What Does Children Nutrition Inclusion Mean Base on the readings that you had in this module, discuss a typical activity that you would do for teaching children about nutrition and then list four modifications you might make for a child that refuses to try new foods?
Make sure to use the labels provided in the readings so we all know what modification type you are making.
You will also make a second component to this discussion which is to list any type of special diet a child may have and what modifications you might make to accommodate this child.
INFORMATION TO KNOW
Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8.
Parenting Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices
This chapter responds to the first part of the committee’s charge—to identify core parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices that are associated with positive parent-child interactions and the healthy development of children ages birth to 8. The chapter also describes findings from research regarding how core parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices may differ by specific characteristics of children and parents, as well as by context. The chapter begins by defining desired outcomes for children that appear frequently in the research literature and inform efforts by agencies at the federal, state, and local levels to promote child health and well-being. It then reviews the knowledge, attitudes, and practices identified in the literature as core—those most strongly associated with healthy child development—drawing primarily on correlational and experimental studies. This is followed by a brief discussion of the family system as a key source of additional determinants of parenting. The chapter concludes with a summary. The core knowledge, attitudes, and practices identified in this chapter serve as a foundation, along with contextual factors that affect parenting, for the committee’s review of the effectiveness of strategies for strengthening parenting capacity in subsequent chapters of this report.
DESIRED OUTCOMES FOR CHILDREN
To determine the salient features of core parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices, the committee first identified desired outcomes for children. Identifying these outcomes grounds the discussion of core parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices and helps researchers, practitioners, and policy makers establish priorities for investment, develop policies that provide optimal conditions for success, advocate for the adoption and implementation of appropriate evidence-based interventions, and utilize data to assess and improve the effectiveness of specific policies and programs.
Child outcomes are interconnected within and across diverse domains of development. They result from and are enhanced by early positive and supportive interactions with parents and other caregivers. These early interactions can have a long-lasting ripple effect on development across the life course, whereby the function of one domain of development influences another domain over time. In the words of Masten and Cicchetti (2010, p. 492) (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., “effectiveness in one domain of competence in one period of life becomes the scaffold on which later competence in newly emerging domains develops . . . competence begets competence.” From the literature, the committee identified the following four outcomes as fundamental to children’s well-being. While the committee focused on young children (ages 0-8), these outcomes are important for children of all ages.
Physical Health and Safety
Children need to be cared for in a way that promotes their ability to thrive and ensures their survival and protection from injury and physical and sexual maltreatment. While such safety needs are important for all children, they are especially critical for young children, who typically lack the individual resources required to avoid dangers (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2000 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). Rather, young children rely on parents and other primary caregivers, inside and outside the home, to act on their behalf to protect their safety and healthy development (Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). At the most basic level, children must receive the care, as reflected in a number of emotional and physiological protections, necessary to meet normative standards for growth and physical development, such as guidelines for healthy weight and receipt of recommended vaccinations (Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). Physical health and safety are fundamental for achieving all of the other outcomes described below.
Emotional and Behavioral Competence
Children need care that promotes positive emotional health and well-being and that supports their overall mental health, including a positive sense of self, as well as the ability to cope with stressful situations, temper emotional arousal, overcome fears, and accept disappointments and frustrations. Parents and other caregivers are essential resources for children in managing emotional arousal, coping, and managing behavior. They serve in this role by providing positive affirmations, conveying love and respect and engendering a sense of security. Provision of support by parents helps minimize the risk of internalizing behaviors, such as those associated with anxiety and depression, which can impair children’s adjustment and ability to function well at home, at school, and in the community (Osofsky and Fitzgerald, 2000 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). Such symptoms as extreme fearfulness, helplessness, hopelessness, apathy, depression, and withdrawal are indicators of emotional difficulty that have been observed among very young children who experience inadequate parental care (Osofsky and Fitzgerald, 2000 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.).
What Does Children Nutrition Inclusion Mean and Social Competence
Children who possess basic social competence are able to develop and maintain positive relationships with peers and adults (Semrud-Clikeman, 2007 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). Social competence, which is intertwined with other areas of development (e.g., cognitive, physical, emotional, and linguistic), also may include children’s ability to get along with and respect others, such as those of a different race or ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or economic background (Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). Basic social skills include a range of prosocial behaviors, such as empathy and concern for the feelings of others, cooperation, sharing, and perspective taking, all of which are positively associated with children’s success both in school and in nonacademic settings and can be fostered by parents and other caregivers (Durlak et al., 2011 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.; Fantuzzo et al., 2007 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). These skills are associated with children’s future success across a wide range of contexts in adulthood (e.g., school, work, family life) (Elias, 2