The regression technique

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**Introduction**

The regression technique used is the logistic regression. This is a technique used when the dependent variable is categorical. The study outcomes are not continuous and they do fall into different categories that warrant this modeling approach (Lewis-Beck, 1993). In a logistic regression, a logistic transformation of the odds or the logit serves as the dependent variable. The dependent variable (odds) if taken and adding a regression equation for the independent variable will yield a logistic regression (Allen, 1997).

The odds ratio is used to measure how the fitted probability changes between different values of the explanatory variable. An odds ratio that is equal to one indicates a zero effect, an odds ratio greater than one indicates an increase in odds while an odds ratio less than one indicates a decrease in the odds (Draper, & Smith, 1981).

A logistic regression significance testing helps a researcher to identify the influence of different factors in his model (Lewis-Beck, 1993). Thus, the Wald’s test is used to test the contribution of individual regression co-efficient, while the deviance test is used to identify the contribution of several model coefficients simultaneously.

**Criminal Justice Research**

The research has looks into different types of mistreatment categorically. The odds ratio with its confidence interval has been indicated, as well as the regression co-efficient for each contributing factor. The Wald value has also been indicated so as to ascertain the contributory aspects of each variable. The p-value to indicate the significance of each variable has also been indicated.

In analyzing emotional mistreatment, age, employment status, health status, previous traumatic event, social support levels, and ADL assistance needs are our categorical variables with a probability of success or failure (Williams, 1959). From the results, the odds of an a person below seventy years being mistreated emotionally is approximately three time more than for a person above seventy years. The regression coefficient also indicate that age is the most influential factor when understanding aspects of emotional mistreatment followed by previous traumatic event, need for ADL assistance, health status, employment status and social support respectively. Nonetheless the health status is insignificant when interpreting the health status. Social support level contributes more to the model individually.

Physical mistreatment can be associated with age, gender, race, income level, health status, previous traumatic event and level of social support. Age and social support levels are the only significant factors that can be used to define physical mistreatment as indicated by their probability values of 0.05. The model also suggests that age is the most influential factor as regards physical mistreatment. This is attributed to its Wald value of 8.5 and regression coefficient value of 1.41.

Sexual mistreatment as a categorical variable is identified by gender, income levels, health status, previous traumatic event, social support and need for ADL assistance. Of these factors, previous traumatic event is the only significant variable explaining sexual mistreatment. It regression coefficient of 2.64 indicates its high influence on the logistic model describing sexual mistreatment.

The research utilizes logistic regression to assess different aspects of elderly mistreatment based on different predictors ascribed to them. This is due to the categorical nature of the various forms of mistreatment. Mistreatment is our outcome variable as its value is discrete, thus the assumption of linearity is upheld. A logistic regression then addresses this defect by using a logarithmic transformation on the type of mistreatment variable. The different levels of mistreatment are expressed in terms of odds ratio for success. This ratio indicates the reaction resulting from any form of mistreatment.

References

Allen, M. P. (1997). *Understanding regression analysis*. New York: Plenum Press.

Draper, N. R., & Smith, H. (1981). Applied regression analysis. New York: Wiley.

Lewis-Beck, M. S. (1993). *Regression analysis*. London: Sage Publications.

Williams, E. J. (1959). *Regression analysis*. New York: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.19610030208

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