Human induced climate change, conflict
Students are free to choose any topic in the study of how human induced environmental changes and/or climate change is related to conflict or peace for their outline and essay. The outline was already submitted in February and therefore, the following essay needs to be of the same topic. The final essay should be approximately 12 double-spaced pages in length, 2.5cm margins (not including cover page and bibliography/work cited), and all relevant material should be properly cited APA. Marks will be deducted for essays 3/4 page or more short of the 12 page requirement. The introduction should include the four elements required in the outline above: the research question, the rationale for that question, a thesis(answer to your question), and lay out an outline of the essay’s broad sections. The final essay must have a minimum of 8 scholarly sources, including 3 scholarly books (5 already used for the outline before so 3 more required). Good essays will rely on the use of books early in the research process to get a broad and deep perspective on the topic. Journal articles, by contrast, offer a very narrow examination of an issue, and shouldn’t be used exclusively. The final essay must use some of the research material used in the annotated bibliography. Students are allowed to use some of the similar text and ideas used in the annotated bibliography for the final essay. However, you should re-write any material you use from the annotated bibliography, to avoid plagiarism.
NOTE: I have attached the annotated bibliography and outline submitted before for this assignment
Climate Change and How it Affects Conflicts in Humans
GS – 340 – P
Wilfrid Laurier University
Human Induced Climate Change and How it Affects Conflicts for Humans
In the 21st century, climate change poses a big threat to the global health of the world. According to statistics, the world population will tremendously increase to 9.1 billion people by the year 2050 with the developing notion contributing a significant percentage to the population increase. Climate change has been mostly attributed to high consumption resulting from the increase in population in the developing nations, with the effect spread across the world. Through adaptation, a link between climate change and population can be established, incorporating vulnerability characterized by climate change. Nevertheless, though population increase in the developing countries contributes to climate change, the carbon emissions from these countries are significantly low. On the contrary the developed nations contribute minimal climate change as a resultant of population but as a result of industrialization contribute massive amounts of carbon emissions (Stephenson, Newman, & Mayhew, 2010). Therefore, aspects of human life including urbanization, migration, population growth, household activities and others result into change in the climate equilibrium.
Climate change is a resultant of both natural and human actions. Human activities contribute a significant percentage to climate change which results to instances of conflict. For instance, rapid population growth has been cited as one of the leading causes of climate change because it puts pressure on the available natural resources to match the increased consumption rate. Therefore, the increased emission of greenhouse gases, which originate from natural fossils, could be held responsible for the ozone depletion that causes global warming. Additionally, mitigation-related activities such as reduced deforestation, implementation of coping strategies such as improved family planning, exploration of the dangers caused by rapid population growth, and considering of the impact of population pressure in the level of equity in the area of agricultural extension shall be revisited (Stephenson, Newman, & Mayhew, 2010).
Design and Method
The mixed research approach of collecting and analyzing data will be used in the collection of pertinent data on the human impact on climate change. The mixed approach is an optimal combination of the qualitative and quantitative approach. Other than identify human actions leading to change in climate and the consequences of the change, this stage will also cover the mitigation measures adopted in minimizing the change and evaluates their success rates (Scheraga, Ebi, Furlow, & Moreno, 2003).
Annotated bibliography on Human Induced Climate Change and Conflict
Akasha, M. O. (2014). Darfur: A tragedy of climate change. Anchor Academic Publishing (aap_verlag).
Akasha’s Darfur: A tragedy of climate change, he clearly outlines the dangers posed by climate change on the prevailing societies with a special reference to Darfur. This book talks about the impact of migration caused by climate change. Statistics indicate that approximately 3% of the world’s population resides outside their original area of birth. As a result of land degradation, many communities have been forced to look for a safer haven for their own livelihood in the end causing a scramble for the meager resources available. Food security and poverty concerns, desertification, soil degradation, have been cited as the actual causes the patterns of migration. The correlation between migration and conflict is seen when issues of land ownership and resource scarcity are identified. The book further explains the genesis of the tribal conflicts as a result of resources as witnessed in Darfur as early as in the 17th century during the Karo Fata (White bone) famine, which is proof that human activities and climate change could be a recipe for conflict. As a result of such conflicts, the international community is also involved in the resolution process whenever they emerge. These conflicts do bring instability in the neighboring countries that have to deal with the refugee problems that cause great pressure on these countries’ economy and resources. The book will be instrumental in the resolution of emerging conflicts as a result of climate changes.
Mazo, J. (2010). Climate conflict: how global warming threatens security and what to do about it. Routledge.
This book is categorical about the implication of climate change to international relations and global security. However, the author contents that it is not an easy concern to address based on several factors affecting the human population in terms of diversity. Much of the literature is on the historic interactions that existed between the climate and human society, the relationship between state failures and stability and finally the nexus prevailing between the scarcity of resources and conflict. Moreover, the book cites different examples in relation to societal failures, accelerated scarcity of resources, and the eminent risks in interstate and internal conflicts from different corners of the world. The book also seeks to address pertinent questions such as changes that will be brought about by the climate changes. This issue was addressed by the IPCC’s physical sciences report on global warming which statistics indicate that there has been a 0.13 degrees on average each decade, in the last five decades. These statistics will provide an impetus into projecting the impact of climate change in the future and thus will be helpful in formulating the right set of mitigation prospects.
Messer, E. (2010). Climate change and violent conflict: A critical literature review. Oxfam America: Research Backgrounders.
This article relates to identifying the core aspects and types of climate change such as drought and increased heat or severe weather, and consequences such as social unrest such as conflict, as people scramble for limited resources. Harsh conditions as explained would more likely cause human migrations in search of a better environment to sustain their practices, such as farming and livestock rearing. These movements will cause undue pressure on the existing population as they scramble for the few available resources such as water and pasture. The paper calls for mitigation practices that will reduce the impact of climate change through the implementation of policies akin to environmental sustainability. Studies do confirm that there is a direct relationship between adverse environmental conditions and human wellbeing since most of their resources will be disintegrated or affected in a way. This will include food chains since the concentration of more people in one region will place unwarranted pressure on available resources.
OECD, (2015). Cool Policy: Climate Change Mitigation Supporting Growth. OECD Economic Outlook, Volume 2015 Issue 2 PP. 59-80
The article addresses the ways in which OECD will implement to reduce climate change to avert global conflict and unrest by developing workable strategies that will check the emission of Greenhouse gas (GHG). Some of the measures include pricing greenhouse gases in a move to discourage fossil fuel subsidies. Secondly, setting emission regulations that will discourage GHG emissions. This will require proper public sector planning and alignment of the necessary policies geared towards favorable climate change. The article further elaborates on fiscal sustainability and the impact of climate change by the increase in taxation to discourage carbon dioxide emission. OECD encourages investment in the technologies concerned with carbon emissions so that there would be a substantial reduction in the emissions. This thus points to the ease of access to resources that are geared towards climate change initiatives.
Scheffran, J., Brzoska, M., Brauch, H. G., Link, P. M., & Schilling, J. (Eds.). (2012). Climate change, human security and violent conflict: challenges for societal stability (Vol. 8). Springer Science & Business Media.
This book’s main focus is on the complex linkage that exists between anthropogenically generated changes in the climatic conditions and how the society is impacted in terms of conflicts that do arise, which in other instances leads to societal instability and violence. Furthermore the book provides pointers on how the situation could be prevented, managed or avoided all together. It also highlights the three critical aspects of scientific research that deal with human security, climate change and violent conflict with a view of understanding the challenges they could have caused in the past, present and the possibility of future catastrophic concerns that are more likely to cause societal instability. The book indicates a correlation that thrives as a result of human activities and the resultant effects of global warming. There is clear evidence that fluctuations in the warm and cold periods have been evident especially during the Holocene and the anthropogenic global warming. Furthermore, the book also outlines security concerns as part of the societal values with the focus on risk reduction, predictability and confidence that highly contrast with dangers, threats and the fear caused. The most critical areas that have been mentioned in the book are state failures, social order erosion, and the violence that exists in the worst affected areas which has had an impact on both regional, and international governance structures.
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