Lyme disease Research Paper Available

Lyme disease
                        Lyme disease

Lyme disease

Order Instructions:

As pediatric patients grow from infancy to adolescence, there are many common body system disorders that may potentially present. As an advanced practice nurse caring for these patients, you must understand the pathophysiology and epidemiology of these disorders as this will help you to recognize symptoms and select appropriate assessment and treatment options. In this Assignment, you prepare for your role in clinical settings as you design a protocol for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up care for a common body system disorder.

To prepare:

•Reflect on “Lyme disease”.

•Think about the pathophysiology and epidemiology of the disorder.

•Consider a protocol for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up care of the disorder you selected.

•Think about how culture might impact the care of patients who present with this disorder.

To complete:

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

•Explain the disorder Lyme disease, include its pathophysiology and epidemiology.

•Explain a protocol for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up care of this disorder.

•Explain how culture might impact the care of patients who present with the disorder you selected.

The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at All papers submitted must use this formatting.


Lyme Disease


Many different kinds of body infections exist hence, is prudent for advanced practice nurses to understand (APN) them to provide better diagnosis, management, and even follow up. Lyme disease is one of such body system disorders that APN need to know to manage the same well. The author therefore, deliberates on Lyme disease, its epidemiology and pathophysiology, explains protocol from diagnosis, management, and follow-up, and explains how culture might affect the care of patients suffering from this disease.

Lyme disease

Despite the fact that the prevalence of Lyme disease is becoming prevalent in communities, many APN as well as physicians are still unfamiliar with it. Lyme disease known by another name as Lyme borreliosis is among the common vector borne diseases (Pearson, 2014). The disease is infectious as a bacterium known as Borrelia burgdorferi belonging to the spirochaetes causes it. The disease is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected tick.


The moment an infected tick bites a human being, B. burgdorferi is left in the  skin and henceforth begins to spread. Signs and symptoms of the disease manifest due to the immune response to the spirochete in the tissues of the body (Beard, Nelson, Mead, Petersen, & Raoult, 2012). During the bite, the saliva of the tick is released together with spirochete as the tick feeds and this disrupts the immune response at the site where the bite occurred (Glatz, Resinger, Semmelweis, Ambros-rudolph, & Müllegger, 2015). Therefore, such a point is conducive to spirochete to establish an infection which grows and multiplies on the surface of the skin (dermis). The inflammatory response of the host leads to the formation of a circular EM lesion (Halperin, 2014). Because Neutrophils fails to appear to destroy spirochetes, the EM lesion develops and spread on the entire body. Few days after the bite, the spirochetes spread through blood stream to other parts of the body such as heart, joint, distant skin sites and nervous systems. In case, the bacteria is not treated immediately, it may persist in the body for months or even years, regardless of the production of B. burgdorferi.


The disease is prevalence in the northern hemisphere and more incidences have been on increase across the world. Reasons for this are changes in biodiversity, climate change, land management, human interactions with nature and increasing awareness about the disease. Laboratory findings in UK found that Lyme cases have increased nearing to 1200 in a year even though true incidence is not known because of many cases that go unreported (Pearson, 2014). Incidences of Lyme disease are higher in Southern England, including, Scottish highland, and London. Level of public and health care professionals’ awareness about the disease in UK is still lacking. The disease has as well been reported in various countries across Africa, Europe, north and South America and Asia. Highest cases are among people aged between 45-65 years followed by those in age bracket 24-44 years (Pearson, 2014).

Diagnosis, management, and follow-up care

Lyme disease has treatment, and the journey begins from diagnosis. Those eligible for diagnosis are those with the history of tick bite, other signs, and symptoms of Lyme disease and erythema migrans (Pearson, 2014). Diagnosis should be clinically based and should be based on careful history taking, examination and getting information from carers, and ensuring careful interpretation of results. Other tests can as well be undertaken as part of the diagnosis to ascertain the infections. Treatment should then start immediately after diagnosis. Even though a range of antibiotics is available, the choice of the best is under debate as some have side effects. Some of the antibiotics recommended include amoxicillin, and doxycycline administered in different dosages depending on the age of the patient (Pearson, 2014). Patients require close monitoring to ensure they take the right medication, dosage until they recover.

Culture Aspect in Care of Patients

The culture of people differs and may have adverse effects on patients with Lyme (Aenishaenslin, Ravel, Michel, Gern, Milord, Waaub & Bélanger, 2014). Some people believe that this disease is for animals and therefore, health care providers may be adamant to take care of such patients. Therefore, the attitudes and beliefs of people, especially the carers can have a negative implication on the health care that is provided to patients. It becomes important for all public health professional and public to be sensitized about the disease for them to accord respect and assistance to Lyme patients.


Lyme disease like any other body disease needs proper management and treatment. The disease is spreading across the world because of increased sensitization. Cultural factors can halt efforts to manage the disease and is appropriate for all relevant authorities to step up their awareness campaigns to sensitive more health providers and public for better management of this disease.


Aenishaenslin, C., Ravel, A., Michel, P., Gern, L., Milord, F., Waaub, J., & Bélanger, D. (2014). From Lyme disease emergence to endemicity: a cross sectional comparative study of risk perceptions in different populations. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1070-1091. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1298

Beard, C. B., Nelson, C. A., Mead, P. S., Petersen, L. R., & Raoult, D. (2012). Bartonella spp. bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from Lyme disease-endemic region. Emerging Infectious Diseases, (11), 1918.

Glatz, M., Resinger, A., Semmelweis, K., Ambros-rudolph, C. M., & Müllegger, R. R. (2015).      Clinical Spectrum of Skin Manifestations of Lyme Borreliosis in 204 Children in Austria. Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 95(5), 565-571. doi:10.2340/00015555-2000

Halperin, J. J. (2014). Lyme Disease: Neurology, Neurobiology, and Behavior. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58(9), 1267-1272.

Pearson, S. (2014). Recognising and understanding Lyme disease. Nursing Standard, 29(1), 37-   43.

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