Qualitative Research Critique Analysis

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Qualitative Research Critique Analysis
Qualitative Research Critique Analysis

• Please see the detail instruction for Assessment task 3 and rubric marking guide.
• I need at least 20 genuine references with APA referencing style between years 2008 to 2015.
• In Previous assessment writer gave me the fake references with changing detail about years, and I didn’t realize and I didn’t do well on that assessment because of referencing.
• Please use the Cochrane library and Joanaa Briggs institute library to find the supporting articles.
• I attached unit outline for your kind information to know what they looking in to the assessment and you can find some useful references
• I am in Australia so please try to use Australian or New Zealand based study or article to support the papers please ( if you can)
• If you need any other information please feel free to email to me ASAP

Qualitative Research Critique Analysis Sample Answer

Qualitative research critique analysis

   Qualitative research mainly relies on the secondary source of data. This technique enables the researchers to make cross-case analysis; thereby generating tentative explanations of a complex issue or phenomena (Li Et al., 2015). This approach is best applied when determining the causatives of certain events (Wisdom Et al., 2011). This paper is a critical analysis of Porter, E. (1999). ‘Getting up from here’: frail older women’s experiences after falling. Rehabilitation Nursing. 24(5) 201-206. This paper will evaluate the strengths and weakness of the article; with the aim of identifying recommendations which could be applied in evidence-based practice (Ingham-Broomfield, 2014).


Study title

The article is authored by Porter, E.J, who is a registered nurse.  He was an assistant professor at the University of Missouri- Columbia at the time this paper was written and published. The article’s title is “Getting up from here: Frail older women experiences after falling.” The title of an article is the most important part of the article because it attracts people’s attention, making them yearn to read the article. A good title is one that is informative, accurate and complete. In this context, the title of the article is descriptive (Bowers Et al., 2013). From reading the title, one can discern that the article is about elderly women experiences of fall. The article wording is simple and uses common word combinations i.e. women and falls experiences.  However, the article’s title is somehow general as it does not indicate the study settings that is; is the study on women falls at the place of work, their homes, hospitals or residential care settings (Miller Et al., 2013)?

Study abstract

The second critical part of the article is abstract. A good abstract is one that briefly outlines the research question, the research aims, and the methodology.  It should also summarize the study findings and also provide conclusion statements. The research problem as outlined by the abstract is fall-experiences of elderly women, and the struggle they undertake to get up. The study comprises of 25 interviews on elderly women who had experienced falls at their premises.  The research aim is to focus on how the environmental features are facilitators or barriers to falls.   The research methodology applied is phenomenological qualitative to primarily focus on the environmental features and how they contributed to falls or how the features helped the elderly women to get up after a fall (Bloch Et al., 2012; Morrison Et al., 2011). The abstract lacks a brief summary of the study findings. However, the abstract brief conclusions suggest that it is important to understand elderly falls investigation the causal environmental factors so as to identify the risk factors associated with elderly women fall at their home care.

Introduction and literature review

The literature review is a summary of what other scholars have contributed to the topic of research. A good literature review focuses on a specific topic and how the topic relates to the piece of research being conducted. The literature review should identify the gap of research. The literature review can be submerged into the background, but can also be written separately. In this article, literature is reviewed from secondary sources( ten different articles) to examine the effects of falls on the elderly quality of life; and in decision making processes on how to modify the environment to meet their psychological needs (Mullan Et al., 2014).

The research gap identified by the literature review is the concept of ecological psychology which was first described by Gibson. This implies that people perception of surroundings influences their positive or negative interaction with the environment. The purpose of the study provides an understanding on the perceptions of the elderly persons who have experienced falls, to make the healthcare providers understand the elderly women perceptions with the aim of helping them become better equipped to prevent further falls, and to interact with compassion with those who have already experienced falls.  The study was designed to explore the neglected realm (elderly women) (Boye Et al., 2012).

The literature review is critically appraised by other articles which argue that women desire to get up after a fall reflects their personal control in making decisions; which is correlated with the person’s competency. People who have experienced falls more than once fall seem to have higher competency and have a higher rate of personal control. Other articles suggest that elderly people target to primarily control their behavior as opposed to controlling the environment. According to the article’s literature review, ecological psychology theory makes a generalized statement about elderly women perception on the environment.  Therefore, a phenomenological approach is the best intervention to gather people’s exact opinions and their perceptions on the role of environment in controlling or facilitating fall incidences. The specific research problem issues discussed is the person’s secondary and primary controls as influenced by Gibson ecological psychology concept (Boye Et al., 2012).


The study applies phenomenological study which is derived from a larger study conducted on 25 elderly women. The research problem is elderly women fall-experiences and the struggle they undergo to get up. This research question relates to the research aim which focuses on the interaction between the elderly with the environment; and the environmental features which are either facilitators or barriers to falls. This is important for nurses as it facilitates the identification of risk factors specific to this group; making it easy when designing tailor-made interventions (Karlsson Et al., 2013).

The study settings were in the participant’s home. The participant inclusion criteria were that the elderly woman was; a) over 80 years and b) lived alone. The study was conducted in six Missouri counties.  Studies of such magnitude are approved by the relevant ethical bodies and healthcare agencies that focus on participant’s safety (Boye Et al., 2012). For this reason, approval was obtained from Social services; churches and   Care coordinate at county levels; thus there were no ethical issues concerned. Brochures explaining the projects were distributed to women who were eligible. The interested participants emailed the postcards to the project coordinator for further processing and providing other study particulars and assistance.

Nine women from 83-96 years were analyzed; these women had reported at least one fall during the time they were enrolled. The women were frail, needed support when climbing stairs and needed assistive ambulate assistance. Five of the participants lived in a smaller population; and four of the participants. The use of phenomenological research method was a good strategy because it explores the participant’s assumptions and perceptions about the role of environmental features in elderly falls. This strategy explains the phenomena and not the events. This method does not need a hypothesis or any preconceptions. Therefore, the information gathered is subjective because it differed according to the participant age and the location of their homes (Comans Et al., 2012).

Data gathering and analysis applied descriptive phenomenological approach (Gale Et al., 2013). Data gathering involved exploring elderly women consciousness,  participants experiences,  Each participant was given the opportunity to report major falls events experienced. They were required to explain what it was like to experience a fall, what it was like, what they tried to do. This open-ended discussion enabled the participant to explore the possibilities adequately with limited restrictions.

The main objective of the data analysis was to obtain the women main intentions and how they were trying to cope with their experiences. The findings credibility, accuracy, and integrity were supported through discussions held by the team members (Huang Et al., 2012). The study analysis was vigorous which involved the establishment of a three tired taxonomy. This was developed from women similar intentions making one major phenomenon; which were compared to those in the literature.  Additionally, recording of the interview ensured that there was a smooth transcription of the information even when the researcher was distracted. This way, the data collected was more accurate and information gathered is expressed as the participant did it. However, potential issues with this type of data collection are that non-verbal communication could not be recorded and could have potentially introduced bias due to residual confounding effects (Boehm Et al., 2013).


From the analysis, all the nine participants could not remember the events that occurred before they fell. Most states were walking or doing their daily chores only to realize they have fallen down. Six of the nine were worried that they would die if nobody would find them. Circumstances associated with getting up varied.  Five of the nine participants found it difficult to get up, but after the struggle, they manage to get up without any assistance. Others could not get up alone and had to reach out for assistance. Depending on where the fall occurred, some tried to move themselves along whereas others tried to find something that would help them pull up.

Other issues that were noted is that the participants who managed to get up on their own did not check for injuries. Some informed their families about the fall whereas others did not because they were avoiding the risk of making the family members get worried.  Most of the participants pressed the lifeline or used the telephone. Others reported that they called potential helpers. Some of the falls experiences made the participant visit emergency departments. There was care for hip fracture reported, one obtained serious abrasion and to one of the participant, the fall was so frequent that she had to move and live with her sibling (Hosseini &Hosseini, 2008).

The findings are credible and reliable.  However, several limitations were observed. To start with, the author did not attempt to link the findings with other studies.  Although the findings are clearly stated, there is no attempt to use statistical values such as percentages and ratio’s, which could have presented the findings in a better way.  There is no use of tables and graphs or other pictorial representation of the information; which is very important in healthcare research to enable the researchers to have a true picture of the information at a glimpse of the charts, figures, and tables. The themes generated could have been analyzed using descriptive measures.


The study’s findings are not comparable to previous personal control theory.  According to personal control concept, both the secondary and primary concepts of personal control imply that the elderly women depended on others for support and to prevent falls than themselves.  Secondly, the theory suggests that elderly women need external support to facilitate changes in their internal psychological perceptions about change.  This indicates that this personal control theory approach would work better than trying to modify the home environment (Nilsagard Et al., 2013).

However, the study findings indicated that the elderly women relied on themselves. When the elderly women fell; they were much involved in trying to change their home environment than changing their perceptions about the environment, which was consistent with Gibson’s ecological psychology and the research question. The main limitation of this study is that there could have possibilities for bias because of residual confounding effects.  The study did not take data on other aspects of the participant’s life such as medical history and prevailing medical conditions, age variation and competency gained through experiences.  Future studies integrate these risk factors in order to provide adequate interventions of preventing the elderly falls in their precincts (Tom Et al., 2013).

The conclusion is logical and follows the study procedures. The study implication and the findings relevance to practice are explained and explored adequately; further allowing the ability to make further recommendations. The study concludes that it is important to understand the main reason behind the elderly falls. The family members, the elderly person, health care providers, and friends must interact and work collaboratively to minimize hospital falls. The consequences of elderly falls can be fatal; therefore, it is important to prevent them.  The article suggests that rehabilitation nurses must practice all the necessary actions in order to reduce fall risk factors particularly those involving modification of the environment

The nurses should also learn how to make fall victims relax. Most of them undergo traumatizing events (Gelbard Et al., 2014). Other elderly women fear a loss of their independence and feel like they are a bother, which demoralizes their self-esteem. The article recommends that nurses should try strengthening their relationships with elderly women.  Evidence-based   practice and trust development between the patients/ elderly women will make the patient open up, and where there are underlying factors that contribute to frequent falls, the nurse can identify and addressed adequately (Kim, Yoshida & Suzuki, 2013)

The study recommends that further research should be conducted to evaluate how environmental modifications influenced by the fall experiences would reduce the rates of the elderly fall. Additionally, future studies should identify and rehearse new strategies and contingency plans as well as ways to modify environments for elderly women homes. The strategic plans could involve establishing ways to maintain balance, kitchen rearrangement, removing potential hazards such as scatter rugs etc. Additionally, elderly women should be empowered on ways to reach for help and strategies to get up when they fall. This way, the elderly women functions will be restored, reducing disability and simultaneously increasing dignity (Halvarsson Et al., 2012).

Qualitative Research Critique Analysis References

Bloch, F., Thibaud, M., Tournoux-Facon, C., Braque, C., Rigaud, A., Dugua,  B. and Kemoun, G. (2012). Estimation of the risk factors for falls in the elderly: Can meta-analysis provide a valid answer?. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 13(2), pp.250-263.

Boehm, J., Franklin, R., Newitt, R., McFarlane, K., Grant, T. and Kurkowski, B. (2013). Barriers and motivators to exercise for older adults: A focus on those living in rural and remote areas of Australia. Aust J Rural Health, 21(3), pp.141-149.

Bowers, B., Cohen, L., Elliot, A., Grabowski, D., Fishman, N., Sharkey, S., Zimmerman, S., Horn, S. and Kemper, P. (2013). Creating and Supporting a Mixed Methods Health Services Research Team. Health Services Research, 48(6pt2), pp.2157-2180.

Boye, N., Van Lieshout, E., Van Beeck, E., Hartholt, K., Van der Cammen, T. and Patka, P. (2012). The impact of falls in the elderly. Trauma, 15(1), pp.29-35.

Comans, T., Currin, M., Brauer, S., and Haines, T. (2011). Factors associated with quality of life and caregiver strain amongst frail older adults referred to a community rehabilitation service: implications for service delivery. Disabil Rehabil, 33(13-14), pp.1215-1221.

Gale, N., Heath, G., Cameron, E., Rashid, S. and Redwood, S. (2013). Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 13(1), p.117.

Gelbard, R., Inaba, K., Okoye, O., Morrell, M., Saadi, Z., Lam, L., Talving, P. and Demetriades, D. (2014). Falls in the elderly: a modern look at an old problem. The American Journal of Surgery, 208(2), pp.249-253.

Ingham-Broomfield, R. (2014). A nurses’ guide to the critical reading of research. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32(1), 37-44.

Halvarsson, A., Franzen, E., Faren, E., Olsson, E., Oddsson, L. and Stahle, A. (2012). Long-term effects of new progressive group balance training for elderly people with increased risk of falling – a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 27(5), pp.450-458.

Hosseini, H. and Hosseini, N. (2008). Epidemiology and Prevention of Fall Injuries among the Elderly. Hospital Topics, 86(3), pp.15-20.

Huang, A., Mallet, L., Rochefort, C., Eguale, T., Buckeridge, D. and Tamblyn, R. (2012). Medication-Related Falls in the Elderly. Drugs & Aging, 29(5), pp.359-376.

Karlsson, M., Vonschewelov, T., Karlsson, C., Coster, M. and Rosengen, B. (2013). Prevention of falls in the elderly: A review. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 41(5), pp.442-454.

Kim, H., Yoshida, H., and Suzuki, T. (2013). Falls and fractures in participants and excluded non-participants of a fall prevention exercise program for elderly women with a history of falls: 1-year follow-up study. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 14(2), pp.285-292.

Li, G., Thabane, L., Ioannidis, G., Kennedy, C., Papaioannou, A. and Adachi, J. (2015). Comparison between the Frailty Index of Deficit Accumulation and Phenotypic Model to Predict Risk of Falls: Data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton Cohort. PLoS ONE, 10(3), p.e0120144.

Miller, W., Crabtree, B., Harrison, M., and Fennell, M. (2013). Integrating Mixed Methods in Health Services and Delivery System Research. Health Services Research, 48(6pt2), pp.2125-2133.

Morrison, G., Lee, H., Kuys, S., Clarke, J., Bew, P. and Haines, T. (2011). Changes in falls risk factors for geriatric diagnostic groups across inpatient, outpatient, and domiciliary rehabilitation settings. Disabil Rehabil, 33(11), pp.900-907.

Mullan, B., Todd, J., Chatzisarantis, N. and Hagger, M. (2014). Experimental Methods in Health Psychology in Australia: Implications for Applied Research. Australian Psychologist, 49(2), pp.104-109.

Nilsagard, Y., Gunn, H., Freeman, J., Hoang, P., Lord, S., Mazumder, R. and Cameron, M. (2014). Falls in people with MS–an individual data meta-analysis from studies from Australia, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 21(1), pp.92-100.

Tom, S., Adachi, J., Anderson, F., Boonen, S., Chapurlat, R., Compston, J., Cooper, C., Gehlbach, S., Greenspan, S., Hooven, F., Nieves, J., Pfeilschifter, J., Roux, C., Silverman, S., Wyman, A. and LaCroix, A. (2013). Frailty and Fracture, Disability, and Falls: A Multiple Country Study From the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61(3), pp.327-334.

Wisdom, J., Cavaleri, M., Onwuegbuzie, A., and Green, C. (2011). Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles. Health Services Research, 47(2), pp.721-745.

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