Russia and China Government funding mechanisms

Russia and China Government funding mechanisms
Russia and China Government                        funding mechanisms

Russia and China Government funding mechanisms

Country of Comparison: China

Defined area of focus: Government funding mechanisms

1) Government interest in science/technology

2) Research/competing in global knowledge economy

3) Increasing access for minorities in STEM fields

4) Participation in international partnerships to improve economy/global presence


Why does it make sense to compare Russia and China?

  • Neighbouring countries/economic relationship
  • Communist history (Soviet Union)

— Russia relationship with Europe

  • Est. relationship between Higher Education Institutions and corporate/private sector
  • Global presence/expansion


What do you need to know to understand?

  • Communist (Soviet) history in both countries

—Both were centralised; currently different political systems

  • Pressure to participate in global economy

— Issues of capability vs. implementation

  • Two countries impacted differently by financial crisis
  • Different cultures/populations (homogeneity vs. heterogeneity)

Key issues

  • Government interest in science/technology:

— Immunity of the economy and society to innovation, which prevents the practical application of research and development results

— The amount of subsidies that the state allocates to a particular scientific institution depends on the number of employees of this institution, not on the quality and effectiveness of scientific work

  • Research/competing in global knowledge economy:

— Russia lacks partnership with corporations → no innovation/entrepreneurship → little research

— Missing cost sharing opportunities/research & development (R&D) expenditures

— Research/innovation expectation for HE faculty in China

—National Institution of Education Sciences specific focus on research

– Increasing access for minorities in STEM fields:

— Higher education disparities on the basis of gender, ethnicity, rural vs. urban environments

— National entrance exams  (gaokao) and quota policies

– International partnerships:

—Strategies – Internal vs external

—Mutual understandings and participation

—Policies beyond education

Key Recommendations

What policies/practices could work for Russia?

– Emulate Chinese structure of HE/research/corporate integration:

China raises money from businesses to fund business-run schools

Focus Special economic zones on HE needs (ex. Guangdong Province Free Trade Zone)

– Increase funding for HE involvement in R&D sector:

Unlike China, Russian market economy R&D spending doesn’t meet national need

– Political will for nation-wide mandated access policies for minorities

– Build mutually benefitting relationships like FOCAC

– Model visa policies based on China  (for incoming international students)

– Increased autonomy:

Maximize foreign partnerships in 5-100 program


What needs further exploration?

  • Different government/economic structures (transferability)
  • Quality/validity of Chinese research; national propaganda influence
  • Lack of transparency in policymaking for both countries
  • China managing massive debt as result of reforms


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