Agri Chem Case Analysis Research Paper

Agri Chem Case Analysis
Agri Chem Case Analysis

Agri Chem Case Analysis

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Agri Chem Case Analysis


Agri Chem faces a challenge of reduced natural gas supply, following a notification from Enerco, that gas supplies were being rapidly depleted, thus leading to rationing of natural gas. Based on the priorities that Enerco gives from the Federal Power Commission, it is notable that Agri Chem will be significantly affected the rationing. In providing details on rationing, Enerco did not provide proportions for rationing. Agri Chem must determine its usage pattern to determine how best to maximize profits under the circumstances. The problem is to determine which of Agri Chem’s complexes would be least affected by a gas curtailment.


The rationing of natural gas is expected to have a significant impact on Agri-Chem, given the high level of usage. Agri Chem mostly utilizes natural gas for the second and third priority, which comprise the commercial use as a raw material source and industrial use as a broiler fuel. This was likely to lead to ‘rolling brownouts’ due to natural gas curtailments. The fact that Enerco does not provide guidelines on the manner in which natural gas will be allocated based on products gives Agri Chem an opportunity to determine its own proportions in a bid to ensure that profitability is maximized under the conditions. While Agri Chem had an allocation of 90,000 ´ 103 cubic feet per day based on its contract with Enerco, this would be reduced by 20% to 40% following the curtailment. This would greatly affect Agri Chem, which utilizes natural gas as broiler fuel except for ammonia production which required natural gas as a raw material.

The situation at hand presents a complex scenario in which the company’s productivity is likely to be curtailed by the rationing of natural gas, given that Agri Chem considerably depends on natural gas for production purposes. This calls for a solution to optimize gas usage under the current circumstances, which essentially calls for a formula for gas usage to ensure that the company’s profits are maximized under the circumstances. Agri Chem has an advantage in that Enerco does not provide proportions for gas allocation and hence the company has the liverty to determine its capacities as deemed appropriate. Determining the product that would be least affected by the curtailment of natural gas helps the company to establish how well it can be utilized to provide optimal results for the company.  Linear programming provides a simple solution for this complex situation, such that Agri Chem can determine how best to approach the problem presented by the gas shortage.


The main objective is to determine, based on Agri Chem’s complexities, the product that will be least affected by the gas curtailment. The solution involves creation of a linear programming equation that bases its calculation on the contribution, current capacity, production rate and natural gas usage, provided in the table of financial and operation data on page 6. This is optimized using linear programming, putting the possible constraints (20% and 40%) into consideration, to determine the product that would be least affected by the natural gas curtailment. Linear programming is considered effective in obtaining solutions for optimal use of resources and profit maximization because it makes use of simple formulas to determine solutions under different constraints (Haidar, 2015). It is therefore effective in making decisions on complex issues affecting organizations, such as the gas allocation dilemma faced by Agri Chem. In this case, two constraints are present. The process begins by determining the new constraints, representing the expected impact when gas supply is reduced by 20% or 40%. Using excel, calculations are made to determine the new quantities. Using these constraints, it is possible to determine the number of tons that can be produced per day to maximize profits as indicated on the calculations on page 7. The gas constraints are developed with reference to the possible changes, from 85,680,000 cu. ft. per day, which Agri Chem utilizes, once the curtailment is done. This is shown on page 7. The results indicate that Caustic Soda would be the least affected by the gas curtailment. This is because the company can operate optimally with Caustic Soda being produced at low levels; 423.2 tons/day when curtailment is 20% and zero tons/day when curtailment is at 40%. Profitability can then be calculated based on the quantities determined.


The current situation at Agri-Chem calls for an effective measure to determine the utilization of the natural gas supplies under the constraints.

  • Linear programming is an effective optimization technique, suitable for complex problem solving, such as in the case of Agri Chem.
  • Through the use of linear programming, Agri Chem can maximize its profits by assessing the gas proportions needed for the company and how this can be allocated to ensure optimal use of the available natural gas.
  • This solution provides guidance for Agri Chem on the utilization of natural gas, such that it can be effectively allocated for optimal results and loss reduction.
  • Linear programming gives better outcomes due to its simplicity and definite formula – single and straightforward, thus promoting accuracy.
  • The calculation of optimal levels for profitability helps in promoting decision making e.g. in the case of Agri Chem where the company determines the complexities that are least affected by natural gas rationing.
  • The solution provides a basis for determining the result of different scenarios – in this case the company can determine the profit optimization at 20% and 40% curtailment.


The problem presented in this case involves a situation in which Agri Chem’s production is affected by the curtailment of gas supply due to the effects of a heat wave. Enerco provides that Agri Chem’s supply may be affected by 20% to 40%. This calls on Agri Chem to come up with a formula that will optimize the situation, to ensure that it maintains sustainable profitability under the circumstances. A linear programming solution in which constraints are developed at the curtailment proportions provides that, caustic soda would be least affected by the gas curtailment, at the point of optimal profitability.

Question: Which of Agri-Chem’s complexes would be least affected by a gas curtailment?

Financial and Operational Data

Contribution    Capacity    Production Rate  Natural Gas Usage

Product                              ($/Ton)      (Tons/Day)  (% of Capacity)  (1,000 Cu.Ft./Ton)

Ammonia                             $80              1,500                  80                           8

Ammonium phosphate        $120              600                   90                          10

Ammonium nitrate              $140              700                   70                          12

Urea                                    $140              200                   80                          12

Hydrofluoric acid                $90               800                   70                           7

Chlorine                               $70              1,500                  80                          18

Caustic soda                         $60              1,600                  80                          20

Vinyl chloride monomer      $90              1,400                  60                          14


Let X1 = ammonia ; X2 = ammonium phosphate ; X3 = ammonium nitrate ; X4 = urea ; X5 = hydrofluoric acid ; X6 = chlorine ; X7 = caustic soda ; X8 = Vinyl chloride monomer

Agri Chem’s current natural gas usage = (1,200 × 8 + 540 × 10 + 490 × 12 + …) = 85,680,000 cu. ft. per day

At 20% curtailment, availability is 0.8 x 85,680 = 68,554,000 cu. ft. per day

Therefore, gas constraint = 8X1 + 10X2 + 12X3 + 12X4 + 7X5 + 18X6 + 20X7 + 14X8 ≤ 68,544

Using Excel, the following solution is obtained.

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8
Tons/day 1200 540 490 160 560 1200 433.2 840


At 40% curtailment, availability is 0.6 × 85,680 = 51,408,000 cu. ft. per day

Constraint: 8X1 + 10X2 + 12X3 + 12X4 + 7X5 + 18X6 + 20X7 + 14X7 ≤ 51,408

Excel calculation results in the following:

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8
Tons/day 1,200.00 540.00 490.00 160.00 560.00 718.22 0.00 840.00


Haidar, A. D. (2015). Construction Program Management – Decision Making and Optimization

Techniques. London: Springer

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Significance Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

Significance Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis Order Instructions: Please read below for information concerning assignment. Support responses with examples and use APA formatting in the paper. You may access the school’s website by logging into:

Significance Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis
Significance Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis Please note that when you log into the website you must click launch class, and on the next screen click syllabus to view this week’s readings (week 4) and Academic Resources to access the school’s library.

There are two discussion questions for this assignment, please answer as thoroughly as possible. I’ve also included “Hints from the Doc” below each question.

Question 1: Significance of differences between mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis and meiosis are the two major processes by which eukaryotic cells reproduce. Compare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Consider the stages involved in each and their eventual products. How are the differences biologically significant relative to growth and reproduction? Be prepared to discuss how life is dependent upon both types of cellular reproduction.

You guessed it. Short answers are the big killer, again. Be sure you describe what goes on during the specific stages of mitosis and meiosis, point out the number of chromosomes passed on to daughter cells, and explain how this difference in division types supports growth and sexual reproduction. Be sure to point out where crossing over and reduction division happens in meiosis and explain what these two processes do to enhance the variability of offspring in sexual reproduction.

Here are several resources to help you with this discussion. The animations and simulations should help you understand the two processes especially if you are a visual learner.

Cell Cycle and Mitosis Tutorial
Mitosis Animation

Meiosis Tutorial
Meiosis Animation

Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis and Meiosis Simulation Using Bead Models

Question 2: Mendel’s Principles
Mendel used mathematics and experimentation to derive major principles that have helped us understand inheritance. His ideas were totally different than the explanation for passage of characteristics from parents to offspring that was common to his time. List and describe his principles and describe how each contributes to genetic variability. How might biology have been different if his discoveries had not been lost for decades? Be prepared to discuss the significance of Mendel’s discoveries to modern biology.

Be sure to clearly explain the principles of segregation and independent assortment and how dominant and recessive genes interact to result in the gene expression that results. This is a place where student often demonstrates an incorrect understanding, especially in thinking that dominant genes are more common and recessive, are rarer.

The big place where most students lose points has to do with the last part of the assignment. I think some students don’t read the assignment clearly (or invent their own assignment). Mendel’s ideas were lost to science for about 30 years until rediscovered by several scientists and traced back to his original work. You need to think about how genetics is tied into so many aspects of modern life, then think through how much farther along we might be in a variety of fields if his work had not been lost. Give us a thoughtful examination of this. Too often students either don’t answer this part at all or go off on a tangent about what Mendel has contributed to modern science and life without considering the question that is asked.

Again, avoid the short answer monster.
Here are a variety of sources to help you with this one. Mendel was a really interesting individual and on his own basically created the science we call genetics. He was also one of the first individuals to apply mathematics to biology.

Overview of Mendel’s Genetic Ideas
Brief Review of Mendel’s Laws
Importance of Gregor Mendel
Rediscovery of Mendel’s Work
Mendel’s Original Paper (translated into English)

Significance Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis Sample Answer

Week 4 Assignment 1

Significance Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis and meiosis are both processes of cell division that take place in cells of organisms. Although the two processes are similar in many ways, they are actually very different in occurrence, purpose, steps, and production. The process of meiosis is subdivided into two stages: meiosis I (reductive division) and meiosis II. Each stage of meiosis has four phases of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, whereas mitosis has only one section having the four stages. The four stages of mitosis are similar to those of meiosis II. Crossing-over is a feature of meiotic prophase I that is lacking in mitosis. Crossing-over can be defined as the genetic exchange of chromosomes between homolog chromatids in meiosis. This process functions to mix chromosomes and this explains why an offspring has chromosomes from both parents (Kimble, 2011; Okhura, 2015).

Mitosis and meiosis play different roles in living organisms. The main purpose of mitosis is growth and maintenance, whereas the primary purpose of meiosis is a reproduction. Mitosis takes place in simple organisms such as bacteria and protozoa as well as somatic cells of multicellular organisms, while meiosis occurs within the gamete cells. In bacteria and protozoa, mitosis serves to produce offspring in a process referred to as asexual reproduction. Mitosis in somatic cells helps to form new cells for the growth of multicellular organisms and replacement of damaged or worn-out cells. Meiosis produces gamete cells for sexual reproduction in plants and animals. However, unlike in mitosis where there is no genetic variability, meiosis provides genetic variability to the offspring to increase the probability of surviving in different environments. This variability is because of crossing-over in meiotic prophase I (Okhura, 2015).

Significance Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis and Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was an Austrian monk with a special interest in understanding variability in plants. Based on his plant breeding experiments, he developed Mendel’s laws of inheritance: the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment (Mneimneh, 2012). Mendel’s principle of segregation states that a living organism has two genetic factors called alleles that determine each trait. Alleles separate during gamete formation in the reductive division and then recombine during fertilization. There are two types of alleles called dominant and recessive alleles. Dominant alleles show their phenotype even if the organism only has one copy of the allele. Recessive alleles show their phenotype when the organism has both copies of the allele. There are three possible gene combinations during gamete formation which include homozygous dominant (DD), heterozygous (Dd), and homozygous recessive (dd). Blood group AB is an example of codominance where the effect of two genes is shown. During gamete formation, each parent donates one allele to form monohybrid genes. However, dihybrid genes that have four alleles coding for one trait can also be inherited by the offspring (Mneimneh, 2012).

The Law of Independent Assortment was the second principle deduced by Mendel. He formulated this law after performing the dihybrid test crosses. The law states alleles (factors) for one trait are inherited independent of alleles (factors) of another trait and that all genetic combinations are possible. Independent assortment of genes occurs during the meiotic crossing-over and results in the formation of gametes with a mixture of alleles from each parent. However, both segregation and independent assortment apply to unlinked genes but not linked ones (Mneimneh, 2012; Singh, 2016).

Mendel’s work posed a challenge to Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Thus, because of Darwin’s influence, Mendel’s work was largely ignored and only came to be rediscovered thirty-five years later. If this could not have happened, Darwinism could not have triumphed and most probably an evolutionary way of thinking could have been stopped. In addition, genetics and molecular biology could have emerged much earlier than it was actually the case.

Significance Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis References

Kimble, J. (2011). Molecular regulation of the Mitosis/Meiosis Decision in Multicellular organisms. Cold Spring Harb Biol, 3, a002683. doi: 10.1101cshperspect.a002683

Mneimneh, S. (2012). Crossing Over…Markov Meets Mendel. Plos Comput Biol, 8(5), e1002462. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002462

Okhura, H. (2015). Meiosis: An Overview of Key Differences from Mitosis. Cold Spring Harb Biol. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a015859

Singh, R. S. (2016). Science beyond boundary: are premature discoveries things of the past. Genome, 59, 433-437.

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle Order Instructions: Please read below for information concerning assignment.

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle
Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle

Support responses with examples and use APA formatting in the paper. You may access the school’s website by logging into:

Please note that when you log into the website you must click launch class, and on the next screen click syllabus to view this week’s readings (week 3) and Academic Resources to access the school’s library.

The minimum length for this assignment is 1,500 words. Please address each aspect thoroughly, this assignment is worth 200 points, see chart below.

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle

Cellular respiration and photosynthesis form a critical cycle of energy and matter that supports the continued existence of life on earth. Describe the stages of cellular respiration and photosynthesis and their interaction and interdependence including raw materials, products, and amount of ATP or glucose produced during each phase. How is each linked to specific organelles within the eukaryotic cell. What has been the importance and significance of these processes and their cyclic interaction to the evolution and diversity of life?

Assignment 2 Grading Criteria Maximum Points
Quality of initial posting. 80
Connections and higher order thinking. 40
Reference to supporting readings. 40
Language and Grammar. 40
Total: 200

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle Sample Answer

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle

This paper will discuss the biochemical pathways that make cellular respiration and photosynthesis. In brief, the paper will explore the interaction and interdependence of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation as well as the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. An emphasis will be put on the importance and significance of each pathway to life (Berg, Tymoczko, & Stryer, 2012; Voet & Voet, 2011).

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle for a Cellular Respiration

Respiration involves a series of catabolic reactions that convert nutrients into ATP energy. There are two types of respiration: anaerobic and aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration involves the glycolytic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle while aerobic respiration is also called oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose is the primary energy-yielding molecule, but amino acids and fatty acids are also oxidised to release energy (Berg et al., 2012).


The glycolytic pathway involves the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate with the concomitant release of energy. It occurs in the cytosol and is present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (Berg et al., 2012; Nelson & Cox, 2013). Once glucose enters the cell through specific transporters, it is phosphorylated to form glucose 6-phosphate in an ATP-requiring reaction catalysed by hexokinase. Glucose 6-phosphate has a negative charge and cannot diffuse out of the cell. The next step involves the isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate to form fructose 6-phosphate. An enzyme called phosphoglucose isomerase catalyses this reaction. A second ATP-dependent phosphorylation reaction follows the isomerization step where fructose 6 phosphate is phosphorylated to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP) by an enzyme called phosphofructokinase (PFK). Next, F-1,6-BP is split into two 3-carbon units: glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). An enzyme called aldolase catalyses this reaction. While GAP is on the direct pathway of glycolysis, DHAP is not. Thus, DHAP is isomerised to GAP in a rapid and reversible reaction catalysed by triose phosphate isomerase (Berg et al., 2012).

In the preceding step, GAP is converted to 1, 3-bisphospoglycerate (1,3-BPG) in an NAD+ -dependent reaction catalysed by glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. NAD+ is oxidised to NADH and hydrogen ion and a second phosphoryl group is added to GAP. In the next step, phosphoglycerate kinase catalyses the transfer of the phosphoryl group from 1,3-BPG to ADP to form 3-phospoglycerate and ATP. The formation of ATP in this manner is called substrate level phosphorylation. In the next steps, 3-phosphoglycerate is converted to 2-phosphoglycerate by an enzyme called phosphoglycerate mutase, and then to PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) by a hydrolytic enzyme called enolase. In the last step, the phosphoryl group of PEP is transferred to ADP to form pyruvate and ATP. This reaction is catalysed by pyruvate kinase. Succinctly, glycolysis yields a net of two ATP and two NADH molecules. The NADH can be used in the electron transport chain to make more ATP as will be discussed later. The pyruvate formed serves as the raw material for the next respiratory step (Berg et al., 2012).

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle for The Fates of Pyruvate

Pyruvate, the end-product of glycolysis has three fates. Yeasts and other microorganisms convert pyruvate to ethanol in a two-step reaction. In the first step, pyruvate is converted to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide by pyruvate decarboxylase. In the second step, acetaldehyde is reduced to ethanol in an NADH-dependent reaction catalysed by alcohol dehydrogenase. The conversion of pyruvate to ethanol is referred to as alcoholic fermentation (Berg et al., 2012). Some other microorganisms and cells of higher organisms limited in oxygen can reduce pyruvate to form lactate in an NADH requiring reaction catalysed by lactate dehydrogenase. This is called lactic acid fermentation. In most cells, pyruvate is shuttled into the mitochondrial matrix where it is oxidatively decarboxylated to acetyl-CoA with the concomitant generation of carbon dioxide and NADH. Acetyl CoA joins the TCA cycle while NADH can be used to synthesise ATP in the electron transport chain (ETC) (Berg et al., 2012; Voet & Voet, 2011).

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle and The Citric Acid Cycle

The citric acid cycle, also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle involves a series of cyclic ten reactions that result in the oxidation of acetyl-CoA to two molecules of carbon dioxide. The reactions of the TCA cycle occur in the mitochondrial matrix. In the first reaction of the TCA cycle, acetyl-CoA is condensed to a four-carbon molecule called oxaloacetate to form citrate. This reaction is catalysed by citrate synthase. Citrate is then isomerised to form isocitrate by an enzyme called aconitase. Isocitrate then undergoes two successive oxidation decarboxylation reactions. First, isocitrate is converted to alpha-ketoglutarate by isocitrate dehydrogenase and then to succinyl-CoA by an alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. These two reactions result to formation of NADH and liberation of carbon dioxide. In the next step, succinyl-CoA synthetase catalyses the cleavage of succinyl-CoA to succinate. GTP is formed in this reaction and can easily be converted into ATP. Succinate is oxidised by a FAD-dependent dehydrogenase to form fumarate and FADH2. Fumarate is hydrolysed to malate by fumarase. In the last step, malate is oxidised by malate dehydrogenase to form oxaloacetate and NADH. In summary, the TCA cycle degrades acetyl-CoA to carbon dioxide with concomitant formation of energy storage molecules: one GTP, three NADH, and one FADH2 per cycle. The reducing equivalents are used to synthesise more ATP in the ETC. The cycle also yields precursors for the biosynthesis of heme, nucleotides, amino acids, and cholesterol (Berg et al., 2012; Nelson & Cox, 2013; Voet & Voet, 2011).

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation

In oxidative phosphorylation, FADH2 and NADH are used to reduce molecular oxygen to water. These reductions involve electron transfers that occur in a set of inner mitochondrial membrane proteins called the electron transport chain (ETC) or simply the respiratory chain. The ETC consists of four large complexes: NADH-Q oxidoreductase, succinate-Q reductase, Q-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c oxidase, which are also called complex I, II, III, and IV respectively. Q refers to coenzyme Q, also called ubiquinone. Electrons donated by NADH flow through NADH-Q oxidoreductase to coenzyme Q with the concomitant pumping of four protons out of the mitochondrial matrix to the cytosolic side of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Similarly, succinate Q reductase accepts electrons from FADH2 and relays them to coenzyme Q. However, the flow of electrons through complex II does not result to pumping of protons out of the matrix. As a result, fewer ATP molecules are formed by the oxidation of FADH2 as compared to NADH. Electrons then flow from reduced coenzyme Q (ubiquinol) to cytochrome c through complex III. This leads to the pumping of four protons out of the matrix. In the last step of the ETC, cytochrome c oxidase receives the electrons and reduces molecular oxygen to two water molecules. The four hydrogen ions used to form water come exclusively from the matrix, and this contributes to the proton gradient. In addition, cytochrome c oxidase also pumps four protons out of the matrix in the course of each reaction cycle (Berg et al., 2012; Nelson & Cox, 2013; Voet & Voet, 2011).

The respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. The pumping of protons out of the matrix into the cytosolic side of the inner mitochondrial membrane creates a proton gradient that drives the phosphorylation of ADP by-ATP synthase complex to form ATP. Each molecule of NADH yields 2.5 ATP molecules, while FADH2 yields 1.5ATP molecules (Berg et al., 2012).

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle

Photosynthesis is the use of light energy to combine water and carbon dioxide to form sugars and molecular oxygen. The process occurs in the chloroplast of green plants. The process involves two stages: the light reactions and the Calvin cycle (Berg et al., 2012; Voet, 2012).

The Light Reactions of Photosynthesis

The light phase, also called hill reaction or the photochemical reaction occur in the present of light, which is then transformed into chemical energy. Chlorophyll absorbs light energy and converts it to ATP and NADPH with the evolution of oxygen. The light harvesting complexes (LHC) of the light phase are called photosystem I (PSI) and II (PSII) and are located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. Prokaryotes have PSI only while eukaryotes have both. PSII occurs first and is named so because it was discovered after PSI (Berg et al., 2012).

The excitation molecule of PSII is called P680 named so because it maximally absorbs at 680nm. Electrons generated during photolysis of water by a complex called manganese centre reduce oxidized P680. P680 absorbs light energy, gets excited and rapidly transfers its electrons to a nearby molecule called pheophytin (pheo). Pheo transfers the electrons to a tightly bound plastoquinone (QA) and then to an exchangeable plastoquinone (QB). Upon uptake of two electrons, QB is reduced to plastoquinol (QH2). Therefore, two protons from the stroma are used to reduce each molecule of plastoquinone and four protons released during water photolysis are liberated into the thylakoid lumen. This contributes to the generation of a proton gradient characterized by more protons in the thylakoid lumen then the stroma. QH2 transfers the electrons to plastocyanin (Pc) and the two hydrogen ions from QH2 are released into the lumen which further contributes to the proton gradient (Berg et al., 2012; Voet, 2012; Voet & Voet, 2011).

The last stage of the light reactions is catalysed by PSI. The primary light absorbing molecule of PSI is called P700 because it absorbs maximally at 700nm. P700 absorbs light energy, gets excited and donates its electrons first to acceptor quinolone molecule (A0) and then to A1. From here, the electrons are transferred to a ferrodoxin, which reduces NADP+ to NADPH in a reaction catalysed by a flavoprotein called ferrodoxin- NADP+ reductase. The uptake of hydrogen ions by NADP+ further contributes to the proton motive force across the thylakoid lumen. This proton gradient is used to drive ATP synthesis by the ATP synthase of the chloroplast. In summary, the light reactions result in the formation of NADPH and ATP, which are utilised in the Calvin cycle to make sugars.

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle and The Calvin Cycle

These are light independent reactions of photosynthesis and occur in the stroma of the chloroplast. The first step of the Calvin cycle is the fixation of carbon dioxide by condensing it to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate to form an unstable compound that is rapidly hydrolysed to two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules. This reaction is catalysed by the most important enzyme on the planet called ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). 3-phosphoglycerate is converted to 1,3-BPG in an ATP-requiring reaction catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase. 1,3-BPG is then reduced to the GAP in a reaction that utilises an NADPH-dependent dehydrogenase. GAP is combined with xylulose 5-phosphate to regenerate ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. Alternatively, GAP is used as a precursor for the synthesis of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, which are the building blocks of carbohydrates. Thus, the ATP and NADPH formed in the light reactions are utilised in the Calvin cycle to make sugars.

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle Conclusion

Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are the most important metabolic pathways in the cell. Cellular respiration involves glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain and results in the formation of ATP energy. Photosynthesis has two phases; the light phase and the Calvin cycle. The light reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are used in the Calvin cycle to make sugars.

Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle References

Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L., & Stryer, L. (2012). Biochemistry (7 ed.): W. H. Freeman and Company.

Nelson, D. L., & Cox, M. M. (2013). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (6 ed.): W. H. Freeman and Company.

Voet, D. (2012). Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the molecular level: Wiley.

Voet, D., & Voet, J. G. (2011). Biochemistry (4th ed.): Wiley.

ATP as the Energy Currency of the Cell

ATP as the Energy Currency of the Cell Order Instructions: Please read below for information concerning assignment.

ATP as the Energy Currency of the Cell
ATP as the Energy Currency of the Cell

Support responses with examples and use APA formatting in the paper. You may access the school’s website by logging into:

Please note that when you log into the website you must click launch class, and on the next screen click syllabus to view this week’s readings (week 3) and Academic Resources to access the school’s library.

Please address each aspect of both questions thoroughly, leaving as little room as possible for the instructor to need to ask follow-up questions.

Respond to both of the discussion questions listed.

Question 1: ATP as the energy currency of the cell

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) has been called the energy currency of the cell. Briefly outline the cycle by which energy is stored in and released from ATP. Explain the importance of the phosphate bond to this series of processes. Be prepared to discuss how ATP is critically important to cellular chemical processes.

Question 2: Enzyme action and their importance to life

Enzymes are protein materials that serve to control chemical processes within the cell. Briefly describe how enzymes work and explain their importance to the chemical processes of living organisms. Pick a specific enzyme and describe its function and the importance of that function to life. Discuss how the loss of that enzyme would disrupt living processes? Be prepared to discuss the action and importance of the variety of enzymes used as examples in this discussion.

ATP as the Energy Currency of the Cell Sample Answer

Week 3 Assignment 1

ATP as the Energy Currency of the Cell

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a nucleotide composed of adenosine, a ribose, and a triphosphate. ATP is a molecule rich in energy because its triphosphate moiety contains two energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. A huge amount of energy is dissipated when ATP is broken down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate and Pi (orthophosphate) or when ATP is degraded to AMP (adenosine monophosphate) and PPi (pyrophosphate). The free energy released is used in energy requiring metabolic processes such as muscle contraction, biosynthetic pathways, and active transport. The energy derived from oxidation of food or from light is used to phosphorylate AMP and ADP to reform ATP.

Enzyme action and their Importance ATP as the Energy Currency of the Cell

Enzymes are biological catalysts that accelerate biochemical reactions and determine the patterns of transformations. Indeed, in the absence of enzymes, most biological reactions occur at perceptible rates. Most enzymes are proteins but there is evidence of catalytically active RNA molecules. Enzyme catalysis occurs at a specific site on an enzyme called active site. Enzymes act by bringing substrates together in an optimal orientation by using the full repertoire of intermolecular forces. They catalyze reactions by selectively stabilizing the highest-energy species in reaction pathways called transition states (Berg et al., 2012). An example of an enzyme is carbonic anhydrase, which catalyses the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide and water to form bicarbonate and protons. Carbonic anhydrase plays role in the transfer of carbon dioxide from the body tissues into the blood and then to the alveolar space for expulsion (Nelson&Cox, 2013). The interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate also maintains acid-base balance in the blood. The enzyme is a drug target for dichlorphenamide, acetazolamide, and methazolamide for the treatment of glaucoma. There are at least seven isozymes of carbonic anhydrase present in humans. The mechanism of action of carbonic anhydrase II, which is present in high concentrations in RBC has been extensively studied (Berg et al., 2012; Voet &Voet, 2011).

Mechanism of Action of Carbonic Anhydrase

Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to form a proton and a bicarbonate ion. The enzyme contains a zinc ion as a prosthetic group in its active site and is thus a metaloenzyme. The zinc ion is held in position by imidazole rings of three histidine residues His 94, His 96, and His 119. Since zinc atom is always bound to four or more ligands, in carbonic anhydrase, a water molecule or a hydroxide ion depending on the pH, facilitates the fourth coordination site (Voet & Voet, 2011).

Carbonic anhydrase is maximally active at a pH of more the 8.2. At very high pH, the water molecule bound to the zinc ion deprotonates to form a hydroxide ion. In the next step, carbon dioxide binds to the active site of the enzyme and is positioned to react with the hydroxide ion. The hydroxide ion performs a nucleophilic attack on the bound carbon dioxide molecule, converting it to a bicarbonate ion. The bicarbonate ion is then released and another water molecule binds to the zinc ion to regenerate the active site. In brief, the zinc ion of carbonic anhydrase binds to a water molecule facilitating the formation of the transition state. This leads to the formation of a bicarbonate ion by causing the release of a proton and by bringing the two reactants (water and carbon dioxide) in close proximity. When the pH is low (acidic) the enzyme is inactivate and therefore carbon dioxide is expelled rather than being hydrated (Berg et al.,2012; Voet & Voet, 2011).

ATP as the Energy Currency of the Cell References

Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L., & Stryer, L. (2012). Biochemistry (7 ed.): W. H. Freeman and Company.

Nelson, D. L., & Cox, M. M. (2013). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (6 ed.): W. H. Freeman and Company.

Voet, D., & Voet, J. G. (2011). Biochemistry (4th ed.): Wiley.

Structure of Eukaryotic Cells and Importance of Membranes

Structure of Eukaryotic Cells and Importance of Membranes
Structure of Eukaryotic Cells and Importance of Membranes

Structure of Eukaryotic Cells and Importance of Membranes

Order Instructions:

Assignment requested deadline November 22; NLT 8pm. Please read below for information concerning assignment. Support responses with examples and use APA formatting in the paper. You may access the school’s website by logging into:

Please note that when you log into the website you must click launch class, and on the next screen click syllabus to view this week’s readings (week2) and Academic Resources to access the school’s library.

The minimum length for this assignment is 1,200 words.

Structure of Eukaryotic Cells and Importance of Membranes

Eukaryotic cells are the most structurally advanced of the major cell types. Describe the structure and function of each of the eukaryotic organelles. Distinguish between those that are and are not membranous. Most are membranous. Explain the importance of membrane structure and function in the organization of living processes within cells.

Please be as thorough and original as possible.


Structure of Eukaryotic Cells and Importance of Membranes


Eukaryotic cells are present in plants, animals, protozoa, and fungi (Voet, 2012). This paper will explore the structure and function of the eukaryotic cell organelles. The paper will also discuss the structure and function of biological membranes including the cytoplasmic membrane. A special focus will be given to internal membranes that enclose cellular organelles such as the nucleus, the mitochondrion, the peroxisome, the lysosome, the chloroplast, and the endoplasmic reticulum.

Cell Structures and Functions

The Cell Wall and Glycocalyx

The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds some cells, is composed of one or more polysaccharides, and provides additional strength to the cell. Higher plants and algae have cell walls made up of cellulose, pectin, and hemicellulose. Chitin is the main polysaccharide of fungal cell walls, while yeast cells have cell walls composed of mannan and glucan. An external layer called glycocalyx that strengthens the cell and facilitates attachment to neighboring cells surrounds animal cells (Voet, 2012).

The Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is bound by the plasma membrane and includes all the materials inside the cell with the exclusion of the nucleus. It comprises of a gel-like substance called cytosol and internal cell substructures called organelles. Most of the cell activities such as cell division and metabolism occur in the cytoplasm. It is approximately 80% water, has dissolved salts and biomolecules such as proteins and carbohydrates and suspended insoluble molecules such as lipids (Nelson & Cox, 2013; Voet, 2012).

The Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is a lattice-like array of cell fibers and fine tubes. It has three components namely: microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. Microtubules maintain the cell shape and play central roles in chromosome segregation during cell division, endocytosis, and cell differentiation. Other eukaryotic cell structures derived from microtubules include cilia, flagella, centrioles, and spindles. Microfilaments are involved in cell shape change, phagocytosis, cyclosis, and amoeboid movement while intermediate filaments anchor membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm (Berg, Tymoczko, & Stryer, 2012; Voet, 2012).

Membrane-Bound Organelles

The nucleus is arguably the largest cell organelle and is bound by a membrane called nuclear envelope, which is punctuated into pores. The nucleus contains the genetic material called DNA and controls all the activities of the cell. The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a network of tubules that act as the transport system of the cell. There are two types of ER: rough ER and smooth ER. The rough ER is coarse in appearance because it is lined with ribosomes and is involved in the transport of proteins, while the smooth ER has no ribosomes and is the lipid transport system.

The Ribosomes are small particles either scattered in the cytosol or lined on the surface of rough ER. They contain RNA and proteins in almost equal proportions. The ribosomes function as the sites of protein synthesis. The Golgi apparatus is a membrane-bound eukaryotic cell organelle made up of tubes called cisternae. The Golgi is supported by microtubules and is located in proximity to the nucleus and the ER. The Golgi performs post-translational modification of proteins, packages them into vesicles, and exports them into target cell compartments(Berg et al., 2012; Voet, 2012).

The lysosomes are roundish, vesicular structures of animal cells that have a lumen containing hydrolytic enzymes. The pH of the luminal contents is 4.5-5.0 which is optimal for lysosome enzymes. The lysosome digests unwanted materials from outside the cell as well as obsolete cell components. The centrosome is present in eukaryotic animal cells and is made up of two centrioles and surrounding pericentriolar materials. The centrioles are short cylinders arranged such that they are perpendicular to each other. The centrosomes are microtubule-organizing centres that contain gamma-tubulin. The microtubules grow out of this gamma-tubulin in the pericentriolar material. The Vacuole is the major acid-containing organelle of plant and fungal cells. It contains a fluid called cell sap and is surrounded by a membrane called tonoplast. The plant vacuole is the equivalent of the lysosome in animal cells as it has hydrolytic enzymes that digest waste materials. The vacuole is also involved in maintaining cell turgor pressure (Berg et al., 2012; Nelson & Cox, 2013).

The mitochondrion and the chloroplast are two organelles involved in energy production. The mitochondrion is sausage-shaped double membrane cell structure whose inner membrane is invaginated to form cristae. The mitochondrial matrix contains ribosomes and DNA and is therefore self-replicating and semi-autonomous. The main function of the mitochondrion is synthesis of ATP. The chloroplast also has a double membrane and is present in plant cells. It has internal structures such as thylakoids and stroma and its main function is to carry out the process of photosynthesis. The peroxisome is another self-replicating organelle that has enzymes for oxidative degradation of molecules such as uric acid, amino acids, purines, methanol, and fatty acids (Nelson & Cox, 2013).

Structure of Biological Membranes

A biological membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer. The membrane is amphipathic, meaning that the polar phosphate lipid heads are on the surface while the hydrophobic tails point inwards. The lipid molecules diffuse rapidly in the plane of the biomembrane but not across. Also, the phospholipid molecules can move laterally from one side of the bilayer to the other, a process called the flip-flop. Moreover, biological membranes are asymmetric, meaning that the two phases are different from each other. In addition to the lipids, membranes also have proteins that move freely within the membrane, and this makes the membrane fluidic and mosaic. The proteins are categorized into either integral or peripheral proteins depending on their degree of association with the membrane. Integral proteins penetrate deep into the bilayer while peripheral proteins are superficially located. Some lipids are linked to carbohydrates to form glycolipids. Cholesterol is present in animal cells and is involved in maintaining membrane fluidity (Berg et al., 2012; Nelson & Cox, 2013).

General Functions of Biological Membranes

The plasma membrane plays a role in establishing a physical barrier between the cell contents and extracellular environment. Biomembranes also facilitate the formation of membrane-enclosed organelles a process called intracellular compartmentalization. Compartmentalization establishes microenvironments and biological barriers between biochemical processes, which allow the cell to carry out different processes simultaneously. Biomembranes are selective permeability barriers as they confine certain molecules within a specific region while restricting the entry of others (Voet, 2012). They contain molecular pumps, sinks, and gates or channels that regulate the molecular and ionic composition of the intracellular or intra-organelle medium. Membranes are the sites of biochemical processes such as oxidative phosphorylation (inner mitochondrial membrane) and photosynthesis (thylakoid membrane). Membranes also have receptors that trigger signal transduction (Berg et al., 2012).

The Plasma and Organelles Biomembranes

The Plasma Membrane

This is the biological barrier between the cell and the external environment. It has biomolecules for intercellular communication and transport. Based on the external environment, the cell membrane can either be an apical, sinusoidal or basolateral membrane. Contact between cells is either through tight junctions, gap junctions or desmosomes (Voet, 2012).

The Nuclear Membrane

The nucleus has a double membrane that is often continuous with the ER membrane. It houses and protects the genetic material and keeps the confines the DNA processing molecules closer to the DNA itself. The nuclear membrane also creates a barrier between transcription and translation and ensures that the two occur as separate processes. Nuclear membrane has nuclear pores, which allow passage of mRNA-protein complexes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and passage of regulatory proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleoplasm (Berg et al., 2012).

The Mitochondrial Membrane

The mitochondrion has inner and out membranes. The outer membrane has integral channels called porins that allow proteins less than 5KDa to diffuse through. A translocase is involved in the shipping of larger proteins. The outer membrane forms structures with the ER called mitochondria associated-ER membrane that are useful in calcium signaling and transfer of lipids between the two organelles. The inner membrane is impermeable to all molecules, and they require a transporter to pass through. The inner membrane is convoluted to many cristae to increase surface area for ATP synthesis (Berg et al., 2012; Nelson & Cox, 2013).

The ER and the Golgi Membranes

The ER membrane is an extension of the plasma membrane and is attached to the nuclear membrane. The ER membrane can form vesicles containing proteins that then fuse with the Golgi membrane. The Golgi membrane also facilitates the secretion of processed proteins via exocytosis (Berg et al., 2012).

The Chloroplast Membrane

This is a double membrane enclosing a third internal membrane called thylakoid membrane, which is a system of interconnecting compartments. The thylakoid membrane is the site of energy synthesis and contains a series of proteins collectively referred to as electron transport chain. The outer chloroplast membrane is highly permeable to small organic molecules, while the inner membrane is less permeable and has transport proteins as well as light harvesting pigments (Berg et al., 2012; Voet, 2012).

Lysosome Membrane

This membrane separates the cytoplasm from the acidic milieu of the lysosome. The lysosome membrane has glycosylated membrane proteins called lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) which mediates contact to cytosolic proteins and with other cell organelles. Thus, the lysosome membrane and its proteins facilitate lysosome motility, exocytosis, phagocytosis, macroautophagy among other lysosome functions (Voet, 2012).

Peroxisome Membrane

This biological barrier surrounds the peroxisome and provides a compartment for oxidation reactions. It has membrane proteins called peroxins (PEX) that shuttle proteins between the peroxisome membrane and the cytosol. The peroxisome shuttling process is dependent on ATP and ubiquitylation (Voet, 2012).


Eukaryotic cells have subcellular structures called organelles that have specific functions. Both the plasma membrane and the organelle membrane are composed of lipid bilayers, proteins, and glycans. The plasma membrane is the biological barrier to the extracellular environment. The organelle membranes create microenvironments suitable for specific biochemical reactions.


Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L., & Stryer, L. (2012). Biochemistry (7 ed.): W. H. Freeman.

Nelson, D. L., & Cox, M. M. (2013). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (6 ed.): W.H.Freeman.

Voet, D. (2012). Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the molecular level: Wiley.

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Biology & physiology Essay Assignment

Biology & physiology
               Biology & physiology

Biology & physiology

Order Instructions:

Assignment requested deadline November 12; NLT 10pm. Please read below for information concerning assignment. Support responses with examples and use APA formatting in the paper. You may access the school’s website by logging into:

Please note that when you log into the website you must click launch class, and on the next screen click syllabus to view this week’s readings (weeks 1) and Academic Resources to access the school’s library.
To support your work, use the textbook, lectures and scholarly outside sources. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

Please take in consideration the “Hints from the Doc” below to achieve the best score possible.

Hints from the Doc:

Class, this assignment is fairly straight forward so there are not a lot of loose ends for me to cover to help you. I do find that it helps if you pick two specific things (one living and one never living) that you can look at or hold directly and compare to the lists of properties and characteristics of life we cover this week in the text and lecture.
Students tend to get into trouble on this one when they do not pick specific examples and when they do not compare them for all the characteristics of life described in our text and lecture. Short answers are also a problem. For some reason some students try to get by with the least amount of information as possible. This is not a winning strategy. I have to grade you based on the breadth and depth of understanding you display relative to the assignment. Short answers don’t give you enough verbal space to that and generally wind up with very poor grades.

By Saturday, November 12, 2016, respond to both of the discussion questions listed.

Discussion Question I

Question 1: Properties of life and recognizing living and nonliving things

Consider the properties and characteristics of life. Choose two items (one of which is alive or has been alive and one which has never been alive). Compare and contrast their characteristics. What characteristics do they share and how are they different. Be prepared to discuss the importance of the various characteristics of living things and how their combination makes life an emergent part of the universe.

Discussion Question II

Question 2: Thinking as a scientist, designing research

Consider the process by which scientists think through information and solve problems and how this is similar and different to how nonscientists approach the world. Consider a small problem that is solvable scientifically. Describe the process you would go through in solving that problem. Be prepared to discuss the significance of the scientific approach to the development and advancement of human knowledge


Discussion Question 1: Properties of life & recognizing living from non-living things

An object is considered to be alive if it possesses the following properties of life. The first property is order. All living things have complex and ordered organization in their system. Secondly, a living organism has the ability to adjust its internal environment in order to maintain it within the important limits. For instance, during cold season, a whale is able to regulate its body temperature to limits that will sustain its survival. Living things have the ability to grow and develop. The carry coded information in form of DNA which regulates its growth and development pattern (Robertson, 2016).

Energy processing ability is another property of live. Living organism takes in energy and applies it to perform their daily living activities. Their energy levels are emitted as heat. For instance, a dog obtains its energy by from eating meat, and the energy is used to power its activity such as running and panting. When performing these activities, the dog emits body heat continuously.  Living things also have the capacity to respond to the environment stimuli. For instance, if a dog steps on hot surface, it will remove its limb immediately and/or even run away. Similarly, insect feeding plants such as Venus fly trap close its leaves when an insect gets into contact with its sensory hairs. Living things have the capacity for reproduction. They reproduce living things of their own make. Lastly, the reproduction underlies the capacity of the population to evolve over a period of time (Simon, Dickey, Reece, & Hogan, 2016).

Although these seven properties of life are used to differentiate living things from non-living things, some nonliving things do possess some these properties. For instance, motor vehicles have complex fuel and exhaust system; it responds to environmental stimuli, uses energy to perform its activities and emits heat to the atmosphere. In addition, the manufacturings of motor vehicles have evolved from the steam engines, coal, carbon products and most recently, electric vehicles. However, they do not grow, lack DNA and cannot reproduce (they are manufactured); thus, they are nonliving entities. On the other hand, a  bacteria  is a living entity because it have cells that carryout metabolism, maintains its internal environment within the required limits, and  have the ability reproduce organisms of their kind. The concept of bacteria resistance is an indicator of how the bacteria have continued to evolve. Despite its size, bacteria are living entity (Robertson, 2016).

These properties of living things are important and their combination facilitates the ability to live.  For instance, all living things feed. The food is processed to provide energy for their daily activities such as movement, growth, development, response to stimuli, respiration and excretion. In addition, the energy is used by living things for reproduction processes, and for developing adaptive responses to the environment (evolution). Therefore, each of the traits plays an integral role that makes the living things to survive in this universe (Robertson, 2016).

Discussion question II Thinking as a scientist, design research

Science is an approach that aids in understanding the worlds nature, based on literature search, explanations and objective answers to research questions. Scientist thoughts are guided by discovery science and hypothesis driven science (Simon, Dickey, Reece, & Hogan, 2016). For instance, as one is preparing her supper, the kitchen lights suddenly go off. You try to switch on the backup generator, but the problem persists.  As a nonscientist, one is likely to blame the incidence on supernatural spirits, and one is likely to meditate on the occurrence of this situation. Unlike scientists, the nonscientist approach does not involve formulation of hypothesis, testing it or even trying to solve the problem.

On the other hand, as a scientist, the question that arises immediately is ‘why did the bulb blow up?’ There are dozen explanations to this problem that can be investigated simultaneously including power surge, electricity is lost, or the quality of the kitchen bulb. However, one is likely to focus and test one explanation (based on experience). In this case, the most possible explanation is that the ABG electricity bulb has blown up (where ABG is the brand name).  If the incidence have occurred several times in the recent past, then  a hypothesis can be formed as follows; the ABG electricity bulb  do not last long because they are of low quality. The logical testing process will be as follows (Simon, Dickey, Reece, & Hogan, 2016);

Step 1: Observation – The ABG electricity bulb blow up easily. They do not last more than one month

Step 2: Research Question – The ideal question is ‘what is wrong with the remote?’

Step 3: Formulation of hypothesis

Hypothesis: The ABG electricity bulb do not last long because they are of low quality

Step 4: Prediction

If a replacement of ABG bulbs is done with another brand, then the electricity bulb will last for long

Step 5: Experiment

The ABG electricity bulb is replaced with a new brand. If the new bulb does not last long, then one should formulate another hypothesis and repeat the test, until a satisfactory conclusion to the research question is reached.

From reading this, it is evident that the concept of solving society’s daily challenges is embedded deeply in scientific research method. The significance of solving problems using this approach is that it minimizes influences when solving a problem. This way, it creates an opportunity of developing objective and  standardized approaches, which makes one feel confident that the truth will be revealed, and that  the issue will be addressed appropriately. This approach is of relevance because the society is bombarded by facts and fiction information from magazines, televisions and website. It is challenging to filter out the truth from the available information’s. However, adopting a culture scientific way of reasoning enables one to test for theoretical facts and to integrate them into reality (Simon, Dickey, Reece, & Hogan, 2016).


Robertson, B. (2016). Science 101: Q: How Do We Distinguish Between Living and Nonliving Things? Sci. Child., 053(09)

Simon, E. J., Dickey, J. L., Reece, J. B., Hogan, K. A. (1–2015). Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, 5th Edition. [South University]. Retrieved from

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Data collection methods Assignment Paper


Data collection methods
Data collection methods
Data collection methods

Data collection methods

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Dear Admin,

Please make sure that the referencing is in Harvard style.And, find the attached files which have been sent by email


Management research relies upon a variety of different data collection methods, such as survey, interview and observation. Different methods produce different types of data, each requiring different analytical approaches. Look to your text for explanations of the various methods you can use in your research and the types of analyses that can be used to make sense of the data you collect.

In a 850 word response, post your answers to the following questions:

•How does the adoption of a particular methodology affect the researcher’s choice of methods for data collection and analysis?

•Which methods might you choose, bearing in mind your chosen methodology and epistemological stance?


Data collection methods

There is a wide variety of methods that researchers can use to collect relevant data for use in answering their research questions. These methods range from observation to structured and unstructured interviews to focus groups to questionnaire surveys to observation to content analysis (Williams 2011). The data collected with the use of each of these methods necessitate the use of different data analysis techniques. This paper provides a detailed description of how adopting a certain research methodology will affect the investigator’s choice of data collection and analysis methods. The paper also specifies the data collection method that would be used by the researcher – that is me.

The use of a particular research methodology in general affects the investigator’s selection of data gathering and data analysis methods since specific methodologies go with certain methods for collecting and analyzing data. In other words, a particular methodology may fit with a particular method of data collection and data analysis but it may not fit with a different method of collecting data and analysing data (O’Gorman & MacIntosh 2015). For example, the positivist approach/methodology fits well with gathering data from the participants through the use of unstructured open-ended interviews where the participants can give detailed, in-depth, comprehensive and thorough answers to the interview questions. In essence, the positivism methodology offers the basis from a phenomenon and data mining view which encourages the use of open-ended interview questions in data collection and fits with the qualitative data analysis techniques (Burrell & Morgan 2011).

However, the positivist methodology is not appropriate for use with gathering data using structured interview questions or questionnaire that allow the respondents to give answers from a given option; that is, limit the answers of the respondents to Yes or No answers (Toksoz 2012). The social constructivism methodology provides understanding from an expertise, knowledge or interest interaction stance between dissimilar parties. As such, this methodology does not really go with the open-ended interview questions and analyzing data through the use of qualitative data analysis techniques. In essence, the social constructivism methodology fits with observation data collection method or questionnaire surveys and analysis of data with the use of quantitative data analysis techniques.

Chosen method: Interviews

Bearing in mind the selected methodology and epistemological stance – that is, the positivist methodology – the method that would be used for data collection will be interviews. Interviews could be carried out over the telephone or in person. Interviews could be semi-structured, unstructured or structured (Williams 2011). Qualitative interviews would be carried out by the researcher so as to ascertain a broad representation of the study from every stakeholder who is involved in the gas/oil sector in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states (Sang, & Seong-Min 2013).

During the interviews, the researcher will ask questions that are clear, focused, and open-ended and therefore the researcher will encourage open-ended responses from the interviewees. The researcher will use unstructured interviews with open ended questions as this would allow the participants to provide more detailed information that will help answer the research questions. Structured closed-ended questions would not be used in the interviews given that such questions generally ask a standard set of questions which do not allow the interviewer to given in-depth responses (O’Gorman & MacIntosh 2015). Interviews could either be carried out over the telephone or face-to-face. Telephone interviews are by and large less costly and less time consuming, and the investigator has ready access to the study participants who have a telephone or mobile phone. Even so, the shortcomings of telephone interviews include the fact that the response rates may not be as high as the response obtained with face-to-face interviews, although it is significantly higher in comparison to the mailed questionnaire surveys.

On the other hand, face-to-face interviews have a unique advantage of allowing the researchers to build rapport with the potential study subjects and thus gain their cooperation. Face-to-face interviews, as Williams (2011) pointed out, generate the highest rates of response in survey research. In addition, face-to-face interviews enable researchers to elucidate unclear answers and whenever appropriate, seek follow-up information from the participants. Even so, shortcomings of this interview technique include the fact that it is not practical whenever large samples are involved in the study. It may also be expensive and time-consuming to carry out. All in all, the researcher in the proposed study will conduct in-depth interviews considering that this would be a qualitative research study and the fact that this study would assume the positivist methodology in determining the effect or consequence of oil price drop on Gulf Cooperation Council countries.


In conclusion, the usage of any given research methodology affects the investigator’s selection of data collection as well as data analysis methods since particular methodologies fit with certain data gathering and data analysis methods but do not fit with others. Put simpy, a particular methodology may fit with a particular method of data collection and data analysis but it may not fit with another method of collecting data and analysing data. Bearing in mind the selected methodology and epistemological stance, the method that would be used for data collection will be interviews.


Burrell, G., & Morgan, G 2011, Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis: Elements of the sociology of corporate life. Heinemann: London

Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. & Jackson, P 2012, Management research, 4th ed. London: SAGE Publications

O’Gorman, K. D., & MacIntosh, R 2015, Research Methods for Business and Management, 2nd Edition, Goodfellow Publishers Ltd: Oxford.

Sang, K, & Seong-Min, Y 2013, ‘Return and Volatility Transmission Between Oil Prices and Emerging Asian Markets’, Seoul Journal Of Business, 19, 2, pp. 73-93, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 7 June 2016.

Toksoz, M 2012, ‘The Gulf Cooperation Council and the global recession’, Journal Of Balkan & Near Eastern Studies, 12, 2, pp. 195-206, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 7 June 2016.

 Williams, C 2011, Research Methods. Boston, MA: The Clute Institute.

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Phonology and Morphology Assignment Out

Phonology and Morphology
Phonology and Morphology

Phonology and Morphology

Phonology and Morphology

Phonology and Morphology 1. Phonology READ DIRECTIONS CAREFULLY!!! Kurmanji Kurdish is a Western Iranian language spoken in Turkey, Syria, Armenia, and
Azerbaijan, among other places. Phonetically speaking, its inventory of stop consonants contains, among other things, voiced and voiceless velars [k], [g],
voiced and voiceless “prevelars” [k?], [g?],1 and a voiceless uvular [q]. Part A. Consider the distributions of each of these sounds in the data below. Are
some of these sounds in complementary distribution with some others? State as exhaustively as possible which sounds are in complementary distribution with
which others, and which are in a contrastive distribution with which others. (Meaning, compare the distribution of each of these sounds with that of every
other one, k vs. g, k vs. q, k vs. k?, etc., and decide whether each pairing involves complementary distribution or not.) Part B. Based on what you have
observed, and the principles reviewed in class, decide how many independent phonemes there are among these five sounds. If certain sounds should be
considered allophones of a single phoneme, state what these groupings should be. Part C. Where two or more sounds are allophones of a single phoneme, which
of those allophones should be considered basic, and why? State a rule (either in precise-but-ordinary language, or in rule formalism, as you prefer) that
derives each allophone from the basic, phonemic form you have chosen. ?g?i? ‘fire’ k?nd ‘owl’ k??vt?i ‘spoon’ g?h ‘ear’ g??l ‘many, much’ g????v ‘islands’
g?ez?? ‘carrot’ g?me? ‘water buffalo’ k??w ‘quail’ k?l ‘elderly’ k?e? ‘profit, benefit’ k?ilim ‘kilim’ k??n ‘short’ gog ‘ball’ q?l?w ‘fat’ q?z ‘goose’ qemi?
‘mercy’ qit? ‘given to grinning stupidly’ q????k ‘trash’ q?l ‘hole’ w?q?w?q ‘squeal of an animal’ g?isk ‘1-to-2-year-old male goat’ kutik ‘unripe cucumber’
kon ‘tent’ qum ‘sand’ qot??k ‘diligent’ 1 These in fact sound a bit like [k] or [g] followed by [j] – think of the consonant sequence at the beginning of
English cute. LX250: Introduction to Linguistics Spring 2014 -2- 2. Phonetic vs. phonemic representation Give both phonetic and phonemic transcriptions of
the following words of English. 1. den 2. total 3. parodic 4. statistics 5. remedy Morphology A. The following words are made up of either one or two
morphemes. Isolate the morphemes and decide for each whether it is free or bound, and what kind of affix (prefix, suffix) is involved (if any). 1. cats 2.
unclear 3. hateful 4. bicycle 5. entrust 6. spacious 7. register B. Turkish. Examine the following data from Turkish and answer the questions that follow. a.
deniz sea i. elim my hand b. denize to a/the sea j. eller hands c. denizin of a/the sea k. di?ler teeth d. eve to a house l. di?imizin of our tooth e. evden
from a house m. di?lerimizin of our teeth f. evd?ik little house n. eld?iklere to the little hands g. denizd?ikler little seas o. denizlerimizde in our seas
h. elde in a/the hand p. evd?iklerimizde in our little houses 1. Give the Turkish morpheme that corresponds to each of the following translations:
___________ sea ___________ in ___________ my ___________ house ___________ to ___________ of ___________ hand ___________ from ___________ our LX250:
Introduction to Linguistics Spring 2014 -3- ___________ tooth ___________ little ___________ plural marker 2. Specify a “template” for the order of morphemes
for the composition of a complex word in Turkish, including slots for a noun stem, possessive marker (e.g., my, our, etc.), diminutive marker (i.e.
‘little’), case marker (here: to, of, in, etc.), and plural marker. (In other words, specify the order in which the above-listed morpheme types must occur
relative to one another.) 3. How would you say “of our little hands” in Turkish?

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A Musculoskeletal Case Study Assignment Paper

A Musculoskeletal Case Study
A Musculoskeletal Case Study

A Musculoskeletal Case Study

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Case Study Evaluation
•Analyze the disorder addressing the following elements: pathophysiology, signs/symptoms, progression trajectory, diagnostic testing, and treatment options.
•Differentiate the disorder from normal development.
•Discuss the physical and psychological demands the disorder places on the patient and family.
•Explain the key concepts that must be shared with the patient and family to achieve optimal disorder management and outcomes.
•Identify key interdisciplinary team personnel needed and how this team will provide care to achieve optimal disorder management and outcomes.
•Interpret facilitators and barriers to optimal disorder management and outcomes
•Describe strategies to overcome the identified barriers.

Care Plan Synthesis
•Designed a comprehensive and holistic recognition and planning for the disorder.
•Addresses how the patient’s socio-cultural background can potentially impact optimal management and outcomes.
•Demonstrated an evidence-based approach to address key issues identified in the case study.
•Formulates a comprehensive but tailored approach to disorder management.

APA Style/Format: Free of grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. Citations and references are written in correct APA Style.


A Musculoskeletal Case Study

The patient in the scenario has developed a musculoskeletal abnormality. The disorder entails the impairment of the functions of the bone structure and or abnormalities on the muscular functionality. Other musculoskeletal structures that lose functionality in the pathological occurrence on the system include tendons, cartilage, ligaments, and intervertebral disks (Mobasheri & Mendes, 2013). Usually, musculoskeletal structures are relaxed and free from the pressure under normal physiological conditions.

The psychological difficulties that he patient has to cope with include depression, low self-efficacy, helplessness, and lack of social support (Marwaha, Horobin, & McLean, 2013). The patient’s divorced status together with the lack of children could worsen the psychological impacts of the disease. The patient is also likely to face physical demands such as the inability to work.

Optimal management of the disease would require the involvement of the patient’s family. The management plan should aim at informing the family of the necessity of psychological support for the patients. Supporting the patient would help overcome effects of the disease such as depression.

Interdisciplinary stakeholders in the care plan could include physiotherapists, nurses, pharmacists, educators, and social relations experts. The team should see to it that the patient undertakes the necessary disease condition assessments and that he receives care of high quality. Optimizing the patient’s use of medication and improving social relations would also be important tasks of such a team.

An important facilitator to optimal care provision includes the patient’s willingness to learn and implement management strategies for the disease. Undertaking the recommended physiotherapy practices would facilitate the achievement of effective care. Barriers include the patient’s misleading beliefs concerning the occurrence and management of the musculoskeletal condition (Sanders, Foster, Bishop, & Ong, 2013). The patient believes that the condition would disappear automatically, and he is not willing to spend money on treatment.

To overcome the barriers, care providers should aim at educating the patient on the importance of managing one’s health. The care team should also suggest an appropriate insurance plan for the patient to overcome the challenge of spending too much of the patient’s little finances. The team should also advise the patient against drug abuse as such practices could interfere with medication adherence and proper use.

Care Plan

The musculoskeletal condition in the patient is work related and has developed slowly over years. The root of the painful sensations is either injury or tension to the various components of the musculature and skeletal structures. Roofing necessitates the patient to take postures and positions that place him at the risk of hurting the musculoskeletal structures. The patient in the scenario could best manage his condition by use of pain relievers and restricting his movements.

The socio-cultural background of the patient is likely to hurt care strategies. The patient has no family, and he may not receive the help that he needs in managing the condition. Also, the disjunction with his wife places him at the risk of psychological stress. Stress could worsen musculoskeletal disorder and slow the recovery from the ailment. Also, the abuse of marijuana and alcohol place the patient at a high possibility of failing to comply with treatment procedures.

An evidence-based strategy of addressing the condition would include proper work design to overcome the physical straining that the patient faces in his job. The use of tools such as well-structured ladders and belts could minimize physical straining. The patient could also adopt a culture of practicing simple but regular exercises with the aim of relaxing his body.

The management of the illness could include the use of the applicable NSAIDS for pain alleviation. The patient could also receive an injection of anesthetics at the site of injury to fasten pain alleviation. He should also perform light exercises to relax the strained structures. Use of heat in massaging affected sites could help restore comfort in the affected sites.


Marwaha K, Horobin H, & McLean S. (2010). Indian physiotherapists’ perceptions of factors that influence the adherence of Indian patients to physiotherapy treatment recommendations. International Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation. Retrieved from

Mobasheri, A. & Mendes, A. F. (2013) Physiology and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal aging: current research trends and future priorities. Front. Physiol. 4(73). doi: 10.3389/fphys.2013.00073

Sanders, T., Foster, N., Bishop, A., & Ong, B. (2013). Biopsychosocial care and the physiotherapy encounter: physiotherapists’ accounts of back pain consultations. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 14(65), n.p.  doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-65

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Analysis and Examination of Food Assignment

Analysis and Examination of Food
Analysis and Examination of Food

Analysis and Examination of Food

Analytical Microbiology

You are the microbiologist to a small company that produces soft cheese for retail sale (chilled). You have been asked to provide details of a recommended
suite of microbiological tests for this product.
a) Identify the different reasons for microbiological testing of the named product
b) Explain the approach you would take in determining the organisms you would include in the test regime
c) Identify and characterize the organisms you would test for, with your rationale for their inclusion and an indication of when you would test.
d) Produce outline microbiological laboratory procedures for three of the organisms you have selected, including a pathogen, a quality indicator and an indicator of poor hygiene practice
Word Limit 3000

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