Sustainability – Intensive animal farming/Industrial livestock production
This essay must be about the topic of SUSTAINABILITY and INTENSIVE ANIMAL FARMING
“A sustainable food system provides us with a diet that is low in environmental impact, which delivers food and nutritional security, and thus supports a healthy life for present and future generations. A sustainable food system is also protective and respectful of our food animals, biodiversity and ecosystems; delivers food to society in a manner that is culturally acceptable, accessible, economically fair and affordable; is nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy; is not dependent on non-renewable resources or exhaustive of conditionally renewable ones; and is not exploitative or abusive of human resources, especially its labor pool”, how does topic fit in? What is/are your thesis/es with respect to this topic – what aspect of the current unsustainability of our current food system does your chosen topic illustrate and why? How will understanding this topic/aspect help us better understand, with respect to our food system, what is unsustainable and what is not and why? If you are researching an aspect of the food system held up to us as an illustration or example/model of sustainability, what makes it so and what standard/alternative is it being compared against? How can we better understand what is unsustainable by looking closely at this alternative?
Your essay is expected to be research based, using source of information to support it – peer-reviewed journal articles, both open-access and via our library (e.g. from Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, Sustainable Production and Consumption, International Journal of Sustainable Development, etc.); governmental, institutional or reputable non-governmental reports (e.g. from FAO, World Resources Institute, etc.); and high-quality journalistic reporting (e.g. from The Economist, The Guardian, the NYT, National Geographic, etc.). All uses of published material must be cited.
You should not rely on small number of sources for the majority of your facts and figures but seek out a topic and sources by multiple authors and works.
You must make it clear in your introductory section, what the purpose of your essay is, what the thesis/es is/are (i.e. what your arguments are), and what the reader will know and understand having read your essay. Your essay will be judged, in part, on whether these stated expected learning outcomes for your essay are supported by the subsequent content.
Please write your essay using the following style guide.
• No larger than 12 point font
• Margins (1” left and right, 1” top and bottom)
• Name at the end of your paper (i.e. on the last page only) after all references, figures, etc. next to word count
• 2.0 spacing of text
• Indented first line of new paragraphs (1”)
• No widows or orphans (single line or heading stranded at start of paragraph at bottom of a page, single line or heading stranded at end of paragraph at top of a page)
• Title (UPPER CASE BOLD – centered)
• Major sub-headings (Lower case bold – left margin) – please use these to break up and structure your essay
• Sub-headings to be informative (i.e. guide the reader, must not be merely Introduction, Conclusion, etc.)
• Supporting figures and/or tables to be included, numbered sequentially, and cited in the text where they are first referred to – all graphics like phtotos, graphs, maps, etc. are figures (Figure 1), (Figure 2) and all data sets in a matrix are tables (Table 1), (Table 2), etc. All figures or table must have a caption and shall be cited as to its source as with all other information (e.g. Smith 2001).
• All material used from the literature to be cited in text using author-date (person or agency responsible if no byline) e.g. (Smith 2001) with citations at the END of the paper in REFERENCES section – absolutely NO referencing materials in footnotes or end notes.
• Pages to be numbered in header, right adjusted (do not include your name or the title of the paper, just the page number).
• All acronyms to be printed in full on first usage, thereafter in abbreviated form e.g. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) first usage, FAO 2nd and thereafter.
• Word count to be included at bottom of essay next to your name (can use auto counter in MS Word). Only include words in main body of essay (not References, etc.)
Citations and referencing
Please use the Geographical Review format when listing sources in your REFERENCES section. These are the general instructions that the Geographical Review provides for authors about referencing which you should use:
Use the in-text, author-date system of documentation described in The Chicago Manual of Style. Locate the citations discreetly in the text, preferably at the end of a sentence, so that prose flow is uninterrupted (e.g. Smith 1989 p13-14). Specify the page numbers on which direct quotations or statistics appear otherwise, if you are merely paraphrasing, you don’t need the page number, just the author and year (e.g. Smith 1989). If a citation contains more than one reference, list the oldest first and the most recent last (e.g. Taft 1934; Hart 1984, 1990; Smith 1989). The first time someone is named in the text, use the full name; thereafter, use only the surname e.g. In 1989, John Smith said that…. (Smith 1989). Smith also said ……. In the REFERENCES, include only works cited in the text, captions, and notes pertaining to illustrations and tables. If you did not cite it in your paper, then it should not be entered in your REFERENCES. Conversely, make sure that all cited works have entries in the REFERENCES. Arrange entries in your REFERENCES alphabetically by author; list works by the same author in chronological order, with the oldest first and the most recent last. If an author has two or more entries with the same year of publication, place an a, b, c and so forth after the date in your citation based on which is first cited in your paper and repeat this notation in your REFERENCES (e.g. Smith 1990a, Smith 1990b). Here is the citation guide from the Geographical
Book by a single author (include the subtitle):
Zelinsky, W. 2001. The Enigma of Ethnicity: Another American Dilemma. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.
Book by multiple authors (include every author, as well as the subtitle):
Moore, A. M. T., G. C. Hillman, and A. J. Legge. 2000. Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra. London: Oxford University Press.
Edited book (include the subtitle):
Nostrand, R. L., and L. E. Estaville, eds. 2001. Homelands: A Geography of Culture and Place across America. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Chapter in an edited book (always include the page numbers):
Sheridan, T. E. 2000. Human Ecology of the Sonoran Desert. In A Natural History of the Sonoran Desert, edited by S. J. Phillips and P. W. Comus, 105-118. Tucson: Arizona–Sonora Desert Museum Press; Berkeley: University of California Press.
Nora, P., ed. 1996-1998. Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past. Translated by A. Goldhammer. Edited by L. D. Kritzman. 3 vols. New York: Columbia University Press.
Journal article (include the issue number, if any):
Mills, A. 2005. Narratives in City Landscapes: Cultural Identity in Istanbul. Geographical Review 95 (3):441–462.
Newspaper article (if no author, cite the name of the newspaper; for example, Economist):
Thompson, G. 2001. An Exodus of Migrant Families Is Bleeding Mexico’s Heartland. New York Times (National Edition), 17 June, §1, 1, 8.
Dissertation or thesis:
Skop, E. H. 2002. Saffron Suburbs: Indian Immigrant Community Formation in Phoenix. Ph.D. diss., Arizona State University.
Marsh, S. 2001. Interview with the author. Amarillo, Tex., 13 June.
Web page URL (use only publicly accessible Web sites; do not force a break in the URL at the end of a line; and if the Web site no longer exists, insert “Formerly at” before the URL):
PRC [People’s Republic of China]. 2000. The Bai Ethnic Minority. Washington, D.C.: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China. [https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/5255.html]. (Last accessed 10 October, 2018).
Do not use footnotes for references.
Cite all references in the text (e.g. Mason and Lang 2017)
and then include the full reference in the references
section at the end of your paper. Be sure to cite every
time you paraphrase the literature you are using,
sentence-by-sentence, not just at the end of a long
paragraph. Cite the sources of figures, photos, etc.
also. Your essay should aim to weave information from multiple sources together in a coherent narrative and thus should be interspersed by multiple citations, not just the same article ten times in ten sentences, for example. If you quote something verbatim, please place it in quotation marks and include the page number with your citation (e.g. Mason and Lang 2017 p17).
If your quote is more than a single sentence, include it as a separate paragraph indented 1” from both margins.
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