HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIZATION

HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIZATION
HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIZATION

HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIZATION

Course Description

The course examines the meanings and interpretations of notions such as democracy, democratic politics, democratic transition, and liberalism, on the one hand, and their complex relationship to an evolving universal human rights culture on the other hand. It critically reviews conventional views on the origins, nature, and scope of Western liberal democratic political regimes, as well as Western claims about the universality of human rights. It also discusses double standard approaches used by Western democracies in their measurement of non-Western regimes ‘commitment to democracy and human rights. At the same time, it challenges the latter’s claims that democracy and human rights ought to be rejected as a Western phenomenon inimical to their own cultures. The discussion on democratic governance and human rights addresses philosophical, political, economic, and historical perspectives, which contrast religious and natural law arguments with rational, scientific, and analytical approaches. The course assesses inter alia an expanding theoretical body on democracy and human rights; a corresponding bourgeoning international bureaucracy; democracy, human rights, and capitalism; the naturalization of torture; new instances of genocide; indigenous peoples’ persistent oppression, and new incomplete forms of justice in post-conflict societies.

Course Objectives

By the end of the course students are expected to be able to:

Critically re-examine Western views about democracy and respect for human rights in Western and non-Western contexts

Critically assess non-democratic regimes’ pseudo rationalizations of human rights

Critically evaluate the role of international human rights organizations

Critically assess the current political atmosphere and the corresponding weakening of a democratic and human rights culture

Required Materials and Texts

The following textbook has been ordered through the McMaster University Bookstore: Goodhart, Michael (2016), Human Rights. Politics and Practice. Third edition. Oxford University Press: New York. In addition, the following journals are available online and can be downloaded through the McMaster Library. They can assist students in the preparation of the research paper, and in examining in greater detail some of the issues discussed in class:

Harvard Human Rights Journal

Human Rights Law Review

Journal of Human Rights

Journal of Human Rights Practice

The International Journal of Human Rights

Class Format

This is a lecture course. Lectures are an important part of the learning/teaching two-way process. Required readings provide a general background to issues discussed in class; they are complemented by the instructor’s additional perspectives. Questions pertaining to required readings are welcome in class, tutorials, and during office hours. Assignments, i.e. research paper and examinations must reflect familiarity with readings, and class and tutorial discussions. Relevant films may be shown in class.

Course Evaluation Overview

  1. Mid-term examination worth 30 %
  2. Research Paper worth 30 %
  3. Final Examination worth 30 %
  4. Tutorial participation worth 10 %

Course Evaluation Details

Mid-term examination (30%), February 21

This mid-term examination will be held in class on 21 February 2019. All required readings and class and tutorial discussions must be used in answering the corresponding questions. No aids allowed. Examination has two parts: part 1 asks to identify, explain the meaning, and discuss the significance of 3 notions or concepts discussed in class and readings. This part is worth 60 %, with each notion worth up to 20 points. Part 2 is a compulsory essay question worth 40 % of the examination. Duration of the examination is 1 hour and 50 minutes.

Research paper (30%), March 14

This research paper is due in class, on 14 March 2019. It should examine and discuss one of the topics listed below by using supplementary, primary and/or secondary, reading materials relevant to the argument. The essay must not be solely based on the course’s required readings. This assignment has two components, and both will be reflected in the grade assigned to it. First, students must submit an outline of the research that includes the research question, hypothesis or argument, evidence, causes, and preliminary bibliography by Thursday, 31 January 2019 for the instructor’s or teaching assistant’s approval and feedback. This outline must be about three-to-four double-space pages.  Next, students must submit the fully edited final version of their research paper, including all preliminary work with the instructor’s and teaching assistants’ comments. Papers can be submitted early.

Somewhere between 12 to 15 pages, not including title page and bibliographical references would be an adequate length for this essay. Follow the APA or the Chicago Manual of Style guidelines for the writing of academic papers. Standard use of bibliographical references is a must. The paper must be typed; have a title page; all pages numbered; lines double-spaced; and wide margins (standard word processor format) left for comments. An electronic copy of the Outline and the final paper (Word format) must be submitted at the same time, addressed to the instructor at gallegui@mcmaster.ca, and the respective teaching assistant.  The outline and final paper should include a statement by the student that the paper is original and that no plagiarism has been committed in its development and production. Academic offences (plagiarism and else) will be penalized in accordance with the regulations set by the University Senate.

Topics: Choose one of the topics listed below in preparing the Outline of the Research Paper. These are broadly stated, open-ended suggested areas of research. Proceed by designing your own research question (main and secondary ones), stated in question form. Follow that with a declaratory sentence that states the objectives of your research; indicate the preliminary evidence you have to support your research question; include probable causes of the problem; lastly, add a tentative bibliography of the works you intend to use in the research. Approval and feedback from the instructor and/or teaching assistant must be obtained before embarking on the research and writing of this assignment (ref.: outline due on Tuesday, 31 January 2019):

  1. Right-wing, conservative political regimes have a poorer record than liberal or left-of-centre political regimes in inventing, accepting, and entrenching individual, social, cultural, and environmental human rights.

 

  1. Non-Western rulers’ claims that Western standards of human rights do not belong in their societies and cultures are to be rejected as self-serving and contrary to the universality of human rights.

 

  1. Capitalism, democracy, and human rights are irreconcilable in theory and practice.

 

  1. Freedom of religion is freedom to practice intolerance towards other peoples.

 

  1. Special interest groups’ entitlement claims have diluted the universal meaning of human rights.

 

  1. Endless wars, whether international or domestic, are the greatest threats to democracy and human rights.

 

  1. State-sponsored terrorism is a major threat to individual and collective human rights.

 

  1. So-called Humanitarian Intervention by Western powers, and their Third World surrogates, is a major threat to human rights.

 

  1. Canada’s claims to be a paragon in the international human rights stage are not matched by historical and contemporary evidentiary facts.

 

  1. The enhancement of a positive human rights culture can only come about with a forceful application of international law by independent international organizations.

Final examination (30%) April 2019

The course final examination will be held during the University-run final examination period in April 2019. All required readings and class and tutorial discussions must be used in answering the corresponding questions. No aids allowed. Examination has three parts: Part 1 is worth 30 % of the examination and asks to identify, explain the meaning, and discuss the significance of 3 notions or concepts discussed in class and readings. Part 2 is worth 40 % of the examination and is a compulsory essay question. Part 3 is worth 30 % of the examination and asks students to choose from two essay questions. Duration of the examination is 2 hours and 30 minutes.

Tutorial participation (10%)

This assignment is worth 10 % of the final course grade. It comprises (1) regular attendance, and (2) active engagement in the discussion of readings, lectures, and assignments as determined by the Teaching Assistants. Grade for this assignment is at the Instructor’s discretion.

Weekly Course Schedule and Required Readings

Week 1: 10 January

Instructor’s introductory remarks. The course’s objectives, organization, and evaluation.

Week 2: 17 January

State of the Art in the Human Rights field: Progress and regression in the evolution of human rights and democracy seen through an examination of the two 9/11 events that shook the international community.

Required readings

Goodhart, Michael, Introduction: Human Rights in Politics and Practice (1-8); Chandler, David, Chapter 7: Contemporary Critiques of Human Rights (110-126); Landman, Todd & Larissa Kersten, Chapter 8: Measuring and Monitoring Human Rights (127-144).

Lecture by the instructor.

Week 3: 24 January

Conceptualizing the meaning of democracy and human rights. Are democracy and human rights complementary or oppositional? Human rights and politics.

Required readings

Cardenas, Sonia, Chapter 5: Human Rights in Comparative Politics (77-92); Short, Damien, Chapter 6: Sociological and Anthropological Approaches (93-109).

Lecture by the instructor.

Week 4: 31 January

Historical origins of Human Rights. The Magna Carta; the American and French Revolution; the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The emergence of the Individual. The rise of Capitalism. The Reformation Movement. The rise of the Nation State. The consolidation of historically particularistic rights into universal rights.

Required readings

Langlois, Anthony, Chapter 1: Normative and Theoretical Foundations of Human Rights (11-27), and Fazaeli, Roja, Chapter 10: Human Rights and Religion (163-181).

Lecture by the instructor.

Recommended readings

Hobbes, Thomas: On the Natural Condition of Mankind as Concerning their Felicity and Misery, from Leviathan (ch.13).

Locke, John: A Letter Concerning Toleration.

Marx, Karl: The Communist Manifesto; On the Materialist Conception of History: see: Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy.

Week 5: 7 February

The expansion of democracy and human rights in the Western World: From the working classes struggles for democracy to liberal democratic regimes to the rise and fall of the Welfare State. Capitalism, Democracy, and Human Rights: Can they be reconciled?

Required readings

Glasius, Marlies & Doutje Lettinga, Chapter 9: Global Civil Society and Human Rights (147-162); Richards, David & Ronald Gelleny, Chapter 13: Economic Globalization and Human Rights (216-234); and Davenport, Christian, Chapter 14: Political Democracy and State Repression (235-254).

Lecture by the instructor.

Week 6: 14 February

Democratic transitions in the post-Cold War period. The adoption of the democratic method (Joseph Schumpeter, the Pluralist School) by developing countries. The limits of conditional definitions.

Required readings

Dunne, Tim & Marianne Hanson, Chapter 3: Human Rights in International Relations (44-59); and Smith, Rhona, Chapter 4: Human Rights in International Law (60-76).

Lecture by the instructor.

Recommended readings

Dahl, Robert (1971), Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Schumpeter, Joseph (1942), Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy.

Huntington, Samuel (1991). The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman, OK: The University of Oklahoma Press).

Week 7: 18-24 February Mid-term Recess

Week 8: 28 February

Development, Modernization, and Human Rights. The Fallacy of the complementarity. The Optimistic Equation. The Clash of Civilizations.

Required readings

Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko, Chapter 12: Human Rights and Politics and Development (198-215); Barry, John & Kerri Woods, Chapter 23: The Environment (405-420).

Lecture by the instructor.

Recommended readings

Huntington, Samuel (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order (New York: NY: Simon and Shuster).

Huntington, Samuel. (1987) The Goals of Development,î in Understanding Political Development, edited by Samuel Huntington and Myron Weiner (Boston: The Little, Brown and Company).

Week 9: 7 March

The end of the Cold War; new wave of democratization; old and new conflicts and the new wave of human rights abuses.

Required readings

Strauss, Scott, Chapter 20: Genocide and Human Rights (351-369).

Lecture by the instructor.

Week 10: 14 March

Western Intervention: A blessing or a curse?

Required reading

Kuperman, Alan, Chapter 21: Humanitarian Intervention (370-388).

Lecture by the instructor.

Week 11: 21 March

Week 12: March 20 & 22: Torture and other human rights abuses: a peculiar way of promoting Western values to non-Western societies.

Required reading

Schulz, William, Chapter 15: Torture (255-272).

Lecture by the instructor.

Week 12: 28 March

Do Reconciliation and Truth Commissions strengthen or weaken emerging democracies? The use of selective approaches in the punishment of human rights abuses.

Required reading

Quinn, Joanna, Chapter 22: Transitional Justice (389-404.)

Lecture by the instructor.

Week 13: 4 April

Indigenous social and political struggles

Required reading

Havemann, Paul, chapter 19: Indigenous Peoples Human Rights (333-350).

Lecture by the instructor.

Review. Exam preparation.

Course Policies

Submission of Assignments

Outline of Research Paper and Research Paper must be submitted in class on 31 January and 14 March 2019, respectively. The Instructor and Teaching Assistants assume no responsibility whatsoever for assignments left under office doors, faxed, or texted (none of which is advised) or delivered in any other form than in class. Final version of research paper must include the original outline with the teaching assistants and instructor’s comments. Each submission must be accompanied by an electronic copy (Word format) addressed to gallegui@mcmaster.ca, as well as the Teaching Assistant’s McMaster e-mail address. Each submission must also include the following statement on plagiarism: ìI (name of student) attest that this work is original, and that no plagiarism has been committed in its preparation and delivery. (signature)

Grades

Grades will be based on the McMaster University grading scale:

MARK            GRADE

90-100            A+

85-90  A

80-84  A-

77-79  B+

73-76  B

70-72  B-

67-69  C+

63-66  C

60-62  C-

57-59  D+

53-56  D

50-52  D-

0-49    F

Late Assignments

Late submission of research paper will be penalized with one sub-letter grade deduction for each working day of delay, up to a maximum of one week (7 days from the due date). After one week, the Instructor must refuse to accept a late paper unless proper medical certification stating a prolonged inability to fulfil academic responsibilities is provided. Medical notes will be verified for authenticity. Marks for papers accepted by the Instructor after one week of lateness will be dropped by one letter grade. Students must talk to the Instructor with anticipation if they believe they will need a legitimate extension. Teaching Assistants cannot grant an extension.

A make-up examination for the missed mid-term will be granted only for legitimate reasons, and at the Instructor’s discretion.

Absences, Missed Work, Illness

McMaster Student Absence Form (MSAF). This is an online, self-reporting tool for students to report absences that last up to three (3) days, and to request accommodation for any missed academic work that is worth less than 25 % of the final grade. This tool cannot be used during any final examination period. It is the prerogative of the Instructor to determine the appropriate relief for missed term work. Students may submit a maximum of one request per term. The form should be filled immediately when the student is about to return to class after an absence. It is the student’s responsibility to follow up with the instructor immediately (within two working days) about the nature of the accommodation. Students who have been absent for more than three (3) days, have missed academic work worth 25 %, or more, or exceed one request per term must see their Faculty Academic Advisor. Students will be required to provide supporting documentation.

Avenue to Learn

In this course we will be using Avenue to Learn. Students should be aware that, when they access the electronic components of this course, private information such as first and last names, user names for the McMaster e-mail accounts, and program affiliation may become apparent to all other students in the same course. The available information is dependent on the technology used. Continuation in this course will be deemed consent to this disclosure. If you have any questions or concerns about such disclosure please discuss this with the course instructor.

Turnitin.com

In this course we will be using a web-based service (Turnitin.com) to reveal plagiarism. Students will be expected to submit their work electronically to Turnitin.com and in hard copy so that it can be checked for academic dishonesty. Students who do not wish to submit their work to Turnitin.com must still submit a copy to the instructor. No penalty will be assigned to a student who does not submit work to Turnitin.com. All submitted work is subject to normal verification that standards of academic integrity have been upheld (e.g., on-line search, etc.). For more information please refer to the Turnitin.com Policy.

University Policies

Academic Integrity Statement

You are expected to exhibit honesty and use ethical behavior in all aspects of the learning process. Academic credentials you earn are rooted in principles of honesty and academic integrity.

Academic dishonesty is to knowingly act or fail to act in a way that results or could result in unearned academic credit or advantage. This behavior can result in serious consequences, e.g. the grade of zero on an assignment, loss of credit with a notation on the transcript (notation reads: Grade of F assigned for academic dishonesty), and/or suspension or expulsion from the university.

It is your responsibility to understand what constitutes academic dishonesty. For information on the various types of academic dishonesty please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy.

The following illustrates only three forms of academic dishonesty:

  1. Plagiarism, e.g. the submission of work that is not one’s own or for which credit has been obtained.
  2. Improper collaboration in group work.
  3. Copying or using unauthorized aids in tests and examinations.

Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities

Students who require academic accommodation must contact Student Accessibility Services (SAS) to make arrangements with a Program Coordinator. Academic accommodations must be arranged for each term of study. Student Accessibility Services can be contacted by phone 905-525-9140 ext. 28652 or e-mail sas@mcmaster.ca. For further information, consult Master University’s Policy for Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities.

Faculty of Social Sciences E-mail Communication Policy

Effective September 1, 2010, it is the policy of the Faculty of Social Sciences that all e-mail communication sent from students to instructors (including TAs), and from students to staff, must originate from the student’s own Master University e-mail account. This policy protects confidentiality and confirms the identity of the student. It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that communication is sent to the university from a Master account. If an instructor becomes aware that a communication has come from an alternate address, the instructor may not reply at his or her discretion.

Course Modification

The instructor and university reserve the right to modify elements of the course during the term. The university may change the dates and deadlines for any or all courses in extreme circumstances. If either type of modification becomes necessary, reasonable notice and communication with the students will be given with explanation and the opportunity to comment on changes. It is the responsibility of the student to check his/hMaster email and course websites weekly during the term and to note any changes.

Religious Accommodation

Students who require academic accommodation due to religious reasons, indigenous, and spiritual observances need to familiarize themselves with the University Policy on Academic Accommodation for Religious, Indigenous, and Spiritual Observations. Students must discuss the accommodation with the instructor as well.

Pol Sci 3Y03 Human Rights and Democratization

Writing the Outline of a research paper

Professor N. Galleguillos

Winter 2019

Creating an Outline

An Outline is a systematic way of organizing ideas and developing the action plan that will follow. Think of it as a scaffold, a skeleton of what is to come, to be fleshed out as the research moves forward. The Outline should include the following sections:

  1. Introduction

Start by indicating which one of the various topics listed in the course syllabus you have chosen. These are open-ended issues, or problems, to address. It would be a good strategy to re-word, re-phrase, paraphrase, re-state the topic that you have selected. In writing the Outline, use sentence form in introducing the topic, i.e. give a brief reason of why you chose this particular topic, what methodology you will use, what literature you intend to consult, the argument you intend to make, and your tentative conclusions. Since the purpose of this assignment is to give students an early feedback on the research process help yourself by using sentences and paragraphs rather than a point-form style. In this way the TA or instructor will not have to guess what your argument might be all about. Point-form Outlines will not be assessed, and must be re-submitted.

Next, state the research question (or problem statement) in the form of a question, i.e.? Follow with a declaratory sentence which re-states the research question. A research question, or problem statement, should not include causes or solutions in it. You can choose to have a principal research question, as well as secondary research questions.

 

  1. Evidence

Once you have stated the research question(s), list some of the evidence available to you that validates that the problem is real and not an imaginary one. List at least three, or more, pieces of evidence.

  1. Probable causes

Next, list some of the probable causes that might explain why the problem exists. Causes should be more than one.

  1. Sources

Indicate the methodology (qualitative, mainly) you will adopt in the pursuit of the research. Will you use primary sources (reports, interviews, observation), or mainly secondary sources (books, articles, newspaper news, online information, etc.)? Most likely you will use the latter; in which case indicate some of the bibliographic sources you will be using. If not ready yet, ensure you check with your TA during the research process about the sources you will be using. If you will use mainly online sources, indicate how will you ensure that they are reliable.

  1. Analysis. A brief description of your argument, if you already have one.
  2. Conclusions (Tentative). Not needed at this time.

Sample of an Outline:

  1. The topic I selected for this research paper is number Ö from the course outline: Canada’s claims to be a paragon in the international human rights stage are not matched by historical and contemporary developments.

The more specific research question that I will ask is: Is Canada’s international reputation as a democratic society that fosters respect, protection, and fulfillment of all human rights, domestically and internationally, a deserved one?

In my research I will address some secondary questions as well:

How did Canada come to develop this reputation?

Why does Canada continue to hang to a reputation that might not be based on actual facts?

Is Canada’s reputation enhanced or undermined by its willingness to join the Western-inspired war on terror?

Why was Canada apprehensive in its support of the UNUDHR?

  1. In this paper I intend to examine historical evidence that demonstrates that Canada’s reputation as a democratic society that upholds human rights is a figment of some peoples’ imagination.

Available evidence supporting this hypothesis includes:

  1. Historical mistreatment of First Nations peoples
  2. Historical discrimination against immigrants
  3. Historical discrimination against peoples with disabilities (eugenics)
  4. Historical support for dictators in the Third World
  5. A slanted electoral system (unelected Senate)
  6. Willing participation in waging wars against peoples in the Middle East (war on terror)

OR (if you choose an alternative take on the topic)

In this paper I intend to support the commonplace view that Canada is, indeed, a society that adheres to democratic principles and respects, protects, and fulfills its domestic and international obligations on human rights.

Available evidence supporting this hypothesis includes:

  1. Canada’s influential role in the development of international law regarding (a) rights of children; (b) humanitarian intervention; (c) control of small arms, and (d) promotion of free trade
  2. Canada’s NGOs positive contribution to democracy and human rights in the developing world
  3. Canada’s traditional participation in peacekeeping operations throughout the world
  4. Canada’s independent foreign policy vis-a-vis the USA
  5. Canada’s commitment to accept refugees from conflict areas

III.        Causes (always more than one)

  1. Sources. The literature on Canada’s reputation as a democracy and upholder of human rights (or otherwise) is extensive, and it will be consulted thoroughly. Books, academic articles, and Government of Canada’s Reports will be thoroughly reviewed.
  2. Analysis. Concepts such as: democracy; human rights;international law; conservatism; liberalism; democratization; peacekeeping, and humanitarian intervention inter all will be duly defined. The question of Canada’s reputation as a democratic society and respectful of human rights will be addressed.
  3. Conclusion. In the conclusion I will relate the findings of my research to the paper’s central (and secondary) question.

Academic integrity statement. At the conclusion of this outline include the following statement: I,Ö(your name)Östate that no plagiarism has been committed in the preparation and delivery of this assignment. Add your signature.

RESEARCH PAPER FORMAT

The research paper must include:

  1. Abstract
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Introduction
  4. Evidence
  5. Argument/discussion/development of the research question
  6. Conclusions (weigh evidence, argument, summary)
  7. List of references (only sources cited in the text of the paper)

Formatting of paper:

  1. Typed, double-space, wide margins
  2. Title page on separate page
  3. Abstract on separate page
  4. Page number top right corner
  5. Follow the instructions on the course outline and, if in doubt, the APA style for listing of sources (author, date, place)

III. Leave enough time to proofread the paper and learn to proofread thoroughly.

  1. Save paper on hard disk/floppy disk/USB, or email it to yOurself.

 

  1. Submit research paper on due date, in class, and email an electronic copy addressed to gallegui@mcmaster.ca, and your TA at the same time.
  2. Pagination
  3. Preliminary pages (title page, abstract page, table of contents page) are numbered on small roman numerals centered at the bottom margin of the page.
  4. The title page is assigned a number (I) that is not placed on the page.
  5. Main body of the research paper, from page 1 onwards, through list of references and appendixes, is numbered with Arabic numerals in the upper right margin.
  6. Pagination should be placed within the margins.
  7. Do not use page headers or running heads.
  8. The typeface and size of page numbers should be the same as the text type.
  9. Page numbers should be placed at least two lines spaces above the first line of type (for main body) and at least two lines spaces below the last line of type (for preliminary pages)

VII. Indentation

  1. The first line of each paragraph must have a consistent indentation of 5-7 spaces.
  2. Use the same indentation for subheadings in the Table of Contents, for block quotations, for the first line of numbered seriation, and for the second and subsequent lines in reference-list entries.
  3. Evaluation of research paper (how the paper will be graded)
  4. Quality of the formulation of the question(s) being addressed
  5. Overall organization
  6. Use and quality of sources
  7. Depth and scope of research
  8. Interpretation of evidence/argument
  9. Quality of writing and proper formatting
  10. Conclusion (how does it relate to the main question?)

[Title Page Sample]

Human Rights Regression in the Era of the ëWar on Terrorism.

by John H. Smith 00123456

A research paper presented to Professor N. Galleguillos, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Pol Sci 3Y03, Human Rights and Democratization.

Tutorial #

Teaching Assistant:

McMaster University

March 2019

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The impact of the Internet on Human Right

The impact of the Internet on Human Right Topic: After conducting independent research using at least three sources not used in the class write an essay that illustrates the impact of the Internet on Human Rights (In a pinch you should review the UN Declaration on Human Rights if you get stuck).

The impact of the Internet on Human Right
The impact of the Internet on Human Right

Assignment Instructions This assignment will be an essay written in APA format (see below). Each essay should contain at least 3 FULL PAGES of discussion, 12-point font, double-spaced, with 1″ margins all-around, on the topic (s) noted below. The title page and references page do not count towards the page count. Complete the assignment in a Word document using APA formatting. Omit the abstract and outline. Each essay will be checked by Turnitin automatically upon submission. You will have access to the originality reports.

Child Labor in Ghana Understanding Human Behavior

Child Labor in Ghana Understanding Human Behavior 1. In four sentences, describe what your project is about in relation to how it meets the criteria of understanding human behavior. 2. In three sentences, identify the specific type of political or social issue you are bringing awareness to? 3. Using the

Child Labor in Ghana Understanding Human Behavior
Child Labor in Ghana Understanding Human Behavior

APA format lists the citation at least three references that you used in the completion of this assignment. The paper presents a global scenario of child labor by placing the issue in a historical context as well as comparing current work in the field. It specifically explains the psychosocial, political, and economic determinants of child labor and the prevalence of different forms as well as its magnitude in the different regions of the world.

Trade Restrictions and Human Rights

Trade Restrictions and Human Rights Should Trade Restrictions be used to Influence Human Rights Issues?

Trade Restrictions and Human Rights
Trade Restrictions and Human Rights

POINT: Yes. Some countries do not protect human rights in the same manner as the U.S. At times, the U.S. should threaten to restrict U.S. imports from or investment in a country if it does not correct human rights violations. The U.S. should use its large international trade and investment as leverage to ensure that human rights violations do not occur. Other countries with a history of human rights violations are more likely to honor human rights if their economic conditions are threatened. -Please offer source and opinion on the matter.

Inmate Rights Essay Paper Available Here

Inmate Rights
Inmate Rights

Inmate Rights

What are some differences between rights and privileges for inmates? Be sure to provide examples when possible. What are some potential issues of interpretation of rights (Constitutional and otherwise) in correctional facilities? For example, how accommodating should a correctional facility be in allowing an inmate to practice his or her religion? Justify your reasoning and support your claims with at least one outside source.

Use at least three (3) quality references Note: Wikipedia and other related websites do not qualify as academic resources.

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Child Trafficking in the U.S Essay Assignment

Child Trafficking in the U.S
             Child Trafficking in the U.S

Child Trafficking in the U.S

This paper is to provide an overview of the disheartening topic of Child Trafficking. This is for a child welfare course, thus the first resource (out of the mandatory 3) I will provide as the article is essential for the paper. I would like to provide the following outline for it:

Child Trafficking in the U.S

1) What makes a potential victim more likely to be trafficked

2) Alarming statistics and facts to support the cause and effects child trafficking has on society and its victims

3) Biological, social, and psychological effects of it on its victims

4) prevention and what can be done to minimize child trafficking in the U.S.

Use at least three (3) quality references Note: Wikipedia and other related websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

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Retributive justice Research Assignment

Retributive justice
              Retributive justice

Retributive justice

There are ten questions. . Use at least 13 sentences for each answer, but do not use more than 20 sentences for an answer.

  1. Explain how Plato argues that social justice is better than, and more important than, retributive justice. Why can’t retributive justice, by itself, maintain peace and order in a society?
  2. Describe how Socrates argues that people who want justice to control their lives would not want to live in a democracy
  3. Explain why, according to The Republic, a democratic country will sooner or later be controlled by a demagogue who wants to run the country like a tyrann.
  4. Explain how Plato’s Allegory of the Cave suggests that only philosophy can rescue a person from being controlled by one’s own culture and its customs.
  5. Define what ‘dualism’ is. Then explain how Descartes proves that he knows for certain that he is a thinking mind, with more certainty than he knows he has a body.
  6. Describe how Descartes’s philosophy tries to show why religion should be able to accept the knowledge that science learns about the natural world.
  7. Explain whether this maxim is morally right according to Kant’s categorical imperative: “I should let my friend help me cheat on this exam, so I can get a good grade in this class.”
  8. Pick one human right. For that right, explain how Kant’s Categorical Imperative can show that this human right is morally correct. Be sure to include an explanation why violating that right must be morally wrong.
  9. Describe why Utilitarianism’s formula, “What is morally right is what makes a society the happiest” could be used for ranking societies from “most moral” to “least moral.” Then raise one objection to this effort to rank societies this way, heard from anti-colonialism.
  10. Describe how Appiah hopes to protect small cultures from assimilation into empires by promoting multiculturalism and his “cosmopolitanism.”

make it sample not hard to understand

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Is Free Expression Abused or More Necessary than Ever

Is Free Expression Abused or More Necessary than Ever Write a Persuasive Essay of at least 750 words that addresses this question: Is free expression abused or more necessary than ever?

Is Free Expression Abused or More Necessary than Ever
Is Free Expression Abused or More Necessary than Ever

There will be three areas of emphasis: -Show that you have considered and understand the issue from multiple perspectives. -Make a specific arguable claim. -Support your claim with solid reasoning and evidence. PURPOSE -To demonstrate your ability to think critically about important issues of the day -To demonstrate how to develop an informed argument that is both logical and compelling REQUIREMENTS -The essay must six paragraphs (750-word minimum). The six paragraphs must include an overview of the issue and thesis statement in the introduction, three reasons in support of your position in the body of the essay, a rebuttal paragraph that addresses the opposing argument, and a conclusion that summarizes your argument. -Each body paragraph must include at least one quote from a reading in the textbook: “Casebook” on pg. 607-608 “Free Expression in Peril” on pg. 609-615 “Trigger Warnings, Safe Spaces and Free Speech Too,” on pg. 617-619“Warning: The Literary Canon Could Make Students Squirm” on pg. 621-624“What’s Really Important About ‘Trigger Warnings’” on pg. 626-629. -You may also use any additional sources of your choosing. – Must be presented in MLA style with in-text citations and a Works Cited page (see Chp. 18 in the text) The book you will be using is ‘’patterns for college writing’’ a rhetorical reader and guide by Laurie G Kirszner. Its the fourteenth edition. You will need this book to get a quote from one of the titles listed above to quote each body paragraph.

Black Civil Rights Essay Paper

Black Civil Rights
Black Civil Rights

Black Civil Rights

The point of this assignment is to improve your skills in demonstrating change over time. Answer the following question by accounting for change on the given topic from the first point to the second point. This will require setting up the context of the whole period, marking ideally a few turning points between the beginning and end point. It will require giving close attention and some source analysis to the documents indicated

Respond to the following prompt:
Black Civil Rights: Use the following two documents to show why some African Americans decided that it was time for a more radical form of civil rights activism with the Black Power movement. Sources: Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) and Stokely Carmichael “The Basis of Black Power, SNCC, 1966”

Source 1 (point 1) :

Plessy v. Ferguson: The actual Supreme Court decision is quite long and difficult to digest. I don’t expect you to use it directly. If you really want to see the decision it is available at https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/163/537 (Links to an external site.)

More digestible excerpts from the Plessy v. Ferguson source:
Summary and quotes from case at Ourdocuments.gov https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=52 (Links to an external site.)

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Material Handling Case Scenario Paper

Material Handling
     Material Handling

Material Handling

DB7: Current Event – Crane Incident
Discuss a recent crane incident, this can be a firsthand event or a current event you find in the news or on a safety magazine website:

  • Identify who was involved (you do not have to name names);
  • Identify the hazardous condition or hazardous act that resulted in an accident;
  • Identify the injury that resulted due to the accident; and
  • Discuss the needed training or lack of training that presented in the incident.

Make at least two response posts to other learners in the class. After reading their incident description, discuss control measures that could have prevented the incidents.

Assignment
6A1: Ropes, Chains, & Slings

Research OSHA Regulations for Ropes, Chains & Slings.Ensure your search includes these different industries – 1910, 1915, and 1926.Create an informational summary that could be presented in a 10-minute toolbox talk on, and identify the following information :

  • training requirements for the use of ropes, chains, and slings
  • inspection requirements for the use of ropes, chains, and slings.

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