The health policy Research Assignment

The health policy
The health policy

The health policy

Order Instructions:

Is it possible for a health policy to fail due to cultural factors? How important is it for the community to get involved with the decision-making process during policy development?

You will recognize the significance in cultural awareness and health policy development. For this writing, consider community engagement in policy development.

Consider the importance of beliefs and behaviors when developing health policies. This is a 3 pages):
Answer the following Questions:
1. Explain the importance of culturally appropriate health policies.
2. Explain how one can develop a policy so that it gets the support of the community.
3. Explain how you might engage the community to be part of the voice when developing a policy.


Campbell, D. (2011). Anthropology?s contribution to public health policy development. McGill Journal of Medicine, 13(1), 76.

Anthropology?s contribution to public health policy development by Campbell, D., in the McGill Journal of Medicing (MJM), 13(1). Copyright 2011 by McGill

University/Faculty of Medicine. Reprinted by permission of McGill University/Faculty of Medicine via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Lee, K., Buse, K. & Fustukian, S. (Eds.). (2002). Health policy in a globalising world. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Health policy in a globalizing world by Lee, K., Buse, K. & Fustukian, S. Copyright 2002 by Cambridge University Press. Reprinted by permission of Cambridge University Press via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Allen, T. & Heald, S. (2004). HIV/AIDS policy in Africa: What has worked in Uganda and what has failed in Botswana? Journal of International Development, 16(8), 1141?1154.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Porter, J. D. H. (2006). Epidemiological reflections of the contribution of anthropology to public health policy and practice. Journal of Biosocial Science, 38(1), 133?144.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2011). Global health and issues in disease prevention [Multimedia file]. Retrieved from

Medical Care?s Role in Promoting Health,? featuring Stephen Bezruchka, MD

Fortier, J. (Director & Producer). (2008). Importance of culturally appropriate care for Native Americans [Video excerpt]. In L. Adelman (Executive producer),
Unnatural causes: Episode 4?Bad sugar. United States: Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved from California Newsreel, 2008. Fortier, J. (Director & Producer). (2008).

Tohono Odham Community Action (TOCA)?Cultural renewal to improve health [Video excerpt]. In L. Adelman (Executive producer), Unnatural causes: Episode 4?Bad sugar. United States: Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved from

Please apply the Application Assignment Rubric when writing the Paper.
I. Paper should demonstrate an excellent understanding of all of the concepts and key points presented in the texts.
II. Paper provides significant detail including multiple relevant examples, evidence from the readings and other sources, and discerning ideas.
III. Paper should be well organized, uses scholarly tone, follows APA style, uses original writing and proper paraphrasing, contains very few or no writing and/or spelling errors, and is fully consistent with doctoral level writing style.

IV. Paper should be mostly consistent with doctoral level writing style.


The increasing diversity of the healthcare spectrum comes with challenges and opportunities for healthcare providers, policy makers, and healthcare systems to develop and deliver culturally competent healthcare services. In the healthcare setting, cultural competence is defined as the ability of healthcare organizations and providers to deliver effectively healthcare services that satisfy the cultural, social, and linguistic patient needs, (Johnson et al, 2008). Culture is defined as incorporated models of human behavior. These include thoughts, language, actions, communications, beliefs, customs, values as well as institutions of religious, racial, ethnic and social groups. In essence culture is generally the way of life of a particular community (Galea, 2007). Benefits of culture include the ability of people to provide adequate preparation response as well as recovery from disaster based on their culture, it provides for a protective system that can provide comfort and reassurance, it also defines suitable behavior and provide a support system that identifies a shared dream for recovery. However despite the strength of culture, some cultures can render one group vulnerable compared to others (Galea, 2007).

The importance of culturally appropriate health policies cannot be adequately stressed. A healthcare system governed by culturally appropriate cultural policies has improved health outcomes and enhanced quality of care, and contributes greatly to ethnic and racial discrepancy elimination. The healthcare systems that are culturally competent easily implement strategies that provide relevant enlightenment on cultural capability, competence as well as cross-cultural concerns to health personnel besides initiating policies that decrease linguistic and administrative setbacks to patient care. Cultural competence is also important for it can help reduce long standing differences in mental and physical health conditions of people who belong to different ethnic, cultural and racial backgrounds.

According to Johnson et al (2008), culturally appropriate health policies are crucial in improving healthcare through: effectively eliminating ethnic and racial disparities, improving healthcare quality, and increasing the access to healthcare. In the present day healthcare climate, there is a high potential for appropriate and competent healthcare policies to increase healthcare quality , which is a significantly motivating factor for healthcare providers to undertake training to improve their practice of cultural competence and appropriateness, (Johnson et al, 2008).

If someone wants to develop a policy so that it gets the support of the community, they can establish a policy that supports culturally competent care. Five themes govern such a policy that has a community support namely: a patient-centered emphasis; effective physician-patient communication; achieves balance of skill/attitude-centered and fact-centered approaches to achieving cultural competence as a process of development; and incorporates the understanding of the alternative care sources, as illustrated by Donini-Lenhoff & Hedrick (2010). The policy should be based on a conceptual framework that emphasizes on the cultural competence that focuses much of the attention on the patient and the kin, as opposed to the characteristics of cultural group of the patient or the disease.

Effective communication must be underlined in the policy because such communication facilitates the success of the patient-physician relationship. Important concepts that should be incorporated into the model to facilitate communication include: proper interviewing techniques, negotiation of treatment, and implementing the explanatory model, as mentioned by Donini-Lenhoff & Hedrick (2010). Methodologies to acquire cultural competence are either skill/attitude-centered or fact-centered. The fact-centered approach focuses on education on specific ethnic group information. The model must ensure community acceptance by incorporating the skilled/attitude-centered approach so that patient cannot appear to be represented as racial stereotypes, according to Chin (2011). As well the policy must acquire cultural competence as a developmental process and underline the alternative healthcare sources so that it can fit into the community. Gaskin & Hoffman (2010) argues that the best way of ensuring that a healthcare policy is acceptable to the community is by engaging the community to be part of the voice when developing the policy, as argued by Chin (2011).

Many of the conceptual frameworks that address cultural appropriateness and competence in healthcare emphasize the significance of healthcare policies to recognize the voice of the patients because community compliance to healthcare policies is improved by culture compliance. The voice of the community can be part of developing a healthcare policy if the policy is focused towards provision of linguistically and culturally competent care, (Geron, 2012). To achieve this, before implementing the policy, data can be collected from the community regarding ethnicity, race and language preferences, which will be a basis of designing the policy. After identifying any disparities in the reported in the data collected, the policy can be designed to reflect the voice of the community by focusing on the provision of linguistically and culturally competent care, (Geron, 2012). The policy should also underline that the entire spectrum of the healthcare profession should receive training in diversity issues. It should also emphasize development of a patient language resource, written patient communication and addresses ethnic and racial diversity. Such a policy will inhibit the voice of the community, as illustrated by Gaskin & Hoffman (2010).


Chin, J. L. (2011, January/February). Culturally competent health care. Public

Health Reports, 115(1), 25-33 Crimmins, E.M., Hayward, M.D., & Seeman, T.E. (2004). Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and health. In N.B. Anderson, R.A. Bulatao, & B. Cohen (Eds.), Critical perspectives on racial and ethnic differences in health in later life (pp. 310-352). Washington, DC: National Academies Press

Donini-Lenhoff, F. & Hedrick, H. (2010). Increasing awareness and implementation of cultural competence principles in health professions education. Journal of Allied Health, 29:241-245.

Galea, S. (2007). Macrosocial determinants of population health. New York, NY: Springer.

Johnson, M., Noble, C., Matthews, C., & Aguilar, N. (2008). Towards culturally competent health care: language use of bilingual staff. Australian Health Review, 21(3), 49-66

Gaskin, D.J., & Hoffman, C. (2010). Racial and ethnic differences in preventable hospitalizations across 10 states. Medical Care Research Review, 57(Suppl.1), 85-107.

Geron, S.M. (2012). Cultural competency: How is it measured? Does it make a difference? Generations, 26, 39-45.

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