Smoking in Aboriginals Community

Smoking in Aboriginals Community Order Instructions: Please discuss the result findings and limitation of literature review on the basis of articles used.

Smoking in Aboriginals Community
Smoking in Aboriginals Community

Sending you the headings of articles.. so please make sure you check these articles and discuss result findings on the basis of these articles and then explain limitation of literature. Please ensure you follow these articles to discuss. I am attaching the picture of articles headings. .


Smoking in Aboriginals Community Discussion of findings/results

Sustained and effectively coordinated tobacco control programmes have led to long-term health gains, such as a reduction in mortality rates from heart disease. In turn, this has resulted in increases in life expectancies. Even so, Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal people continue suffering high rates of morbidity and mortality from illnesses caused by smoking, with smoking prevalence of up to 82% (Robertson et al., 2013). The findings demonstrate that cigarette smoking is the most significant cause of preventable death amongst Australia’s Aboriginal people. Even as the smoking rates in non-indigenous population have noticeably reduced over the last 3 decades in Australia, the same can actually not be said for the indigenous people since the rates of tobacco use amongst the Aboriginals exceeds by far the smoking rates of non-indigenous Australians (Robertson, 2011). Smoking among Aboriginals is the most preventable cause of diseases and early death; it causes 1 in 5 deaths, and is directly responsible for 33% of incidences of heart disease and cancer in this population (Robertson et al., 2013).

The findings show also that there are a number of factors that contribute to the high smoking rates among the Aboriginals for instance issues of access as well as appropriateness of support and services, which reflect systemic impediments to improving the health of the Aboriginal populations (Cosh et al., 2015). Other factors that contribute to sustained high smoking prevalence among Aboriginals include living with people who smoke, overcrowding, starting to use tobacco at a young age, historical role of tobacco among the Aboriginals, normalization of smoking in a lot of communities, history of dispossession and colonization, as well as variable acculturation that contribute to low education levels, low economic and social status, and high level of unemployment (Cosh et al., 2015).

The results also demonstrated that many Aboriginals are either actively attempting to stop smoking or they were actually thinking about it in spite of limited access to suitable support. Among Aboriginals who have already quitted tobacco use, a significant motivator was health concerns. Other motivators are death within the family, pregnancy, wanting to increase fitness, lack of access to cigarettes, monetary cost, doctor’s advice to stop smoking, social marketing, role model such as health worker or parent, concern for future health, and concern regarding a diagnosed acute or diagnosed health condition or physical sign, for instance shortness of breath (Cosh et al., 2015).

In addition, the findings show that a number of tobacco action initiatives have been conducted that target the Aboriginals. In their study conducted n Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Robertson et al. (2013) learned that in disadvantaged, discrete Aboriginal communities, more effective management of Environmental Tobacco Smoke can be achieved by enhancing local ownership of smoke-free policies and developing implementation strategies at the grass-root level which incorporate and recognize cultural contexts. In smokers who are not planning to stop smoking immediately, Chan et al. (2011) reported that smoking reduction initiatives with nicotine replacement therapy and behavioural support are in fact more effectual compared with advice to stop smoking.

Even though guidelines at the moment advice smokers to stop smoking on medical reasons as the most appropriate intervention in smokers that have no immediate quitting plans, smoking reduction programs provide an effective alternative (Chan et al., 2011). Smoking cessation interventions that target youthful Aboriginal smokers in Australia should build motivation to stop smoking through the use of motivators of cost issues, sporting performance for males, children and pregnancy, as well as health reasons. At the same time, such interventions should acknowledge the relevant role of stress and social influence in the lives of youthful urban Aboriginals who use tobacco (Cosh et al., 2015). Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation has also been found to be effectual whenever it is combined with health professional support and culturally tailored behavioural interventions (Carson, 2014).

Smoking in Aboriginals Community Limitation of literature review

The literature review that has been carried out provided important insights with regard to the prevalence of smoking, causes of tobacco use amongst the Aboriginal people of Australia, and several relevant interventions. Nonetheless, there is little discussion or research in the extant literature around individual-level cessation interventions. There is also limited longitudinal research, documents written in Aboriginal indigenous languages have been excluded as part of the literature review, and many studies are based upon combined studies of the Torres Straits Islanders and Aboriginals. There is also little research on assessment of tobacco interventions for Aboriginals (Ivers, 2003). Lastly, some studies are founded upon extremely small-scale engagement with the Aboriginals.

Smoking in Aboriginals Community References

Carson, K. (2015). Smoking cessation and tobacco prevention in indigenous populations. Australian Indigenous Health Bulletin, 14(3): 14-26

Chan, S. S., Leung, D. Y., Abdullah, A. S., Wong, V. T., Hedley, A. J., & Lam, T. H. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of a smoking reduction plus nicotine replacement therapy intervention for smokers not willing to quit smoking. Addiction, 106(6): 1155-1163

Cosh, S., Hawkins, K., Skaczkowski, G., Copley, D., & Bowden, J. (2015). Tobacco use among urban aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation, and motivators for smoking cessation. Aust J Prim Health, 21(3): 334-341

Ivers, R. G. (2003). A review of tobacco interventions for indigenous Australians. Aust NZ J Public Health, 27(3): 294-299

Robertson, J. (2011). Tackling tobacco: a call to arms for remote area nurses. Contemp Nurse, 37(1): 49-56.

Robertson, J., Pointing, B. S., Stevenson, L., & Clough, A. R. (2013). “We made the rule, we have to stick to it”: Towards effective management of environmental tobacco smoke in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(6): 4944-4966



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