collective consumption practices but is nested with rituals such as fighting while naked. The essence of such an act is to show their solidarity and a sense of belonging. The fact that there was only two young men fighting while the other remained as spectators, it was aimed at solidifying their bond. Relationship is nurtured through their cheering and remaining naked.  Therefore, the group was engaging in these kinds of behavior to strengthen their relationships.

Such methods of marking new entrants of new members are also done for fun. The ritual components may closely be aligned with the component of fun. Deciding to remain nude in the ocean and fighting without clothes could have been fun. Marines have daunting tasks and therefore, they needs some time to relax and to enjoy themselves. Just like one of the privately official said, this incident could have a bit of fun but it could have gone out of hand. Therefore,   it may not be out rightly true that the combat was a ritual. It could have a fun but it went out of hand leading to one of the fighters becoming unconscious after being beaten. Introducing new members could have attracted the marines to celebrate their new entrants and therefore, to make the occasions fun and enjoyable, these two young marines would be the one to add spice the day.  On the same note, it could also be the norm and the tradition of the marine to have a combat between two marines on the day of welcoming new entrants (Setlhabi, 2014). Therefore, this should not be seen as bullying and mistreatment of the soldiers. It is expected that during such incidences some people may be hurt and therefore, and that does not mean that it is out of hand.

Such behavior as exemplified in the case study shows the transition or passage rites. In various cultures such as African cultures, young people have to go through passage of rites such as circumcision to transit to adulthood (Bonnemère, 2014). During such periods, the young boys are taken through challenging and very difficult conditions. They are beaten and  even forced to sleep in the forest.  This experience makes them to harden and to understand that they have to face live with courage and boldness. This is the similar case in the Maine. New recruits may not have had any experience about Marine and the challenges they go through. Therefore, though acts such as physical fights, helps these young entrants to harden and to understand that it is not easy. It enables to understand that they are moving to the next stage that requires them to harden and to be courageous.

Another reason for such behaviors, where new recruits are subjected to harsh conditions as exemplified in the British Marine soldiers is for psychological purposes (Setlhabi, 2014). The mind of an individual and the way they think and perceive determines show they take decisions and the way they view life. In the military, marines or soldiers must be psychologically prepared to execute their duties. They must understand their duties and the danger they areas being exposed to. Therefore, this combat between the two marines was something that could have been used to nurture the thinking and the s psychology of other new recruits. It opens them and delivers them into- a reality world. They must understand that some time they will have to encounter situations that would require them to defend themselves. Such situations will require that they give it all to survive or are overpowered and subdued.

According to Johnson, (2011),   the act of hazing continues to evolve in the society. Hazing refers to any activity that an individual expects when joining a group that may degrade, abuse, humiliates, or endangers regardless of the person willingness to participate (Malisha,  Maharaj & Rogan, 2011). Sometimes, in a society, one is expected to adhere to the things that the majority of people are doing. Failure to do that, it amounts to forcefulness. Therefore, in this case, the act of these two young marines fighting may be explained as acts of hazing. The fact that one of the soldiers appeared reluctant to fight without the mats but what he received was severe beating that made him to remain unconscious. The rest of the members were nude without clothing and no one would have been expected to go contrary to this directives.

Other reasons that explains why members go to such lengths to mark the entry of a new comer is due to excitement, release of stress, showing solidarity, among others (Weinberger, 2015). Because of excitement, individuals may turn out to engage in weird behaviors that may surprise others. Actually, remaining nude and fighting without clothes is a sign of excitement. Some may act so to release their stress. They remain nude and engage in any activity that can preoccupy their minds. Other still may engage in such activities because they want to show the spirit of solidarity. While other may do this to show their mighty and strength. The recruits may be forced to fight by the seniors because they must obey their directive failure to which may lead to their dismissal and harsh punishment.

This brings to the discussion on reasons that would make these new comers to accept this kind of humiliation and abuse. One of the reasons is the quest to show their strength. Some of the newcomers may be having a high ego and this may drive them to engage in this kind of humiliations (Setlhabi, 2014). They want to show the world that they have the energy and that nothing can come in their way.

Other reason why the new comes may accept to be humiliated is when their seniors of dire consequences for failing to obey their orders threaten them (Weinberger, 2015). Their seniors may expect them to   abide by the directives they give them. Going against such directives may be seen as violation of the orders and failing to respect the authority. Therefore, this leaves these young newcomers in jeopardy. They will have no otherwise but access to be humiliated and abused.

This habit as well arises when there is no supervision. Lack of enough manpower is a challenge that causes such behaviors to happen among the new comers. When there is no one to monitor and to control or guide people, some mischievous are likely to surface. Some of the juniors may subject these new comers to hash treatment. They may be bullied and expected not to report the same to the authority.

When these new comers lack mentorship and someone to guide and tell them their rights, a vacuum is left. They are therefore prone to any kind of abuse and this is likely to make them easily humiliated and mistreated. Therefore, there must be sufficient measures of systems in the organization that empowers the new comers and teaches them on their right. If this is done, it would become difficult for this newcomers to be abused and humiliated.

Accepting to be abused and humiliated is also something that depends on the personality of an individual. Some of the newcomers are introverted and they fear (Weinberger, 2015). So in case they are threatened by someone, they easily give in. Therefore, it becomes easy for such individuals to be threatened and abused. However, on the other hand, resilient individuals will not easily buy into humiliation. They will use whatever means they have at their disposal to defend themselves. Therefore, the personality and the cultural background of an individual will play a greater role in this kind of humiliation.

In conclusion, it is evident that people may behave differently in different situations. The case of British Royal Marines is a good illustration of how people behave differently, especially when they receive new comers. The video footage is open to varied explanations of what was happening. To some this is viewed as ritual or an initiation ceremony, others view this as fun while to others it may be viewed as a process of ideology. The fighting of two marines seems to be under instructions and this exclude in the equation the aspect of bullying. As a ritual, it would mean that the Marines are preparing and orienting the young newcomers to their world. It would also be fun if the Marines engage in fighting. It is also important to understand that some occasions new comers may be humiliated or abused. Such cases may arise because of their personalities, fear of dismissal, lack of mentorship, and lack of supervision. It is therefore important to ensure that those newcomers are treated well. This will enable them to have positive thoughts about the organization. They will also remain devoted and will continue passing on good virtues to the generations that comes. New comers have the right to better treatment. They must be respected and treated with dignity. Rituals of initiation ceremony should not carry away their dignity but instead it should be done in a humane way to achieve the intended purpose. The British Royal Marine should therefore not be condemned for the acts they got involved. It will be good gesture is first, an investigation is carried out to understand if indeed the actions were rituals or bullying. This will help to build reputation of the Marine in the public eye.


Bonnemère, P. (2014). A relational approach to a Papua New Guinea male ritual cycle. Journal     of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 20(4), 728-745.

de Grave, J. (2014). Javanese Kanuragan Ritual initiation: A Means to Socialize by Acquiring             Invulnerability, Authority, and Spiritual Improvement.  Social Analysis, 58(1), 47-66

Johnson, J. (2011). Through the liminal: a comparative analysis of communitas and rites of            passage in sport hazing and initiations. Canadian Journal Of Sociology, 36(3), 199-227.

Lambert, D. A. (2015). The Book of Job in Ritual Perspective. Journal Of Biblical Literature,       134(3), 557-575. doi:10.15699/jbl.1343.2015.2878

Malisha, L., Maharaj, P., & Rogan, M. (2011). Rites of passage to adulthood: traditional   initiation schools in the context of HIV/AIDS in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Health, Risk & Society, 10(6), 585-598. doi:10.1080/13698570802533713

Setlhabi, K. G. (2014). The Politics of Culture and the Transient Culture of Bojale : Bakgatla-      Baga-Kgafela Women’s Initiation in Botswana. Journal Of Southern African Studies,      40(3), 459-477. doi:10.1080/03057070.2014.913424

The Guardian, (2005). Video exposes alleged bullying in Royal Marines. Xinhua News Agency.

Weinberger, M. F. (2015). Dominant Consumption Rituals and Intragroup Boundary Work: How             Non-Celebrants Manage Conflicting Relational and Identity Goals. Journal Of Consumer         Research, 42(3), 378-400. doi:10.1093/jcr/ucv020

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American Art Project Assignment Paper

American Art Project
American Art Project

American Art Project

American Art Project

Order Instructions:


Statement of Purpose or “Why Am I Doing This?”

It is important to remember, represent, and honor a collective past, but it is equally important to understand a deeper significance to visual records. In this assignment, you will examine works of art available through the website of the Architect of the Capitol. The purpose is to emphasize how art can be used to portray historical events and convey a message when viewed in the context of the age in which it was created. This assignment is not an art critique. Look for connections between events and images. You will NOT be describing the event the artwork depicts, but the period of American history in which it was created. You will be creating either a document or a presentation.

Completing This Assignment:

Part I
• Click on this link: (Historic Rotunda Paintings)
• Click on the individual images for each of the 8 paintings to see them in more detail and read the short article on each of the corresponding pages for these paintings.
• Choose 4 images and write a 200–300-word paragraph for each of them, addressing the following:
1. When was the image commissioned and hung? What is the historical context of this painting? What events were occurring when this painting was created that could have contributed to its content? How are those connections between content and context most clearly presented?
2. Is the artist successful in communicating contextual influences? Is the message too difficult to understand for a modern viewer?
• As a heading for each paragraph, include the image, its title, and the artist.

Part II
• Click on this link: (About the National Statuary Hall Collection)
• Read the short overview and description of the collection and search to find the 2 statues that represent your state. (Maryland) (if none use North Carolina)
• Copy the image for each representative of your state into the document or presentation.
o If you are not a resident of the United States or do not claim a “home state” for any reason, you are free to adopt any of the 50 states as your own for the purposes of this assignment.
• After the image, include the individual’s name and the state he or she represents.
• In a 200–300-word paragraph for each image,
o give a short summary of the individual’s historic significance and
o give an evaluation of whether this individual is a good choice to represent your state.

How to Submit
• You MUST include properly formatted, current Turabian footnotes/endnotes for each source. You will be using the images from the website, so you must cite those pages as sources.
• Save both parts in one file, either Microsoft Word or PowerPoint.
• If the assignment is submitted as a Microsoft Word document, each paragraph must be 200–300 words, double-spaced, in 12-pt. Times New Roman font. The document must have 1-inch margins.
• If the assignment is submitted as a PowerPoint presentation, each 200–300-word paragraph must be on a separate slide, with the images and artist information on a preceding slide. If the presentation is large, it may be saved as a PDF file.
• Write your paragraph in your own words and proofread your work to eliminate spelling, grammar, punctuation, and capitalization errors. Review the Writing Tips document to avoid common errors in academic work.



Art can be a very vital tool when it comes to communication. Examples of art works that have been a great symbol of significance are the Historic Rotunda Paintings and the statues contained in the National Statuary Hall Collection  [i].The purpose of this paper is to appreciate the importance of art in portraying landmark historical events



By John Trumbull

This painting was commissioned in 1817 and hung in 1826. The painting is significant in depicting the resignation of George Washington as commander-in-chief of the continental army. One of the most fundamental principles of American democracy is establishing a civilian authority over the military and this is well depicted by the piece of art. It is around this period, 1788-1789, that the first presidential elections in the country had been held. This event can be taken to have contributed to this painting. It is an established principle under the constitution that the country is to be led under a civil regime and power limits are to be set on the leaders. During the war for independence, congress had granted authoritative power to Washington for the purposes of steering the war but once the war had ended he chose to resign from power. The connection of the painting with the presidential elections is that, once an elected president is done with his/her turn to serve, he/she should be willing to hand off the power given to him. In this case Washington had been given this post for the purposes of commandeering the war and once the war had ended it was exemplary of him to give up the post. The artist has successfully been able to communicate in that from the view of modern day society, the president is elected for two terms and once these two terms have expired, he/she is expected to give up the position willing fully. The light emanating from the room illuminating Washington can be taken to symbolize his authority or power.[ii]


 By John Tumbull

The painting was commissioned in 1817 and hung in 1826. The painting depicts the June 28th, 1776 event when the first draft of the declaration document was presented to the congress. During this period of time, democracy had began to develop in the US in that elections for representatives, including the presidential elections, were taking place and this could have been a contributing factor leading to the creation of this painting. This document was set to establish some fundamental principles pertaining to the revolutionary war and owing to the fact that this is the period during which democracy can be stated as having begun to developed, the painting can be taken to have symbolized the importance of constitutionalism. It is enshrined as a principle of constitutionalism that the constitution shall be the central authority from which all laws to the land shall derive their authority. The declaration document was in the same way required to act as the epicentre for principles expected to guide the war. To show the importance of the document, the authors are depicted in the document as standing at the centre of the congress house. This shows the central role that this document is expected to play similar to the role of a constitution is the framework of constitutionalism.[iii]


 by William H. Powell

The painting was commissioned in 1847 and hung in 1855. The painting depicts a Spanish explorer, Hernando De Soto, arriving at the Mississippi river riding on a horse. The painting also shows wounded men who had been wounded the previous day following an attack by the Indians. As a desire for peace, the artist depicts the Native Americans watching wearily in despair as the explorer and his troops arrive and the chief holding out his pipe of peace. The central part of the drawing is colourful whilst the outer part is depicted with gloomy colours.  This variation of colour can be taken to depict the mood with the colourful part symbolizing hope for peace while the dark parts show the negative effect of lack of peace, that is, a gloomy environment. This period of the 19th century had been witnessed by a number of attacks and conflicts in the country and this could have been one of the contributing factors leading to the drawing of the painting. Some of the wars witnessed included battle of Maguaga, Brownston, Detroit and the Tecumseh’s war. The arrival of the explorer is seen as symbolizing the arrival of peace putting into consideration that the Mississippi river is the ultimate symbol of freedom and De Soto is considered as being the first documented European to have seen the river. His arrival is thus set to free the people form war and grant them peace and this is to be shown by the colourful central part of the painting. The artist in this case has been very successful in communicating this message from a modern viewer perspective.[iv]

Landing of Columbus

By John Vanderlyn

This painting was commissioned in 1836 and hung in 1847. The painting depicts Christopher Columbus and his crew on a beach having landed there in their expedition to find a westward route from Europe to China, Japan and other unknown islands. This period was the period during which the trans-Atlantic economy was in a state of flux. There was therefore a need by the Europeans to find ways of intervening in trade without stifling it. This could have been one of the factors behind the drawing of this painting during this period of time. The painting depicts the people in the painting as adventurous as if in the spirit of making new discoveries as it is put across that Columbus stands in such a manner that depicts humility. The need to discover new routes from Europe to other regions can be considered as an important one for the purposes of boosting the fluxing trade activities. Although the artist can be considered as having being successful in putting across this message, its difficult to some extent for a modern viewer to decipher it since it would require a wide knowledge on issues concerning trade. This would therefore require for the viewer to have first researched widely on this topic.



The state of Maryland is considered to be the birthplace of the United States National Anthem as well as the birthplace of religious freedom. The unequivocal contribution of the state to the rich history of the United States of America is insurmountable and proof of this lies in the National Statuary hall collections. Key examples of the representatives of this fine state are as shown below.[vi]


Charles Carroll was born on the 19th of September 1793 in Annapolis. He was the only child to Charles Carroll of Annapolis and Elizabeth Brooke. He was educated in Jesuit Schools until his graduation in 1755 after which he pursued law in in London. Due to the fact that he was a Roman Catholic he was bared by the Maryland Statute from politics, practicing law and voting. This propelled him to speak out against such discrimination and in 1772; he held a debate conducted through various newspapers under the pseudonym “first citizen” which spoke against the governor’s proclamation of increasing legal fees to states officers and protestant clergy.

It should be noted that he was also a linchpin in the American Revolution that sought independence from Britain. Due to his notoriety as the first citizen, he served on various committees of correspondence.

In the 1770’s Carroll became a powerful voice for independence. He seems convinced that only violence could break the impasse with Great Britain and as a result he played a key role in the burning down in the Annapolis Harbor of the Peggy Stewart ship which  was destroyed as part of the tea party protests against British excise duties enacted by the parliament on tea.

His recognition as a voice to the people led to 1774 where he was commissioned with Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase to seek aid from Canada. He furthermore, was appointed as delegate to the Continental congress on July 1776 and signed the Declaration of Independence. In 1778 he retired from the Continental congress so as to serve the state of Maryland in drafting its first constitution. His unparalleled efforts were recognized in 1789 when he became the first senator of the state of Maryland, a post he retired from in 1792.

To sum it up, the efforts of such a person in life deserve only to be immortalized and engraved in stone for future generations to behold and follow in the same footsteps. Therefore the addition of one Charles Caroll of Carlton in the National Statuary Collection is not an honor that we bestow upon ourselves, rather an honor he bestows upon us.


John Hanson was born on the 3rd of April 1721 in Port Tobacco Parish in Charles County to Samuel and Elizabeth Hanson. He was presumably privately tutored and in 1744 married Jane Contee and six years later his career in public service 1757 he was elected to represent  Charles county in the lower house of the Maryland General Assembly . In 1765 he played a key role in opposing the stamp Act and acted as one of the chairs to the committee that drafted instructions to for Maryland Delegates to the Stamp act Congress.

After leaving the service in 1769 he rejoined it at 1775 after the relation between Great Britain and the colonies reached a breaking point. His service was invaluable as he was active in raising troops and providing arms. This led to his recognition in 1779 where he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress. His public service experience was invaluable, especially in resolving the western land issues thus facilitating the ratification of the Articles of Confederation.

One of the most outstanding roles in his career was in 17 81- 1782 where he was the President of the United States in Congress Assembled under the Articles of the Confederation. It is his service that established America’s position in the worlds. This is because he helped establish necessary services during his tenure such as a post office, a national bank and a consular service. The debt America owes such a man is insurmountable. Through his invaluable service, America was able to fully establish itself as a country. Therefore his place in the National Statuary collection is not necessary, it is mandatory.


[i] United States. A History of the Committee on House Administration, 1947-2012. 2013.

[ii] Moten, Matthew. Presidents and Their Generals: An American History of Command in War. 2014: 369-370

[iii] O’Connell, David. The Art and Life of Atlanta Artist Wilbur G. Kurtz: Inspired by Southern History. 2013: 14-16

[iv] Celestin, Louis-Cyril. Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard: The Biography of a Tormented Genius. 2014. <>.:55-60

[v] Reason, Akela, and Thomas Eakins. Thomas Eakins and the Uses of History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010: 19

[vi] Federal Writers’ Project, and United States. The WPA Guide to Maryland, the Old Line State. 2014. <>.

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American History Bloody Boston in Revolution

American History Bloody Boston in Revolution Order Instructions: AMERICAN HISTORY IN VIDEO;“Boston, Bloody Boston in Revolution 1 (A&E Television Networks, 2006), 45:30 mins.

American History Bloody Boston in Revolution
American History Bloody Boston in Revolution


Completing This Assignment:

• view the video: Boston, Bloody Boston

• After viewing the video, write a 1–2-page summary of the entire content. No analysis or commentary is necessary; only provide a synopsis of the material.

o Your paper must be typed in a Microsoft Word (or compatible) document, be double-spaced, be in 12-pt. Times New Roman font, and have 1-inch margins.

o Write your paragraph in your own words and proofread your work to eliminate spelling, grammar, punctuation, and capitalization errors. Review the Writing Tips document to avoid common errors in academic work.
• No quotations, citations, or footnotes are required for this assignment.

• Following the summary, construct a bibliography of sources directly related to the specific topic covered in the video.
o In the event the video covers more than 1 specific topic, choose 1 on which to focus your bibliography.
o Example: If you view a video on the Battle of Gettysburg, you must choose sources for your bibliography that address the Battle of Gettysburg, not the Civil War. Although they are broadly related, the connection must be more focused.
o Your bibliography must include:
? 5 scholarly books using the library search engine and/or WorldCat
? 5 peer-reviewed, scholarly articles using JSTOR, Academic Search Complete, or Academic OneFile
o Use current Turabian format to create your bibliography.
o You do not need to read or otherwise summarize your sources, but you must research them enough to make sure they are directly related to the video summarized and are scholarly in nature.
• You must use attached template for the assignment.

American History Bloody Boston in Revolution Sample Answer

“Boston, Bloody Boston,” in Revolution 1 (A&E Television Networks, 2006), 45:30 mins.

The coverage of the American history through this video provides insights into the origin of the American Revolution with an emphasis on Boston uprising caused by British invasion found in the Boston massacre episode of the movie.[1] The movie covers various aspects of the American Revolution, which laid the foundation for the independence and subsequent success of the United States because the nation’s viability was not an imminent incidence, and its quest for freedom and liberty was not an endeavor for the faint hearted.[2] This is attributed to the fact that, as time passed after the invasion, British colonialists became increasingly independent, and their fierce and powerful army was the barrier to the independence, freedom, and sovereignty of Americans especially those living in Boston as highlighted in the movie.[3] The increasingly oppressive colonialists led to widespread outcry and anger among the Bostonians and the British troops were sent there to enforce the Townshend Acts and maintain order.[4] However, the troops were faced by constant resistance and confrontations from residents culminating to the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770 when the troops fired into a demonstrating crowd killing three males on the spot, while two more died from bullet wounds inflicted on them.[5]

These incidents form the basis of the movie “The Revolution: Boston, Bloody Boston”, which constitutes part 1 of a series of 13 parts.[6] The movie examines a wide range of issues that occurred in Boston during the revolution, especially how disagreements with regards to taxes resulted to the onset of the American Revolution.[7] The movie dramatizes conflicts and controversies Bostonians encountered in various episodes, particularly the Stamp Act, the Boston Tea Party, the Boston Massacre, Paul Revere’s Ride, the First Continental Congress, as well as the Battles of Concord and Lexington which led to the perpetuation of the American desires for liberty.[8]

The Boston massacre is of immense importance in this synopsis since it is the core incident, which escalated the American desire for freedom resulting to fierce struggle for independence.[9] At the onset of the movie and as episodes play out, the audience is introduced to a number of the main political leaders who instigated the rebellion, including John Adams, Samuel Adams, Thomas Hutchinson, Patrick Henry, as well as British General Thomas Gage and England’s King George III.[10] The Boston Massacre episode in the movie chronicles the initial stages of what became to be known as the American Revolution characterized by widespread rebellion and uprising in their quest for independence.[11] In particular, the Boston Massacre episode in the movie is a proud portrayal of fortitude, willpower, and courage as the official foundation of America is finally laid.[12]

This is attributed to the fact that, the Boston Massacre incident signaled the onset of the American rebellion leading to Revolutionary War against the British even though the true facts of the incident were surrounded by numerous myths and controversies.[13] For instance, even after the massacre, the murder trial of the involved soldiers which followed raised high emotions, and the ruling outcomes were not regarded fair by both sides.[14] Finally, there was profound impact of the Boston massacre incident on heightening the genesis of the American Revolution, and despite the efforts put in place to slow down the anti-British sentiments by the governing authorities, including postponement of the trial for some months as well as immediate removal of British army troops from Boston, the net result was heightened quest for independence by the Americans.[15]

American History Bloody Boston in Revolution Bibliography


Allison, Robert. The Boston Massacre. Beverly: Applewood Books, 2006.

Archer, Richard. As if an Enemy’s Country: the British Occupation of Boston and the Origins of Revolution. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Cumming, William P. and Rankin Hugh F. The Fate of a Nation: The American Revolution through Contemporary Eyes. New York: Phaidon Press, 1975.

Knollenberg, Bernhard. Growth of the American Revolution, 1766–1775. New York: Free Press, 1975.

Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

O’Connor, Thomas H. The Hub: Boston Past and Present. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2001.

York, Neil L. The Boston Massacre: A History with Documents. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2010.


Ed, Tallent. “The American Civil War: Letters & Diaries.” Boston College Library Journal 20 no. 2, (September 2001): 12-17.

Reid, John P. “A Lawyer Acquitted: John Adams and the Boston Massacre.” American Journal of Legal History 18, no. 3 (August 1974): 189–207.

Ritter, Kurt W. “Confrontation as Moral Drama: The Boston Massacre in Rhetorical Perspective.” Southern Speech Communication Journal 42, no. 1 (January 1977): 114–136.

Walett, Francis. “James Bowdoin, Patriot Propagandist.” The New England Quarterly 23, no. 3 (September 1950): 112-120.

York, Neil L.  “Rival Truths, Political Accommodation, and the Boston ‘Massacre’.” Massachusetts Historical Review 11, no. 3 (December 2009): 57–95.

 Young, Alfred. “Revolution in Boston? Eight Propositions for Public History on the Freedom Trail. The Public Historian 25, no. 2 (Spring 2003): 17–41.

[1]Allison, Robert. The Boston Massacre. Beverly: Applewood Books, 2006.

[2] Ibid

[3]Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

[4] York, Neil L.  “Rival Truths, Political Accommodation, and the Boston ‘Massacre’.”  Massachusetts Historical Review 11, no. 3 (December 2009): 57–95.

[5] Ibid

[6] Ritter, Kurt W. “Confrontation as Moral Drama: The Boston Massacre in Rhetorical Perspective.” Southern Speech Communication Journal 42, no. 1 (January 1977): 114–136.

[7] Archer, Richard. As if an Enemy’s Country: the British Occupation of Boston and the Origins of Revolution. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

[8] Reid, John P. “A Lawyer Acquitted: John Adams and the Boston Massacre.” American Journal of Legal History 18, no. 3 (August 1974): 189–207.

[9] York, Neil L. The Boston Massacre: A History with Documents. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2010.

[10] Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

[11] O’Connor, Thomas H. The Hub: Boston Past and Present. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2001.

[12] Knollenberg, Bernhard. Growth of the American Revolution, 1766–1775. New York: Free Press, 1975.

[13] Walett, Francis. “James Bowdoin, Patriot Propagandist.” The New England Quarterly 23, no. 3 (September 1950): 112-120.

[14] Ed, Tallent. “The American Civil War: Letters & Diaries.” Boston College Library Journal 20 no. 2, (September 2001): 12-17.

[15] Young, Alfred. “Revolution in Boston? Eight Propositions for Public History on the Freedom Trail. The Public Historian 25, no. 2 (Spring 2003): 17–41.

African American Experiences between 1920 and 1970

African American Experiences between 1920 and 1970
African American Experiences between 1920 and 1970

African American Experiences between 1920 and 1970

Order Instructions:

Using the below readings, describe the evolution African-American experiences between 1920 and 1970. How did notions of identity and inclusion evolve? Think about how the category of who “Americans” should be, how they should live, and what the role of government changed for African-Americans. You may want to think about how issues of discrimination, economic justice, and identity evolved. You must analyze BOTH documents from at least TWO decades (minimum of four documents).

a. 1920’s (Hughes, Thurman)

b. The 30’s? (Katznelson, Herndon)

c. The 40’s? (Seuss, Engelhardt)

d. The 60’s? (King, Beale)

**Note: It is strongly recommended that you read Coates, “The Case for Reparations” While a bit lengthy, it is engaging, persuasive, and provides substantive details to help you write your essay. If you are struggling to develop an argument, please read this article.


African American Experiences between 1920 and 1970

The African-American population of the United States of America is considered to be a minority group due to their relatively small numeric contribution to the population compared to the larger population. Being a unique group extends beyond their population. The experiences that they have had as a community are also unique and significant. This essay discusses the experiences that the African-American Community had between 1920 and 1970. It is an essay that entails the key elements of social, economic and political lives of African American people in the United States during this 50 year period.

During the 1920s the Jim Crow era had come to an end and African Americans were gradually making an effort to integrate into American society as citizens with equal rights to participate in the economy as well as the political process. The community however faced serious hurdles in this effort and this was especially noted in Mississippi where black families had difficult times as they engaged in farming through the process of share cropping (Hughes, 36). It was anticipated that the proceeds from the sale of harvests would be shared equally but this did not happen. The discrimination against African Americans economically was also being done by the system which unfairly levied taxes on their properties. The lack of adequate education and inability to access legal services condemned many families to suffer silently in poverty while some lost their property which was seized through dubious deals that took place. Towards the end of the 1920s moving into the 1930s African Americans increasingly moved to urban areas and this led to settlements such as Harlem being almost exclusively dominated by black families. The church played a vital role in bringing the community together during this period (Thurman, 1928).

In the 1930s African Americans continued to push for their inclusion in the national economy and this was seen in them seeking employment in urban areas where industry flourished.  This in turn brought to light more challenges such as discriminatory labor practices and also the political marginalization of blacks. It is important to note that during this period, the African American electorate began to shift alliances to liberals as opposed to republicans whom they had initially supported. The Civil rights movement has its origins in this political involvement of the African Americans looking for equal rights. The arrests of community leaders who fought for this cause helped to push the plight of African Americans to the national limelight, specifically with reference to the discriminatory policies that existed. The civil rights movement was then known as the Working-Class movement due to its use of labor unions to clamor for equality (Katznelson, 2005; Herndon, 1937).

During the 1940s, the civil rights movement continued to gain momentum but world attention had by then shifted to the Second World War. Close to a million African Americans served in the country’s armed forces and the discriminatory employment policies in play within the country’s labor system were also manifested in the army and navy (Engelhardt, 4). Race was used in the determination of the roles that a black man would be given and this translated to their being assigned tasks that were either subordinate or extremely dangerous. The government’s recognition of a need to desegregate the forces was an indication of a deliberate step to make the labor system more accommodating and fair to African Americans.  Social and economic discrimination however continued to rear its head, mainly manifested in unfair treatment of African-Americans who would be subjected to unfair loans and real estate practices (Seuss Cartoons, n.d.).

In the 1950s, racism against this community continued but albeit under the guise of the provision of housing. Government housing projects during this decade almost exclusively took place in neighborhoods dominated by blacks. Violent riots by whites that started in the late 1940s spilled over into the 1950s with black families being forcefully ejected from their homes in the event that they moved into white dominated neighborhoods. The argument that fuelled this antagonism was that the presence of blacks lowered the value of the property. The growing poverty of the African American community began to gain government attention and this led to the proposal of several initiatives that were geared at minimizing its negative impact on the national economy (Seuss Cartoons, n/d/).

During the 1960s, a combination of increased picketing by civil rights leaders and political will led to affirmative action. In 1965 segregation of public schools and other social amenities was banned in the country, the aim being to give blacks equal opportunities. Martin Luther King Jr. came up as the figurehead of the civil rights movement (Beale, 1970). The main issues that this movement combated at the time were police brutality and the denial of voting rights to African Americans by the police force in Montgomery. Demonstrations that were exclusively black were met by brutal anti-riot state troopers while those attended by pockets of white supporters of the plight of African Americans received protection albeit with minimal restrictions. The publicizing of the events in Montgomery compelled the president to deliberately declare the government position which supported voting rights for all. The Southern States of the country saw racism persist despite legislation against it (King, 1965).

Works Cited

Beale, Frances. “Double jeopardy: To be black and female.” The black woman: An anthology (1970): 90-100.

Engelhardt, Brian “Fighting for the Double V” 1-9

Herndon Angelo, “You Can’t Kill the Working Class” 1937

Hughes, Langston. “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain.” 1926.” The Collected Works of Langston Hughes 9 (1773): 31-36.

Katznelson, Ira. When affirmative action was white: An untold history of racial inequality in twentieth-century America. WW Norton & Company, 2005.

King Jr, Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham jail.” UC Davis L. Rev. 26 (1992): 835.

Seuss Cartoons

Thurman, Wallace. “Negro Life in New York’s Harlem.” Girard (KS): Haldeman-Julius Company (1928).

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Sam Houston and Special Bond with Native Americans

Sam Houston and Special Bond with Native Americans Order Instructions: Semester Writing Assignment

Develop the topic into a well-organized essay, following the guidelines below. Correct spelling and grammar will be considered during grading.

Sam Houston and Special Bond with Native Americans
Sam Houston and Special Bond with Native Americans

Part of your grade will depend upon including the required block quotes. If you do not include the 3 required block quotes to support your position, your paper will lose one letter grade. Be sure to answer all parts of the question, noting the relative weight among the three sections. Three pages is the minimum, but you may go a page or two beyond that, if needed.

Students will generally compose the essay inside their word processor and then COPY and PASTE (using CONTROL V) the text into the space provided below. The essay should be a minimum of three double-spaced pages long.

IMPORTANT! Be sure to SAVE your answer before SUBMITTING it. If you do not SAVE it, it will show up “blank,” with no text.

Late papers or papers not submitted in the proper area will lose one letter grade (10 points). Finally, do not use material from any source other than Sam Houston and the American Southwest. DO NOT copy material from another source and paste it into this essay response box, representing it as your own work. Doing this will get you a grade of 0, and it is not difficult for instructors to detect.

Relying only on material from the The Sam Houston Biography, thoroughly answer the following questions: Section 1 (25 points): Throughout his life, Sam Houston had a special bond with Native Americans, especially the Cherokees. Discuss this relationship, giving examples from the book about his interactions with them, as well as his personal concern for their welfare. Section 2 (50 points): A general theme throughout the biography is Sam Houston’s wisdom and moral courage. Discuss at least three examples where Houston took the wise or morally correct public stance, in spite of the fierce criticism he was certain to face. Section 3 (25 points): How did Sam Houston come to marry Margaret Lea, and what did she mean to his life? *****Include at least three direct, block quotes (total, not per section) from Sam Houston and the American Southwest to support your position.Be sure to put your citation for these quotations in parentheses and in all caps. For example, your citation might look like this: “‘The speech,’ he wrote Margaret, ‘was the most striking, able, and bold, that I ever made,’ but it was to no avail.” (CAMPBELL, P. 160)

Sam Houston and Special Bond with Native Americans Sample Answer


In a small town East of Texas stands the stature of Sam Houston that is galvanized with steel and a blazing white concrete as tall as 70 feet. The stature portrays Houston looking straight, an expression of determinism. Dressed in a manner that befits the 19th century leader, he carries a cane on his right hand as a depiction of governism. This piece of art has attracted multitudes from different parts of the world since it serves as a road side attraction.  However, few of the people who visit this monument know the history behind the famous outstanding leader-Sam Houston. Sam Houston was born in the year 1793 in Virginia and became a law practitioner, a senator and a congressman in Tennessee.

Houston moved to Texas in the year 1832 and joined a conflict that was brewing between the American settlers and the Mexican Government.  He was elected as the Commander of the local troop and led the army into achieving defeat over the Mexican revolts, a factor that secured the independence of Texas (Curtis, 2013). Houston latter became the governor of Texas in 1859 but was impeached out of office in 1861. This paper therefore seeks to view and critique the life of Sam Houston in light of his achievements and failures.

Sam Houston and the Special Bond with Native Americans

Houston is described as one amongst the many appealing characters of the Western frontiers, a factor that creates a bond between him and the Native Americans. Houston as a frontier embraced the spirit of determination and self-sufficiency and abolished the prospects of racism as was seen in his belief that the Indians and the blacks were equally intelligent as the whites. In his political endeavors, Sam was described as a hard working leader who abhorred the virtues of courage, grand purpose, and boldness (Curtis, 2013).

The Americans especially the Cherokees embraced Houston because of his boldness to even face the unknown. It is essentially to mention that Houston was not schooled adequately since he felt that education was in one way or the other “weighing him down”. With the little education he had, he rebelled against the civilized manners of those times. He fled home and lived with the Cherokees where he was adopted and given the name Raven (Miller, 2002). During his stay with the Cherokees, it is mentioned that Houston always had a heart for cultures and interests of the American Indians.

Due to his brevity, Houston left the Cherokees and led an army that fought in the 1812 war. During the course of this war, Houston suffered an arrow in the groin and because of his fighting spirit; he forced his comrade to remove the arrow out of his groin. His characters saw him promoted to first lieutenant from which he earned the respect of patronage from the major general who later became the president -Andrew Jackson.

It is also considered that in one occasion, Houston led a team of Cherokees dressed as one of them to Washington in order to meet the President who then reprimanded him for his efforts. Houston also suffered out of the love he had for his people. This saw him elected as the governor of Tennessee in order to serve his people. However, when his experienced some controversies in his marriage, he stepped down out of office (Miller, 2002). Houston also risked his life for the revolution that brewed in Texas in which he led a team to fight against the Mexicans.

Occasions where Houston used Wisdom during Sam Houston and Special Bond with Native Americans

One of the occasions where Houston applied his wisdom to correct public stance, in spite of the fierce criticism he was certain to face is in the event where he believed that Indians and black people were equally intelligent people as compared to the white. This clearly explained the fact that as a leader, he never believed in racism. The author of this material mentions that during his stay with the Cherokees, Houston always had a heart for cultures and interests of the American Indians. Out of this, Houston gave his life to fight for the people irrespective of their races, cultures, and backgrounds (Scheer, 2014). This clearly displays the quality of a leader that developed a special bond with the Native Americans and even through his weaknesses, he stopped at no breathe in standing for the rights of his people.

At some point of time, Houston experienced a marital problem, an issue that tainted his image. Even at this state, the author mentions that Houston never blamed a single person for this but stepped down. After this, he then married Eliza who according to the author had an objective in the marriage. At the wake of their separation, Houston stepped out of Office and resigned as the governor of Tennessee. This typically shows a leader who is not out to fulfill his self interests. Many leaders today when faced with issues rush to the courts in order to retain their seats, a factor that clearly justifies the actions of Houston (Scheer, 2014). It is critical to understand that Houston was not a perfect leader, but in his weaknesses, he acknowledges the virtues of morality.

Houston led a delegation of Cherokees on one occasion to Washington, in Cherokee regalia in order to meet the President, who remanded him for his looks and appearance. Later, as the Senator of Texas, he wore a leopard-skinned vest with some scribing on it with the main objective of presenting his views to the house of the senate (Scheer, 2014). This clearly gives an indication of a leader, who would use all within his power to fight and meet the needs of his people,

Sam Houston’s Marital Life

Sam Houston met Margaret Lee in a business trip. Margaret was also in the same mission and when they meet a chemistry of love between them took order. Sam then convinced Mrs. Lee to pay him a visit in Texas in order to view the business investment opportunities that were available in Texas. This marked the beginning of their relationship. Margaret Lee was the wife of Sam Houston. However, their relationship was met by a number of issues that included Houston’s drinking problems and his past relationships. The author of this bibliography implies that;

Since Margaret feel in love with Houston, she had had a different thought on his proposal. She only got close to Houston since he was a leader and a good business person but as far as being the match for her daughter, he would not take that chance even as a hero, Margaret over time heard of Houston’s previous marriages and his drinking problems she felt this was far much more for her to take. Age also became a problem since they had a difference of twenty-six years.

(Scheer, 2014).

During their marriage life, Houston was in rear occasion home. According to Scheer,” Houston was only home during the first three and a half month and this was due to his wife sickness”. Margaret spent a fairly enough time with her sister in the sugar plantation. However, during the times that Houston was away from home, they would communicate through letters through which they assured each other of love. In According to the author, Houston asserted that “In the event that she hears rumors about him, they were baseless and untrue and that he was devoted fully to her and would remain committed to her for the rest of his life”. However, things did not work well between the two couples, a factor that led to a breakup (Scheer, 2014).

Sam Houston and Special Bond with Native Americans Conclusion

Houston remains a figure that will forever remain in the books of history because of efforts to ensure that the rights of his people were equitably served. Houston is described as one amongst the many appealing characters of the Western frontiers, a factor that creates a bond between him and the Native Americans. Houston as a frontier embraced the spirit of determination and self-sufficiency and abolished the prospects of racism as was seen in his belief that the Indians and the blacks were equally intelligent as the whites. In his political endeavors, Sam was described as a hard working leader who abhorred the virtues of courage, grand purpose, and boldness.  Today, Houston remains a figure that has can be emulated by other leaders.

Sam Houston and Special Bond with Native Americans Works Cited

Curtis, G. (2013). Sam Houston. American History47(6), 26-32.

Miller, M. (2002). Sam Houston (Book). Library Journal127(3), 154.

Scheer, M. (2014). Mirabeau B. Lamar: Poet, President, and Namesake for a University. East Texas Historical Journal52(1), 51-63.


Race and Ethnicity in African Americans Criminal Justice

Race and Ethnicity in African Americans Criminal Justice Order Instructions: Race, Ethnicity, and Reporting

Race and Ethnicity in African Americans Criminal Justice
Race and Ethnicity in African Americans Criminal Justice

Early theories suggested that African Americans were less likely than Whites to report crimes because they held more negative attitudes toward police and did not trust the criminal justice system, preferring to handle their problems on their own. Recent research, however, has resulted in conflicting findings. Some studies continue to support the idea that African Americans and Latinos are less likely to report crimes than Whites, and provide plausible explanations for why this may be true (Maier, 2008). On the other hand, The National Crime Victimization Survey’s study of victimization rates between 2001 and 2005 found that 54.7% of violent crimes against African Americans were reported to police, as compared with 47.7% of violent crimes against White Americans (Harrell, 2007).
Some research suggests that reporting behavior varies by type of crime. For example, Latinos may be less likely to report serious assaults than other groups, but more likely to report simple assaults (Rennison, 2010, cited in Zaykowski, 2010). A study of victims of intimate partner violence found that women of color were more likely than White women to call the police after an assault (Akers & Kaukinen, 2009).
The differences in reporting behavior by type of crime vary among different cultures and ethnicities in the US, including immigrant communities. For example, some groups may be reluctant to report abuse crimes because it brings shame to the family (Davis, 2013).
In this Discussion, you analyze why certain ethnic or immigrant groups may be reluctant to report victimization, and identify possible strategies that might reduce this reluctance.

Race and Ethnicity in African Americans Criminal Justice Instructions

1) Write a brief description of an ethnic or immigrant population that may be less likely to report victimization.

2) Then explain how race or ethnicity may contribute to the population’s reluctance to report.

3) Finally, explain an outreach program that law enforcement might conduct to promote reporting victimization among ethnic or immigrant populations.

Race and Ethnicity in African Americans Criminal Justice Sample Answer


African Americans have had a rough time with the police due to the belief that the police are unfair in dealing with them. In this regard, the African Americans are less likely to report to the police since they believe that their issues won’t be taken seriously. However, recent research has painted a new picture by asserting that African Americas and Latinos are more likely to report crimes to the police than their white counterparts (Maclin, 1998). Other studies also suggest that differences in reporting vary with the nature of the crime and this is evident in women of color, who are likely to call the police than their white counterparts after the assault.

The minorities are the race that is likely to view law enforcement with high suspicion as compared to the whites; since, they complain of being singled out by the police due to their ethnicity background. In judging policy in a democratic society the public perception about the lawfulness and legitimacy of law enforcement should be considered highly. Legitimacy should be linked to the willingness to recognize the police authority and to how the public view the police in whole with the ethnicity perception of the police being kept aside. This should be highly put into consideration because; without the legitimacy put in place the ability and authority of the police to work effectively will definitely be undermined (Dunn, 2010).. However, less consideration will lead to the police being distracted in their places of work and they will not be able to give out the best as required. The whites are best in esteeming the police higher compared to the minorities and this becomes a problem to the police who are not given the power and the authority to do their job as required. This has contributed to crime in the neighborhood that has been as a result of ethnicity that is employed by the government through the police.

Most of the reporting activities between the police and the blacks and latinos results from the bad perception that arise between the two functions. An outreach program can be carried out to determine how enforcement might promote reporting of victimization among the ethnic or immigrant populations to the police. The police department should appoint bilingual police offers in affected areas to help support communication among the blacks and the police officers and to enhance reporting of crimes to the police. The police department should create special outreach teams of officers that will enhance communication and the possibility of reporting various issues to the police (Jaeger & Vitalis, 2005). Moreover, the police should hold frequent meetings with the local community to enhance good relationship between the two functions to enable members to begin reporting their issues with less stress. In addition, the police should encourage the recruitment of more blacks and Latinos into their teams so that such groups also feel part of the team of law enforces as this will enhance reporting of cases to the police. The police should also provide direct social services such as thanksgiving to the community as this will encourage good relationship between the two groups as the bad relationship between these two groups is what result into low reporting rates of the crimes.

Race and Ethnicity in African Americans Criminal Justice References

Dunn, R. A. (2010). Race and the relevance of citizen complaints against the police. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 32(4), 557-577

Jaeger, S., & Vitalis, T. (2005). Ethnic diversity in the New Zealand police: Staff perspectives. Equal Opportunities International, 24(1), 14-26

Maclin, T. (1998). Race and the fourth amendment. Vanderbilt Law Review, 51(2), 333-393.