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System analysis refers to a technique that is usually used to solve the various problems that arise in a particular system. It usually involves a very detailed study of the system and all its components with an aim of understanding the role played by every component so as to enhance the effectiveness of the system (Hoffer, 2012). There are various phases of system development processes that are analysis based; these are as discussed below.
The first phase is the system study. This involves the detailed investigation of the system to understand fully what it lacks and how it can be improved and made more efficient (Dennis et al, 2015). A lot of research is usually invested here, and the output should be a system that is executable.
The second phase is the feasibility study. Here, various factors should be put into consideration to ensure that the system is executable. The system’s workability and financial implications are some of the factors that should be considered. The output should result in the system being implemented as it is or whether it should be redrafted (Kersting, 2012).
The next phase is the detailed system analysis. It is the process of collecting factual data, understand the processes involved, identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestions for improving the system functioning (Dennis et al, 2015). The input here is the creativity of the system analyst while the output is a logical system design.
The last phase involves testing and implementation of the system. Having ensured that all the above factors are rightly executed, the system should, therefore, be tested and all other execution issues addressed. The implementation of the entire system then takes place. The output here is the final and very efficient system.
Systems design is the process of defining the physical processes, the components, and all the input that is involved in ensuring that a system satisfies all its requirements and meets its objectives. It can also be defined as the application of various system theories with an aim of coming up with a final product (Hoffer, 2012).There are various phases of system development processes that are design based; these are as discussed below.
The first phase involves pulling together of all physical and technical data, trying to come up with a clear work plan that is aimed at helping execute the particular system. The greatest input here is the strong analytical skills as all the factors considered at this stage must be geared towards the success of the system’s implementation.
In this next phase, the actual system designing therefore takes place. Here, the software system design is prepared with close emphasis put on the guidelines discussed in the first phase above (Khalili & Duecker, 2013). This stage specifies the hardware and other system requirements. It also helps in defining the overall system architecture. The input here is the various hardware that are used to try come up with the final system.
The third phase is the coding phase, here, on receiving the various system design work plans and executable procedures, the work is divided into units and actual coding is started. Since, in this phase the code is produced, it is the main focus for any system designer (Khalili & Duecker, 2013). It is also the longest phase of the system development process.
The last phase involves system maintenance. Here, the execution of the entire system is put under close supervision, and any issues that may arise are handled as promptly as possible.
Modeling refers to how data should be used to meet the requirements of a given system. It involves structuring and organizing data so as to be executed in a particular database management system. Modeling, therefore, outlines all the rules for data handling in a particular system (Hoffer, 2012). Modeling can be used in the designing phase as it will be very handy in trying to influence the overall system software.
There are three types of modeling, and each is meant to achieve a particular objective in the final system structure. The first type of modeling is referred to as data-centric modeling. It is all about turning the numbers into knowledge. Here you assess all the assets you have at your disposal, the assets, in this case, are regarding the various hardware you will use in the entire system (Kersting, 2012).
In essence, a successful project is one which achieves the purpose. The purpose being did the project accomplish what it was supposed to do? In this sense, there are a few things to consider. For instance, if the project was in the form of the design of a system to solve a certain problem in an organization. In this case, the phone would judge a successful project as one which upon accomplishment it has effectively addressed the issues at the organization (Satzinger et al, 2011). Furthermore, regarding the organization, a project is supposed to cost as affordable as in the range of the organization’s economic capability. Moreover, the project should, in fact, have taken an appropriate amount of time to be accomplished.
The requirements for the analysis and design process are many. However, these requirements are categorized into three categories. The functional requirements, non-functional and requirements specification. The functional requirements refer to what the system is supposed to do. It defines the functionality of the system in the organization (Satzinger et al, 2011). Therefore, the functional requirement gives an idea of what the system is supposed to do. Non-functional requirements, on the other hand, dictate how the system is supposed to look. This takes into account requirements like usability among other non-functional requirements. Requirements specification is a category of requirements that are involved in defining how the system will do what it was supposed to do. It goes into the finer details of the structure of the system in respect to the specific problem the system is supposed to solve (Satzinger et al, 2011).
The most important things during the analysis and design phase in software development lifecycle are the design activities, feasibility studies, CASE tools, types of designs and the cost-based analysis.
The design activities are three. They include, design architecture, detailed design and lastly the design testing. Design architecture refers to the design of the system to conform to the functional requirements of the organization (Hoffer, 2012). Detailed design involves the specific algorithms, data structures and the data to be implemented in the system. Design testing is the final process of the design. It includes the process of validating the design by ensuring it conforms to the functional and non-functional requirements of the system. These design activities are the steps to ensure coming up with a good design. A good design takes less time to implement, is cost-effective, meets the user’s requirements, easily maintainable and can be reused for the design of other systems.
Feasibility studies are required and very significant in the analysis and design phase. The study entails ensuring the viability of the system in different dimensions. There are three categories of feasibility studies. They include technical feasibility, economic and operational feasibility. The technical feasibility study is carried out to find out whether the system is viable in the technological perspective (Satzinger et al, 2011). Operational feasibility studies are done to find out whether the system is going to fit into the structure and operations of the specific organization it is begin built for. The economic feasibility finds out whether the cost of the system will fit into the economic hurdles of the organization. The above three types of feasibility studies are important to an IT practitioner when he or she is designing and building and developing systems to be used in the different organization.
CASE tools are there to make use of technology to simplify the process of developing a system for an organization. Essentially the significance of using CASE tools cannot be ruled out at any point. These tools can be used at different phases of the system development lifecycle (Khalili & Duecker, 2013). The CASE tools help improve the development process, reduce the time for development of a computer program. They also improve the documentation of the development process.
The development of a system is made easier by understanding the different design methodologies that are used to design good systems. Essentially, this will help in creating a good system design. Lastly, a cost-based analysis is an important tool in the creation of a good system product. This will help determine if the design is effectively in the perspective of the cost it will take to finish the whole project (Kersting, 2012).
Dennis, A., Wixom, B. H., & Tegarden, D. (2015). Systems analysis and design: An object-oriented approach with UML. John Wiley & Sons.
Hoffer, J. A. (2012). Modern Systems Analysis and Design, 6/e. Pearson Education India.
Kersting, W. H. (2012). Distribution system modeling and analysis. CRC press.
Khalili, N. R., & Duecker, S. (2013). Application of multi-criteria decision analysis in design of sustainable envronmental management system framewrk. Journal of Cleaner Production, 47, 188-198.
Satzinger, J., Jackson, R., & Burd, S. D. (2011). Systems analysis and design in a changing world. Cengage Learning.
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