**Concrete civil engineering**

- True or false: In a simply supported beam, the neutral axis moves upward in the cross section when the beam moves from the uncracked stage to the elastic cracked stage.

- True or false: In a simply supported beam, the neutral axis is at the same point in the ultimate strength stage as in the elastic cracked stage.

- What is the definition of failure?

- What is the assumption that must be checked about failure?

- True or false: The strain distribution is linear at all stages of beam behavior.

- True or false: The stress distribution is linear at all stages of beam behavior.

- Why do we use the Whitney stress block in place of the actual concrete compression stress distribution?

- Name three assumptions we use to calculate the ultimate moment.

- What is the Whitney stress block calibrated to do?

- How large is the uniform stress in the Whitney stress block?

- How far does the Whitney stress block extend into the cross section?

- What value do we use for β
_{1}if we are using 3500 psi concrete?

- What value do we use for β
_{1}if we are using 6000 psi concrete?

- Which statics equation do we use to calculate the depth of the equivalent rectangular (i.e. Whitney) stress block a?

- How do we find the moment arm of the couple formed by the steel’s tension force and the concrete’s compressive force?

- What is the equation for the moment of the couple formed by the steel’s tension force and the concrete’s compressive force?

- True or false: The moment arm of the couple formed by the steel force T and the concrete compressive force C is always d-a/2.

- What is the steel reinforcement ratio ρ?

- What equation(s) are used to find the
**nominal**strength of a beam cross section?

- What equation(s) are used to find the
**design**strength of a beam cross section?

- True or false: The
**design**strength of a beam cross section must be at least as big as the factored moment M_{u}.

- Where does the factored moment M
_{u}come from?

- What is the equation for coefficient of resistance R
_{n}?

- What is the yield strain for Grade 60 reinforcement?

- How is the steel’s yield strain calculated?

- How do we find the depth of the neutral axis c if the depth of the stress block a is known?

- What does the symbol ε
_{t}stand for?

- What is the difference between d
_{t}and d?

- How do we find the value of the strain in the steel when the concrete reaches its crushing strain?

- What is a balanced section or balanced failure?

- If you have a cross section that is reinforced with a steel ratio ρ > ρ
_{b}would you expect a ductile or a brittle failure?

- How does the steel reinforcement have to be adjusted (i.e. do you add more steel or remove steel) to change the failure mode from a brittle compression-controlled failure to a ductile tension-controlled failure mode?

- How does ACI 318 Code define a tension-controlled member?

- True or false: For beams that have a transition failure mode, steel yields before the concrete crushes.

- What value is used for φ in a tension-controlled member?

- Is the φ factor for a member in the transition zone greater or less than the φ factor for a tension-controlled member?

- What is the smallest value for ε
_{t}that can be used for a beam according to ACI 318 Code?

- What is the largest amount of factored axial compressive load that can act on a cross section and still be classified as a “beam” or bending member, rather than a column member?

- What types of members can be designed as compression-controlled?

- True or false: The equation for φ for bending moment and axial load is the same for all grades of steel.

- True or false: The nominal strength M
_{n}increases for increasing steel ratio ρ.

- How do we find the steel ratio ρ that corresponds to a particular value of steel strain ε
_{t}(i.e. what do we use to find ρ_{0.005}when ε_{t}equals 0.005 or ρ_{0.004}when ε_{t}equals 0.004?

- If you wanted to design a cross section with ε
_{t}greater than 0.005, would you need to use a steel ratio that was larger or smaller than ρ_{0.005}?

- What assumption do we make to use T = A
_{s}f_{y}in Example 1?

- Why is the compression force C = 0.85f’
_{c}ab and why is the compression force located at a/2 down from the top of the cross section in Example 1?

- How is the assumption that T = A
_{s}f_{y}checked in Example 1?

- How is the φ factor determined to be 0.9 in Example 1?

- Why is M
_{n}calculated as T(d-a/2) in Example 1?

- Why is the compression force’s size and location in Example 2 found differently than was used in Example 1?

- Why didn’t we calculate a design strength φM
_{n}for the cross section in Example 2?

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