Leading and Managing Organisational Change I need an essay in the following subject:
Leading and managing organisational change
The HR leader may be faced with developing strategies to respond to organisational change, or he or she may have the opportunity to promote and lead an organisational change initiative. Some types of significant structural change, such as those brought on by restructuring, mergers and acquisitions, or downsizing, hold both challenges and opportunities. ‘We buy companies to get excellent people’ said Mark Zuckerberg in 2010 to sum up Facebook’s acquisition strategy (Goldberg & Lobb, 2012, p.2). Organisational growth, talent management and business performance can all be enhanced through change initiatives and can present a real opportunity for HR to add value; at the same time, not all staff may experience these changes as positive. For this Key Concept Exercise, you will examine the role of the HR professional in planning for and managing change.
Leading and Managing Organisational Change Reference
Goldberg, L. G. & Lobb, A. (2012) ‘The Facebook IPO litigation’, Harvard Business School, 9, June, pp.1–23.
Think of an organisation in which you’ve worked, or which you know well, which has gone through a significant structural or other type of organisational change. Consider what the implications of these changes were, or might have been, for the HR leader(s) of the organisation.
Analyse the role of the HR leader(s) in the organisational change example you chose. In your analysis, connect concepts from your readings about organisational change and HRM to your experiences and observations.
Leading and Managing Organisational Change Essay Formulations and Questions
In formulating your essay, consider the following questions:
Exploring similarities and differences in your perspectives on the role of the HR leader in leading and managing organisational change
Sharing alternative perspectives on ways that HRM could have been used differently in the organisational change situations you analysed Synthesising general lessons about how HR leaders can leverage organisational change to achieve important organisational or strategic objectives
What did the HR leader(s) do to lead and/or manage the organisational change?
How do the HRM approaches used to address the change reflect theories, models, or other thinking about the role of HRM in organisational change from your readings?
How do they diverge from ideas evident in your readings?
1)The answer must raise appropriate critical questions.
2)The answer must include examples from aviation experience or the web with references from relevant examples from real aviation companies. I prefere example from Qatar Airways, Etihad airline, Emireates airline, Al Arabia Airline.
3)Do include all your references, as per the Harvard Referencing System,
4) Please don’t use Wikipedia web site.
5) I need examples from peer reviewed articles or researches.
Note:To prepare for this essay please read the required articles that is attached
Appreciate each single moment you spend in writing my paper
Human resources leaders have to constantly grapple with change. For them, leading and managing organizational change is one of their foremost responsibilities. How change is managed more often than not is the difference between success and failure of change in addition to determining the level and degree of opposition to change.
As a concept, change management will often start with an awareness of the need to change. In order to diagnose the unique characteristics and indicate the direction in which action needs to be taken, it would be important to undertake a situational analysis of the factors that precipitated the change (Battilana, & Casciaro, 2012). Consequently, an evaluation after identification is carried out on the choice made of the preferred action.
In essence, managing change during the transitional state becomes key to the success of the change process. Thus challenges associated with change sprout and have to be managed comprehensively. The challenges that have to be anticipated and planned for will include low stability, misdirected energy, loss of momentum, conflict and resistance to change.
Since change is not an entirely linear and logical process, but rather a cumulative, reformulation-in-use and interactive process. The type of change will in some instance shed light on why people are resistant to change. It is not all about the end, the means is equally important. On the whole, change is either strategic or operational.
Strategic change focuses on transforming the organization. As a concept, it is concerned with the long-term, organization-wide and broad issues. It seeks to get the organization to its future, generally defined by its strategic scope and vision (Benson, 2011). It covers the mission and purpose of the organization, its corporate philosophy on such important aspects as quality, growth, values, innovations, customer needs and technologies employees.
Strategic change thus covers the organizational strategic goals and competitive position ideal for cementing its competitive advantage and development of product-market development. Overall, strategic change takes place only in the context of social, economic and competitive environment, its internal resources, culture, capabilities, systems and structures.
In structural change, the ability of the organization to point out and appreciate the competitive forces that are active and how they change over time linked the ability of the business to mobilize and manage the necessary resources required to cement a particular response through time. It should never be treated simplistically but rather as a sequence of logically planned and executed events.
Operational change has a lot to do with procedures, new systems, technology and structures that have an immediate effect on the working arrangement within a particular part of the organization (Buchanan, Fitzgerald, Ketley, Gollop, Jones, Lamont, Neath, & Whitby, 2005). On their own, their impact is more individual and focused that strategic change, thus the need to handle them with utmost care.
In as much as change is a good thing, it will more often than not be resisted by people. The reasons why people resist change is as varied as there are people in this world. Basically, the main reason for resistance to change is the threat to the familiar. This will affect behavior patterns, status and financial rewards. Resistance to change presumes that the management is rational in its quest for change and that employees are irrational, stupid and emotional in not responding to the change as the management anticipated.
However, given each person’s individuality, when an individual decides that the change will leave them worse off than they were previously, the resistance to change becomes real and rational in terms of the individual’s self interest. Thus some of the main reasons for resisting changes that have emerged over time and from research include;
- The shock of the new – when individuals rightly or wrongly interpret change as leaving them worse-off with regards to methods of working, established routines and conditions of employment. Irrespective of management assurances as to the benefits of the desired change, employees have legitimate reasons not to believe everything management tells them. The risk of loss of employment make employees takes all communication from the management with a pinch of salt. For them, management only looks out for the organization and not the employees and all they do for employees is hidden behind ulterior motives intended to improve profitability and not employee welfare (Amstrong, 2006).
- Economic fears – threats on job security and loss of money
- Inconvenience – the changes bring more challenges to the employees life,
- Uncertainty – employees appreciate that even the best laid down plans could be unruffled at any time.
- Symbolic fears – for employees each change despite assurance of maintaining status-quo, will undoubtedly result in small changes that could have a negative effect due to the value attached to the symbols. Some of the symbols include reserved parking space or separate private office (Arnette, 2013).
- Threat of interpersonal relationships – when a group perceives rightly or wrongly that they change would disrupt customary standards and social relationships, they will offer resistance to change.
- Threat to status or skill – this is when an individual interprets the change to mean they will be de-skilled or status reduces, the natural reaction is to resist the change.
- Competence fear – this is borne by the individual’s ability to acquire new skills or cope with new demands.
Overcoming resistance to change can be an uphill task. However it is important that no effort be spared in achieving change – especially if it has been determined to be beneficial to an organization. To begin with, an analysis of the potential impact of the change by taking into account its effect of peoples jobs (Heugens, & Lander, (2009). The analysis point out the areas in need of specific or general support by individuals and which areas have a higher probability of eliciting resistance.
As far as possible, individual negative and hostile reactions need to be identified and measures put in place to mitigate resistance. This allows for the mapping of likely fears and feeling so as to try and relive those that can be classified as unnecessary worries and ambiguities resolved. For the individual championing the change – change agent, must always be alive to the likelihood of new ideas being viewed suspiciously and thus the need to invest significantly in discussion intended to make the proposal totally understandable to all.
By involving employees in the change management, organizations benefit from employees giving feedback on arising issues and concerns, which can tem be addressed promptly. Thus by an organization making employees achieve a feeling of ownership of the change, it benefits from employees being more happy to live with the change since they feel that the organization valued them enough to involve them in the planning and execution of the strategy – the strategy is not longer for the organizations but is owned by the employees.
For example, the planned changes to be implemented by Etihad Airlines on Jet airways are intended to make the Jet more profitable. To achieve this, Etihad set out to instill in Jet ‘Etihads’ way of doing business. The Etihad way is includes returning Jet Airways to profitability in the shortest time possible. Etihad achieves this by implementing the ‘multilateral’ strategy which identifies loss-making airlines that have access to key markets and bringing them to the Etihad family.
On its part, Etihad gets access to key source markets and for the airlines, a chance at continued operations and guaranteed profitability in the future. Secondly, all Etihad tie-ups are designed to nature loyal customers. This way, Frequent Flier Programme members get access to a wider array of redemptions options that are designed to increase customer loyalty. Thirdly, Jet will benefit from increased efficiency. Etihad will in the long run, make Jet airways to operate more efficiently by seeking to best serve customers from its point of strength as opposed expending immense energy in areas that others can better perform.
Leading and Managing Organisational Change References
Amstrong, M (2006) A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, Kogan Page Publishers, London.
Arnette, A. A (2013) Effective Change Management Process for Successful PMO Implementation: A Delpi Study, Capella University, pp. 1-147, retrieved February 13, 2015 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1498125363
Battilana, J & Casciaro, T (2012) Change Agents, Networks and Institutions: A Contingency Theory of Organizational Change, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 55, No. 2, pp. 381-398.
Benson, R. A (2011) A Phenomenological Study Exploring Change Management in Public General Aviation Airports, Walden University, pp. 1-318, retrived February 13, 2015 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1498125363
Buchanan, D., Fitzgerald, L., Ketley, D., Gollop, R., Jones, J. L., Lamont, S. S., Neath, A. & Whitby, E. (2005), No going back: A review of the literature on sustaining organizational change, International Journal of Management Reviews, No. 7, pp. 189–205
Donna, H (2014) Broken Agreement and Management in the Airline Industry: An Intrinsic Qualitative Case Study of Major US Airlines, Capella University, pp. 1-131 , retrieved February 13, 2015 from
Goldberg, L. G. & Lobb, A. (2012) ‘The Facebook IPO litigation’, Harvard Business School, 9, June, pp.1–23
Heugens, P., & Lander, M. W. (2009). Structure! Agency!: A meta-analysis of institutional theories of organization. Academy of Management Journal, No. 52, pp. 61–85.
Ramanathan, T. R (2008) The Role of Organizational Change Management in Offshore Outsourcing of Information Technology Services: Qualitative Case Studies from A Multinational Pharmaceutical Company, University of NorthUmbria as Newcastle, pp, 1 290 retrived February 13, 2015 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304824801
Vazirani, N (2013) An Integrative Role of HR in Handling Issues Post Mergers and Acquisition, Journal of Management, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 82-88