Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science

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Unit 12: Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science


This paper intends to come up with a case study of physiological principles in health and social science. However, the paper will focus attention on aspects of the functions of the human body, which impact more on care delivered by health care settings along with social care settings.

Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science
Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science

Therefore, the paper will critically analyze how the whole body functions. The case study is, however, intended to give a holistic general idea of the composition and performance of the body of human beings. Moreover, the case study aims at educating individuals working in the field of health or social care.

LO 1 Structure and performance of the body of human beings

AC 1.1: Major anatomical features of the body of human beings

            The body of human beings has five major vital organs of its anatomical features which facilitate survival of humans (Montgomery, Kim, & Franklin, 2011). The first organ is the human brain, which acts as a control center for the body. The second organ is the human heart, which pumps blood all through a person’s body. The third organ is the kidneys, which remove waste along with extra fluid from a person’s blood. The fourth organ is the liver, which carries out different functions such as detoxification of chemicals that are harmful to the body, crashing drugs, blood filtration, bile secretion, and blood clotting protein production.  The fifth organ is the lungs, which remove oxygen from the air breathed in by an individual and transfer it to the individual’s blood in order for it to be sent to the person’s cells. Moreover, the lungs also remove a person’s carbon dioxide, which is then exhaled by the individual (Kilham, 2011).

(Douglas, 2011)

Markedly, along with major vital organs of the body of human beings, the anatomical features of the human body also consist of various biological systems. The first system is the circulatory system, which is responsible for transporting blood, hormones, different nutrients, and gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxide all over the human body. The circulatory system consists of veins, blood vessels, the heart, the heart, and blood (“Respiratory Structure and Function”, 2012). The second system is the digestive system, which is made up of interconnected organs, which coordinate in enabling the human body to effectively break down food, absorb then remove the waste. The digestive system comprises of the esophagus, the rectum, the mouth the stomach, the small and large intestines along with the anus. However, the liver together with the pancreas are also influential of activities carried out by the digestive system since they generate juices used in digestion.

The third system is the endocrine system, which comprises of eight main glands responsible for secreting hormones to the blood. The hormones, consecutively, travel through different tissues to regulate different functions of the body, among them, being metabolism, sexual function and also growth. The fourth system is the immune system, which acts as a defense of the body against all bacteria, harmful pathogens and also viruses. The immune system consists of lymph nodes, the lymphocytes, which include B-cells plus T-cells, the spleen, the bone marrow, the leukocytes and thymus that constitute the white cells of the blood (Kelly, & Ramanan, 2011).  The fifth system is the lymphatic system, which comprises of lymph nodes, the lymph ducts, and the lymph vessels. The lymphatic system is responsible for the body’s defense, however, its greatest task is making lymph and moving it. Lymph is a fluid containing white cells of blood, which fight infection in the body.

The sixth system is the nervous system, which is responsible for controlling actions within the body that are both voluntary and involuntary. In addition, the nervous system also sends signals across to diverse body parts. The nervous system comprises of nerves, the brain plus then spinal cord (Hammond-Browning, 2011). The seventh system is the muscular system, which is made up of approximately 650 muscles which facilitate movement, the flow of blood, along with other functions in the body. The eighth system is the reproductive system, which enables human beings to reproduce. The male system of reproduction consists of the penis, testes, and sperms. The female system of reproduction consists of vagina, ovaries, uterus and eggs. The ninth system is the urinary system, which is used in the elimination of waste from the human body after food ingested by an individual is broken down. The urinary system is made of two kidneys and urethras, a bladder, urethra and sphincter muscles.

The tenth system is the integumentary system, which actually is the largest organ in a human being’s body. The integumentary system consists of skin, hair and also nails. The integumentary system acts the body’s protection against pathogens, different viruses, and bacteria. Moreover, the skin also regulates temperatures of the body and also helps in elimination of waste from the body by the process of perspiration.

AC 1.2: How systems of the human body interact as a way of ensuring growth and proper functioning of the human body.

Systems of the body interact through metabolism. Metabolism is a process that involves all chemical processes taking place in the body of human beings (Berge, 2011). Notably, metabolism is involved in influencing growth in a human being through anabolism. Moreover, metabolism helps the body of human beings to perform efficiently through catabolism. Thus, metabolism in the body of human beings involves building up the body, repairing the body and ensuring that storage takes place within the body of human beings. Consequently, metabolism is effective in the generation of energy for the body of human beings. For instance, when an individual takes carbohydrates, it is usually in form of starch or in form of sugars. Through metabolism, the carbohydrates taken by an individual are broken to form glucose. The glucose is later broken down through further metabolic processes to form pyruvate which is a compound. Hence, supplementary metabolic processes result in the breaking down of pyruvate to form a molecule known as acetyl-CoA, which is responsible for the production of energy. The acetyl-CoA molecule rotates around the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Gluckman, Low, Buklijas, Hanson, & Beedle, 2011). Consequently, energy carriers in the body of human beings transport energy through a chain for electron transport, thus generating a chemical known as ATP, which is the energy for human beings. During the breakdown, process water is also given off. Moreover, for the cycle to be complete oxygen along with carbon dioxide is required thus necessitating the breathing process for human beings.

In contrast, when an individual takes in proteins, the process of metabolism breaks the protein into parts referred to as amino acids. The amino acids form an amino group which constitutes the urine of human beings. However, when an individual eats fats it contains a backbone of glycerol and a chain of fatty acids. Notably, each backbone of glycerol has three amino acids attached to it. Through metabolism, the body breaks down the glycerol to form two units of carbon forming a molecule known as acetyl-CoA to generate energy (“Guiding principles developed for global health strengthening”, 2011). Conversely, amino acids contained in the protein an individual eats are used during the metabolic process to make muscle and lean tissues. Thus, amino acids facilitate repair of the body and growth of the body. Additionally, the amino acids also act as carriers of protein in the blood. In contrast, when an individual takes in too much fat they get stored in form of adipose tissue. All the reactions taking place during metabolic processes are influenced by body hormones. For instance, glucagon controls the breakdown of glycogen which is stored in an individual’s body. Other hormones include epinephrine and glucocorticoids which are stress hormones leading to tissue catabolism. The hormone responsible for anabolism and growth is insulin. Thyroxin and the growth hormone influence protein build up in a human being’s body. Thus, thyroxine and the growth hormone favor the process of fat breakdown and carbohydrate stores breakdown. Notably, some processes that take place in metabolic processes are reversible. For instance, glucose that goes to the pyruvate is reversible to form glycogen, which forms the backbone of glycerol fatty acids. Moreover, the reverse process may form glucose for feeding the brain. However, in order for the reverse processes to take place, the body has to require ATP. The body requires ATP when performing exercises.

Relevance of the information to a care home Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science

Knowing the anatomy of human beings is relevant to all health care givers. Notably, with information on the anatomy of human beings, one is able to know how the human body is expected to function when in a healthy state (Mansfield, 2012). A health caregiver cannot effectively detect health problems in a patient if he/she does not know how the body functions when normal first. In addition, some of the treatment plan administered to patients relies on the organs of the body which are affected, along with bodily functions which are interfered with. Notably, the bodies of human beings function just like a machine. Like a machine, the human body has special parts that perform specific functions. Moreover, just like a machine, all parts have to operate in an optimal state collectively for the body to function well. In a machine when one part breaks down, the machine works ineffectively (Burns, 2011). Equally, human beings also operate the same. If a body part is functioning ineffectively then the individual is said to be sick.

Thus, for a health care provider to be able to know what a patient is suffering from, it is mandatory to know how different organs are expected to function first. Furthermore, to know how organs function, it is also important to know their structure. One cannot be able to have reliable knowledge of disease processes along with the effects they have on human beings, without knowing about human structure plus different functions of the human body in advance (Roberts, Lightfoot, & Porter, 2011). For one to solve a problem, it is recommended to know the root of the problem and the best methods of handling the problem. Notably, a person cannot solve a problem of an organ if they have no knowledge of how the organ works. Just like a car engine, one cannot fix the car engine when it breaks down yet one is not aware of how the engine functions when at its best.

Notably, in a setting of health care, patients, and their family are accustomed to asking about the diseases affecting the patients. Therefore, if a caregiver is not able to answer the questions, then patients and their family lose trust in the caregiver. However, when a caregiver has sufficient knowledge about parts of the human body and the way they function, then it will be easy for the caregiver to explain to patients and their families in understandable words. A person cannot be able to explain a concept they have knowledge about, as it leads to confusion and development of mistrust if one doubts their words.

LO 2: Understanding relationship of body functioning in relevant, comprehensive anatomy and physiology

AC 2.1: Normal responses of the body to daily activities

The bodies of human beings require food for survival. Conversely, the process of breathing for human beings, digestion of nutrients, pumping of the heart, and the excretion of waste all require energy. Moreover, the processes take place in an individual’s body during the day and also at night. Notably, metabolism releases the calories or energy required by the body for the body to get energy for carrying out its processes. Furthermore, all activities carried out by the body such as eating food, drinking of liquids, sleeping to give the body rest, cleaning the body, working or engaging in sports activities and studying constantly requires the body to use energy. Outstandingly, the energy which is required by the bodies of human beings for performing all the activities is generated from calories found in the food people take.

Furthermore, all metabolic processes involve chemical reactions like, the use of oxygen by cells, removal of waste, breaking down carbs, protein assimilation, vitamin assimilation and mineral assimilation (Turney, Lee, & Mehta, 2011). The energy required by an individual for the body to carry out its activities daily is referred as a Basal metabolic rate (Malumbres, 2011). However, the Basal Metabolic Rate fails to account for the energy an individual requires in order to exercise or carry out a task (Turney, Lee, & Mehta, 2011). Thus, Basal Metabolic Rate covers minimum calories required by an individual for performing normal activities like going for shopping, performing daily tasks, gardening and conducting of household chores.

Thus, when an individual consistently takes more calories compared to what the body of the individual uses the body fat of the individual increases. Moreover, through exercising the heart of an individual is able to pump faster, which helps in pushing the supply of blood faster to extremities, for instance the supply of blood to an individual’s hands or feet. Thus, an individual who experiences cold feet, they are expected to engage in regular exercise. The human body uses glucose stored from foods taken by individuals to generate energy to be used in contraction of muscles to facilitate movement. The body also requires adenosine triphosphate. Sadly, the body can only store for itself a small amount of glucose along with adenosine triphosphate. After the body uses up the adenosine triphosphate and glucose, then it requires high oxygen levels to be able to generate more adenosine triphosphate for itself (Turney, Lee, & Mehta, 2011). Therefore, when a person is engaged in a heavy activity, high levels of blood are pumped to the muscles which are involved in activities, in order to give the muscles additional oxygen. If a muscle does not get enough oxygen, then it is likely to form lactic acid. After finishing a heavy activity, it takes between 30 minutes and 60 minutes in order for lactic acid to be removed from a person’s body (Malumbres, 2011). Moreover, after a person engages in a heavy activity, tiny tears are formed in their muscles, which stimulate the growth and strengthening of muscles, as muscles heal. Notably, soreness of muscles proves that various changes are taking place within the muscles.

When performing heavy activities such as exercising the human body takes in more oxygen by up to 15 times, this makes a person breathe heavily and fast. The rate at which a person is breathing increases to the point where muscles which surround his/her lungs, have no ability to move any faster. The highest level of oxygen intake is referred to as VO2 maximum. When a person has a higher VO2 maximum, then that person is considered fit (Turney, Lee, & Mehta, 2011). Occasionally, heavy breathing is tiring to the diaphragm hence leading to a side stitch. However, the discomfort can be alleviated by stretching. In a situation where one is involved in the heavy activity, there is an increase in the rate of the heart to circulate oxygen through the blood. The heavier the tasks one is involved in, the higher the efficiency of the person’s heart in the circulation of oxygen through the blood, to enable the individual to work properly for long and in hard environments. Notably, high level of activity is also effective in stimulation of growth of a person’s new vessel of blood, which causes the pressure of blood to decrease, as a person becomes more fit.

Very high levels of heart rate may cause system dysfunctions such as indigestion, which also affects mobility and secretion. Outstandingly, when a person is engaged in heavy activity on a regular basis, his/her brain becomes used to the frequent rush of blood, hence adapting through adjusting various genes. Such changes boost the functioning of cells of the brain, which hence protects a person from developing Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s and also stroke. The performance of heavy activity also leads to a high flow of the brain’s chemical messengers known as neurotransmitters such as endorphins. In addition, the brain also generates dopamine along with glutamate to facilitate the moving of limbs by an individual. Moreover, the brain also gives out gamma-aminobutyric acid, which is a neurotransmitter responsible for prohibiting the activity, hence making activities slow down, to enable a person to move in a controlled manner (Kawashima, & Sasaki, 2011). Furthermore, a release of serotonin by the brain controls the mood of a person, along with their levels of depression.

In contrast, filtering of blood by kidneys is at a higher rate when an individual is engaged in heavy activity which leads to improved re-absorption of water. Due to the needs of the body to cool, vessels of blood in a person’s skin dilate which results in increased flow of blood to the individual’s skin. Therefore, dilation occurs to a person’s skin on the face, causing dissipation of heat.

AC 2.2: How responses of the body are explained by structure of tissues and cellular structure along with physiology

The body of human beings is made up of organizational levels. Organ systems are made of organs, whereas organs are made from tissues, while tissues are made from cells. There are different tissues in organs. The epithelial tissue contains cells responsible for covering surfaces. Notably, the epithelial cells are made up of various layers. Among the layers is a layer, which is superficial that contains packed sheets for body cells which cover the outer part of an individual’s body. Another layer of tissue of cells is the dermis which is a layer of connective tissue. Moreover, a layer which is thinner of the epithelial tissue influences different internal cavities in an individual’s body, along with various tubes responsible for draining glands and carrying blood all over the body. Notably, the epithelium possesses the ability to renew cells through the process of mitosis for basal cells.

However, the rate at which cells are renewed depends on where the epithelium is located in an individual’s body. Thus, the dermis is connected with the epidermis, which implies that the dermis and the epidermis support each other. However, since the epithelium is not made up of blood vessels, then the skin of human beings relies on vessels which are located inside the connective tissue contained in the dermis. Notably, all the vessels have close proximity, which nourishes an individual’s skin and also influences thermal regulation by the skin. Moreover, the dermis also has nerves. Consequently, some of the nerves contained in the dermis penetrate through the epithelial layer, hence acting as receptors (Turney, Lee, & Mehta, 2011). Markedly, the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue also contain sweat glands and hair follicles along with the connecting sebaceous glands and the erector pili muscles.

The ectoderm holds the epithelial lining of the internal organs of an individual’s body. However, the ectoderm does not hold the epithelial lining of all surfaces which are epithelial lined. For instance, the alimentary canal has its epithelial lining originating from the endodermal. Conversely, the mesoderm originates the epithelial lining of the peritoneal cavity along with the endothelial lining. Notably, the epithelium is described based on the shape of the cell and the arrangement of the cells in layers. An epithelium that is formed by one layer is referred to the as simple epithelium (Alimova, & Shadmanov, 2011). In contrast, an epithelium that has cells connected to the basal lamina as opposed to the surface is referred as pseudo-stratified (Turney, Lee, & Mehta, 2011). Furthermore, an epithelium made of various layers of cells with a basal layer of the cell connected to the basal lamina is referred as stratified epithelium (Kawashima, & Sasaki, 2011).

The connective tissue contains protein, fiber cells responsible for connecting other tissues. The cells are balanced by a matrix which is extracellular. Examples of the protein fibers include collagen along with fibrin, which is either in jellylike substance, solid form or liquid form. Connective tissues are found all over a human being’s body since they support all organs and vessels of blood and also link epithelial tissues with muscles which are underneath them (Turney, Lee, & Mehta, 2011). Notably, connective tissues which are fibrous are found in tendons or ligaments, since they connect different muscles through bones, or bones to other bones respectively. The muscle tissue is responsible for maintaining uprightness of the human body, facilitating movement, pumping blood and moving food via the digestive area. Muscle cells are usually referred as muscle fibers. Notably, muscle cells comprise of the protein actins, and the protein myosin, which are responsible for the contraction of muscle cells.

The skeletal muscle is held by tendons to the bones hence allows the making of conscious movements. Examples of the skeletal muscle include quads found in an individual’s legs and also biceps in the arms of human beings. The cardiac muscle forms the human heart’s walls, hence allow the heart of human beings to beat (Alimova, & Shadmanov, 2011). Notably, though cardiac muscle is striped as the skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is not voluntary controlled. Single fibers of cardiac muscle are connected together through intercalated disks, hence allowing the cardiac muscles to synchronize contraction. The smooth muscle forms walls of vessels of blood, a tract of digestion, uterus, and urinary bladder. Though the smooth muscle is also not striped, it is also not consciously controlled. This is why a human being is not expected to decide whether to move food via their track of digestion.

The nervous tissue is responsible for sensing stimuli. Nervous tissue is made up of neurons and glair. Therefore, the nervous tissue is also responsible for the dispensation of information and transmitting it (Turney, Lee, & Mehta, 2011). Within the nervous tissue, neurons produce electrical signals referred to as conducted impulses of the nerves. The electrical signals are also referred as action potentials which consent to convey information by the neurons in very rapid paces to long distances. Conversely, the glair principally supports neuronal function.

AC 2.3: How internal activities within the human body are coordinated by the body

Mostly, internal activities within the human body are coordinated by the body through the nervous system in coordination with the endocrine system. The endocrine system has eight main glands, which emit hormones into the blood (Turney, Lee, & Mehta, 2011). The hormones, in turn, control different bodily functions like growth, sexual function along with metabolism. Conversely, the nervous system regulates actions that are voluntary like movement and also involuntary actions such as breathing.

LO 3: Understanding the way routine data which is collected from health along with social care informs about preparation of care intended for individuals

AC 3.1: Recording and utilization of regular procedures in health care along with social care

Efficiency in medical care is enhanced by clinicians being able to effectively communicate to their colleagues about different patients. Thus, availability of electronic records of health helps in the secure transmission of patient data, hence making it easy to carry out coordinated care for patients with chronic conditions. In addition, structures of regional governance help in the encouraging transfer of medical data. Moreover, there is more accountability through the use of electronic records of health in reference to payments for medical care. Additionally, a medical record contains information, which consents to caregivers determining the medical history of patients, hence providing them with informed care. Furthermore, in most cases, a medical record plays the role of a central repository when a health caregiver is planning a patient’s care.

Besides medical records are important in documenting communication between the patient and his/her health caregiver, and also between the patients’ health caregiver and other professionals who are involved in caring for the patient. Medical records also serve the purpose of compliance. Most health institutions have policies on the keeping of medical records. Moreover, it is also a professional requirement in the field of healthcare to keep medical records (Czepczyńska-Krężel, H. & Krop-Wątorek, 2012). In addition, government regulation also requires that caregivers keep medical records about their patients. Ordinarily, medical records comprise of admission notes, notes for on service, notes for progress, notes before operation of patients, notes during operation of patients, notes after operation of patients, notes on procedures used on patients, notes on delivery, postpartum notes and notes on the discharge of patients.

A personal health record generally combines a majority of the medical records features presented above with portability, which permits a patient on sharing medical records with different caregivers and systems of health care. This borrows from the fact that, time may elapse in terms of months and years in between treatments administered to a patient, or the duration a patient is ill, yet caregivers may be transferred. Therefore, medical records should help in the reconstruction of events in later dates with no substitute to memory. In the field of healthcare, a caregiver attends to hundreds of different patients. Consequently, it may be difficult for a health caregiver to recall details of care administered to a patient several years back, in some cases, even weeks back. Nevertheless, on the case of the patient, it is different, as they can freshly recall all events, and thus in some cases may present complaints.

Maintaining a good medical record is then an important way of helping health caregivers to remember events when they are facing litigation. Having detailed and extensive evidence is liable in influencing the conclusion of such litigation (Shamsiev, 2011). If a caregiver cannot recall events and at the same time has no documentation showing his/her actions, then their position in the case may be compromised. However, if a physiologist has quality health records about a patient, which he/she can use as a reference when providing evidence, then it becomes easy to relate to events that took place.

AC 3.2: How regular procedures give information on body functioning on Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science

Data on outcomes of routine procedures is essential in answering questions on the effectiveness of different types of intervention. Therefore, it is important to collect such data comprehensively, which later on should be analyzed by the use of statistical methods, to generate effect size, which shows how successful the therapy provided has been. In advanced cases, this data can be pooled with different information like a therapist modality such as Humanistic or Psychodynamic and the client’s demographic details such as their age, their gender, and their ethnicity (“Electronic medical records aid clinical studies”, 2011). When the information is pooled together, then caregivers will effectively analyze what type of medication works for which type of people. Through regular procedures, a patient’s age, health condition, type of illness suspected, the sternness of symptoms, and results from previous tests are recorded.

Therefore, the available data give information on the parts which further tests should be performed on. Some of the tests such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging reveal the effects of the disease in various parts or organs within the human body. Notably, “Patient reported outcome measures” are questionnaires with standardized questions to be completed by different patients (WU, et al, 2011). The aim of the questionnaires is to measure perceptions of the patients about their personal functional status plus wellbeing. Originally, such measures aimed at assessing how effective a certain type of treatment is, in circumstances describing clinical trials. Today, this measure is incorporated into assessing perspectives of patients regarding their outcomes after receiving medical care.

Therefore, “Patient reported outcome measures” can be termed as different from questionnaires that seek to measure the experience of patients during the process of being attended to. Upon analysis of “Patient reported outcome measures”, individual ratings of different patients are combined to generate a general score. The general score represents a principal phenomenon like anxiety or pain levels (WU, et al, 2011). An analysis of regular procedures focuses mainly on the level of change achieved in conditions of different patients, and their health in general. Therefore, analysis of regular procedures measures life quality due to changes caused by intervention on patients’ conditions.

AC 3.3: How information on body functioning informs the planning of care for different individuals with Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science

According to ethical frameworks by BACP, it is recommended that outcome measures be used in routine therapy, as opposed to being used as additional measures to routine therapy (Shamsiev, 2011). However, outcome measures should only be used in a way that benefits all clients and enhances every clinical engagement. In addition, it is also essential to have clients consent on routine therapy by completing questionnaires when in a session of receiving medical care. In the case that a client refuses to consent, their therapy should not be affected. A health caregiver should spend some time explaining to the patient about the information being unruffled and the relevance of collecting it, along with the ways in which the information is expected to be utilized by the caregiver. With information on body functioning of an individual, a physician is able to identify the type of tests necessary for attending to a certain patient.

In addition, a health caregiver is also able to recommend the necessary procedures to use in the tests. Moreover, through available data, a hypothesis is generated for sex, patient’s age, variation in geography and identification of areas that call for further research. When a health caregiver is able to understand all the changes that occur to a patient and the meaning of the changes in the patient gives a starting point for planning for the care of a patient such as John in this case, who is 72 years and diabetic. For instance, an early detection of signs or symptoms of John having a troubled self-concept consent to timely treatment. This symptom of patients can be identified in form of withdrawing from close relatives, and nonparticipation in collective activities. It is important as a health caregiver to know the meaning of changes occurring in patients. Examples include appearance changes, lifestyle changes as verbalized by the patient, along with non-verbal responses that the patient portrays.

Notably, when a health caregiver discusses with the patient his/her feeling about the condition they are suffering from then the patient is better placed at dealing with their physiological changes. Therefore, the patient is able to maintain a personal health status, reduce the rigidity of muscles and improve the strength of his muscles. Moreover, it is recommended that a health caregiver refers a patient to a support group. Through a support group, the patient gains by maintaining independence and developing social interaction.

LO 4: Relating routine variations of body structure and performance to difference in care acknowledged by individuals

AC 4.1: How body structure and performance may be affected by age on Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science

When a person grows old, the heart loses muscle fibers and accumulates a granular material made of fat. Pumping of blood drops by 50% when an individual is between age 20 and age 90 (WU, et al, 2011). Moreover, the arteries harden as one grows old. Elderly people also tend to lose teeth. Notably, there is also a minor loss of nerve cells in the brain of elderly people. Furthermore, elderly people tend to lose visual acuity. Clearly, changes occurring in human beings due to increase in age make human beings vulnerable to catching diseases. For instance, a person in his/her 20s may recover very fast from a pneumonia attack, while a person in his/her 70s may die from a pneumonia attack (WU, et al, 2011). According to physiologists, many organs within the body of human beings decline in performance as a person gets older. Some of the organs include the heart, the kidney, the brain and the lungs.

The decline in performance is attributed to the loss of organ cells. Notably, as the reduction occurs in reserve capabilities of human beings then the body experience improper performance. Some of the cellular enzymes within the body experience reduction in vigor hence requiring addition time to perform chemical reactions. Eventually, the cells affected may die. Currently, the leading source of death to people who are above 65 years is heart diseases. Evidently, when a person increases in age it leads to his/her heart fitting as less defenseless to diseases (WU, et al, 2011). Though detectable diseases may be absent, the heart experiences deleterious changes as a person advances in age. Some of the structural changes of the heart include a slow loss of fibers of cardiac muscles which get replaced by fat along with connective tissues. Moreover, the fibers of cardiac muscles slowly accumulate lipofuscin which is a granular material that is insoluble. Lipofuscin starts appearing when a person is only 20 years old. By the time the individual is 80 years old, 5 to 10 percent of cardiac muscle fibers is occupied by lipofuscin (Shamsiev, 2011).

In addition, as a human being grows old, his/her blood vessels turn less elastic. Moreover, larger vessels of blood within the body experience gradual thickening of walls due to increased levels of connective tissue. Besides, the connective tissue also grows stiffer as a person’s age increase. The stiffening is caused by the formation of links between collagen molecules, which is a principal component of the connective tissue, along with the formation of links between collagen fibers which are adjacent (WU, et al, 2011). Notably, the changes within blood vessels take place despite the absence of deposits on walls of arteries, which are attributive of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is responsible for the interference of blood flow via arteries. The slow decline in elasticity leads to resistance in blood flow, hence developing increased blood pressure. Therefore, the heart becomes overworked in its efforts to maintain a normal blood flow.

AC 4.2: Impact of regular disorders on the body structure and its performance in Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science

When damage occurs in the nervous system, it may be due to physical injury or occurrence of a disease. The results of a damaged nervous system are impairment of physical function along with the functions of the brain. Conversely, the skin may get exposed to physical injury or infections resulting in allergic reactions such as rashes. Disorders such as arthritis inflict pain on an individual and hinder mobility. Furthermore, cancer along with viral infections affects the digestive systems of human beings. However, a common disease such as diabetes leads to body complications in the body of a human being. Some of the complications include damages occurring on macrovascular or microvascular blood vessels (Shamsiev, 2011). Notably, when blood vessels are damaged, the affected person is at risk of getting a heart attack which may further develop into the stroke. Moreover, a patient with diabetes may also experience problems with his/her kidneys develop eye problems, problems of the feet along with nerves.

Within the body of human beings, the pancreas is responsible for the production and discharge of insulin. Insulin is meant to create energy from sugars. For a person with diabetes, their pancreas generates less insulin and in some cases no insulin at all. Normally, if a person’s body is not able to use the insulin it is expected that alternative hormones create energy from fats. However, such a condition can lead to high levels of bodily toxic chemicals such as ketone bodies or acids. This increases the level of diabetes in a person to a level referred to as diabetic ketoacidosis (Shamsiev, 2011). With diabetic ketoacidosis, a patient experiences extreme thirst, unwarranted urination and also fatigue. The breath of the person may also be sweet due to increased level of ketone bodies found in his/her blood. If untreated, excessive ketone bodies in the blood of human beings may result in a person becoming unconscious or even dying.

AC 4.3: Relationship of the effects of regular disorders, along with infections to the type of care routinely administered to people affected for Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science

When health caregivers adhere to guidelines of medicine, outcomes from their practice are improved. In addition, the cost incurred for taking care of patients is reduced, while also complications due to redundant interventions are avoided. However, it is not clear how much effect adherence by health caregivers to guidelines of medicine, relating to the treatment of diabetes affects patient satisfaction (Malumbres, 2011). Some physiologists have argued that satisfaction to patients on the care quality received from health caregivers does not rely on utilization of guidelines for medicine by health caregivers, but rather on interpersonal skills shown and used by physicians. Moreover, other physiologists report that the use of programs of intervention which are structured advances satisfaction of patients with the care they receive.

The nervous system is affected by the occurrence of diseases. However, health attendants employ preventive methods to curb the diseases. Through regular check up people are screened for diseases. In addition, health attendants are able to identify factors that put individuals at the risk of getting the disease (Shamsiev, 2011). In collaboration with patients, health attendants are able to discuss the tips which may lead to a healthy lifestyle. Patients are also encouraged to observe regular immunization along with upholding good relationships with health attendants. It is therefore recommended that the care quality given to patients should lead to satisfaction of patients.

Thus, care given to patients should involve efficiency in the control of diseases, and regular monitoring of changes in the bodies of patients to achieve high satisfaction levels in patients, especially in patients with chronic illness such as diabetes (Malumbres, 2011). In addition, health caregivers should be keen at noticing and attending to complications experienced by their patients. Moreover, treatment should be accorded based on the age of the individual. For instance, younger individuals suffering from diabetes should be treated using insulin while older individuals should be treated using diets along with oral medication to achieve same levels of satisfaction from all patients.

Physiological Principles in Health and Social Science Scenario

Currently, cardiovascular disease is the rising cause of deaths in the global society. Therefore, the case of cardiovascular disease presents a global outlook on the importance of having efficient public health care action. Notably, there have been disparities globally and rising costs in the treatment of cardiovascular disease globally, hence a growing concern for various actions of arresting and reversing the global epidemic. Markedly, an increase in the cases of cardiovascular disease has an adverse impact on the social development of a country, along with a country’s economic development, especially in countries that are low-income earners and countries that are middle-income earners (WU, et al, 2011).

Conspicuously, the most occurring cases are atherosclerotic diseases and hypertensive diseases, which primarily include ischemic disease of the heart and cerebrovascular disease. Notably, a global research carried out in 2006 by the international body for assessing the global burden caused by diseases showed that ischemic disease caused 3.2% of deaths experienced in sub-Saharan Africa and 29.7% of deaths experienced in Europe along with Central Asia (Malumbres, 2011). In contrast, sub-Saharan Africa recorded 3.3% of deaths caused by stroke, while Europe along with Central Asia recorded 18.2% of deaths caused by stroke. The percentages presented from the research report above prove that cardiovascular disease is the rising cause of deaths in the global society (Shamsiev, 2011).

The rising cases of cardiovascular diseases in both men along with women globally is accredited to abnormal lipids, individuals’ smoking habits, being affected by hypertension, having diabetes, individuals’ being abdominal obese, various psychosocial factors, people failing to consume fruits and vegetables, intake of alcohol by individuals, and lack of physical exercise (Shamsiev, 2011). Therefore, approaches for preventing the growth of cardiovascular disease globally should mainly focus on the practices presented above.

Thus, the strategies involved in the prevention of increased cases of cardiovascular disease globally include clinical intervention by campaigning for lifestyle change by individuals. In addition, it is also important to focus on reducing the risk factor of rising cases of cardiovascular disease by increasing attention on intervention for children.

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