Energy efficient computing Research Paper

Energy efficient computing
Energy efficient computing

Energy efficient computing, distributed mobile trusted computing & clouds, crowd sourcing and computing

Order Instructions:

your project should have an abstract, an introduction, a body of paper (literature review , previous work done bi others, technical and economical analysis, application and services, etc….) and your own contribution and engineering/technical opinion with a conclusion and of course a list of your references numbered as they are used in your write up. I use software to check the originality of your work. you will get zero if you just cut and paste form other sources. It is okay to use all types of resources (magazine, journals, internet, books, articles…) with proper citation

Topic: Energy efficient computing, distributed mobile trusted computing & clouds, crowd sourcing and computing


Energy efficient computing


Efficient energy computing also known as green computing initiates the maximization and use of computing reserves with the aim of lessening the consumption of energy among other scarce resources. With the proliferation of an increasing powerful mobile devices, applications have been developed that can enable a user to collaborate through a mobile cloud with the aim of providing pervasive services such as; computing, data collection, and processing through efficient energy systems (Cătinean, & Cândea, 2013). Mobile users also have the advantage of taking over the outsourced tasks through the mobile cloud and crowd outsourcing that emerges as a service paradigm. By leveraging the capacity of a mobile device that integrates the intelligence of human beings and machine computation, the mobile crowd gives the ability to revolutionize the approaches involved in the processing and collection of data.


The genesis of the mobile devices and mobile computing has turned out to be an irresistible trend in the IT technology sector. With this, it is significant to mention that the mobile devices face some challenges and limitations including; memory, energy, and computation. In order to overcome these constraints, the mobile cloud computing approaches have proved to be the solution in enabling the mobile device users consumes a varied cloud resource through a wireless network (Cătinean, & Cândea, 2013).

This clouding computing method can, therefore, improve the computational ability through an energy efficient mobile device by offloading the computational tasks into the cloud services (Cătinean, & Cândea, 2013). The current and new-fashioned mobile devices have been embedded with versatile sensors that provide a novel paradigm with the capacity to collect a wider array of data about the society, the environment, and other important aspects. The intent of this exposition is to analyze the elements of an energy efficient computing, distributed mobile trusted computing and clouds, crowd sourcing and computing through a review of the literature.

Energy Efficient Computing, Distributed Mobile Trusted Computing & Clouds, Crowd Sourcing and Computing

Through the empowered efforts and capabilities, mobile devices have shifted today from just the ordinary service providers that offer and make communication easier into a new service model that incorporates the elements of mobile cloud computing (Qi, Jianxin, & Yufei, 2014). The emergence of this technology and service model has led to the connection of mobile devices with each other through wireless networks, a factor that has resulted in the formation of a powerful mobile cloud that provides a persuasive approach to data collection, processing and computing through efficient energy consumption. It is important to mention that the evolution of the mobile cloud has given the mobile crowd sourcing a feasible solution for solving problems on a large scale. The literature review segment provides an overview into how these elements function.

Literature Review

The mobile crowd sourcing is a commercial electronic service in which the mobile users within a mobile cloud can sell their services and resources for service consumers (Qi, et. al). Through an outstanding task of the mobile cloud, a cost, and energy efficient pervasive cloud service is possible to attain through the use of massive numbers of mobile users working together in a distributive manner. The central idea behind a mobile crowd sourcing structure includes the involvement of a variety of applications that are differently utilized in a business model.

For instance, the author of this material gives an analogy of an Open Street Map that depicts a crowded map of the world that was developed by worldwide mobile users through the use of their knowledge, some donated sources and a GPS trajectory (Qi, et. al). The development of this application clearly indicates the fact that this mobile crowd sourcing has the capacity to revolutionize the traditional data collection and processing methods. I as much as the computing paradigm seems promising and poses a tremendous advantage, the mobile crowding sourcing is in its infancy stages since it is facing numerous challenges.

This approach is varied from the traditional cloud computing method that only relies on the internet connection since through the crowd sourcing; it is able to access a pervasive cloud service for both the local and online terminals (Qi, et. al). According to the author of this material, the main difference between the two mobile crowd sourcing approaches is the fact that all these models gives an interconnected mobile user the potential to be a service provider through an internet-based mobile crowd sourcing, while the other approach only allows mobile users within a specified vicinity to provide cloud services through a local-based mobile crowd sourcing service. In order to achieve the end-results of these elements, there are essential components of cellular crowd sourcing;

Service Consumers;

The service consumers, in this case, refers to the local and online users who from time to time require cloud services through a mobile crowd sourcing system and who utilize the cloud services by sourcing out tasks to mobile users.

Mobile Users;

Mobile users with the enablement of their mobile devices can perform a mobile cloud by providing cloud services to the online service consumers through a cellular Wi-Fi network or to the local consumers through a process where communication is made to the local servers by using Bluetooth and NFC techniques (Qi, et. al). In the event that a mobile user engages in an outsourced task that incorporates the local computing mobile cloud approach to executing the tasks required.

Centralized Servers;

A centralized server remains a mobile crowd sourcing avenue for the internet-based service consumers in which the crowd sourcing information is stored such as historical service records, users, and profiles that are used for service evaluation and task outsourcing (Qi, et. al). Centralized servers have the ability to provide a trusted service for task publishing in which tasks are allocated, reported, collected, and the feedback processing for the internet-connected mobile users and consumers.

Local Servers;

The local servers have the capacity to provide a local crowd sourcing service that involves an outsourced task broadcasting the result in a task result aggregation for the service ad mobile consumers within particular vicinity (Qi, et. al). The local servers are in many cases equipped with a dedicated mobile gateway that is tasked with the dissemination of functions and information to the neighboring mobile users and, in the long run, collects user results. However, a local server can only be deployed for commercial reasons and remains not trusted by the mobile users.

Previous Work Done By Others

Over a period now, many mobile devices have turned out to be the sensor and information hubs in our day to day activities. Through the integration of  mobile computing and crowd sourcing approach, many applications have today emerged that have achieved efficiency in energy, cost-effective data computation, collection, and the processing services (Qi, et. al). The mobile crowd computing model is used to supply data computations and tasks to mobile consumers who can locally execute a task and offload them to a cloud server based on an individual data and computation resource.

The author states that human interventions have also played a significant role in mobile crowd computing since their intelligence has helped in the handling of tasks that are only suitable for human evaluation that the computation of a machine. These functions include image annotation, sentimental analysis, and entity resolution (Qi, et. al). An instance of this is given of Honeybee, which is a local-based mobile crowd computing application that enables users to detect their faces through a photographic task and can be carried out through a mobile device. The mobile users are required to use their devices to run face detection algorithms through photos blended with an individual’s evaluation.

Technical and Economical Analysis

It is significant to mention that the technicality of these IT technologies remains the primary challenge of security as one of the major concerns for the cloud service consumers, while at the back of everything, a mobile crowd sourcing is meant to originate from an assumption and perception that users should honestly provide accurate results. This, therefore, remains a significant challenge to the users since some malicious mobile users have developed mechanisms of misbehaving to undermine the crowd sourcing.

These malicious users have the capacity to fabricate computations or maliciously suspending an ongoing process. It is, however, crucial to realize that there are several approaches that are being tried with the aim of mitigating the impacts of malice in the task reports and to identify the irrational users (Shiraz, & Gani, 2014). Recently, a robust trajectory estimation approach geared towards alleviating the negative influences of malice in a crowd sourced user trajectory to identify fraudulent users. In relation to the economics of these technologies it is important that responsibility is directed towards the environment, a factor that is emerging for corporate IT entities. With the increasing pressure on efficient energy because of its conservative nature, there are emerging technologies geared towards regulating the consumption

Application and Services

The crowd sourcing approach has assisted in big data application. According to my opinion, there are contributions that can be engineered to enhance the mobile trusted computing & clouds, crowd sourcing and computing technologies. This includes an approach that will help this technology by integrating the mobile crowd sourcing with the big data analytics (Shiraz, & Gani, 2014). This application can be beneficial since it would enable Smartphone user’s book their train seats in advance based upon the mobility pattern model and the contributions of a mobile data user.

It is however important to note that jelling the mobile crowd sourcing model and the big data analytic can be challenging since the methods of data collection may prove and turn out to be huge on a mobile device, a factor that constrains the data velocity, and volume. Privacy should also be a measure to include in the development of these systems.


The advent of an increasing powerful mobile devices applications have been developed that can enable a user to collaborate through a mobile cloud with the aim of providing pervasive services such as; computing, data collection, and processing through an energy efficient system (Shiraz, & Gani, 2014). These systems have made it easier for users to use the clouding computing methods to, therefore, improve the computational ability through energy efficient mobile devices. The evolution of these technologies has therefore seen several inventions that have impacted the society today.


Cătinean, I., & Cândea, D. (2013). Characteristics of the Cloud Computing Model as a Disruptive Innovation. Review of International Comparative Management / Revista De Management Comparat International14(5), 783-803.

Qi, Q., Jianxin, L., & Yufei, C. (2014). Cloud service-aware location update in mobile cloud computing. IET Communications8(8), 1417-1424.

Shiraz, M., & Gani, A. (2014). A lightweight active service migration framework for computational offloading in mobile cloud computing. Journal of Supercomputing68(2), 978-995.

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IPSec tunneling Research Assignment

IPSec tunneling
                  IPSec tunneling

IPSec tunneling

Order Instructions:

The example used in class was a company merger between a large corporate building in Chicago and a large corporate building in San Diego. By describing the path from one user in Chicago, how does a packet make it to San Diego using IPSec?


Table of Contents

IPSec Tunneling. 3

1.0      Introduction. 3

2.0      IPSec Standards. 3

3.0      IPSec Architecture. 4

3.1      IPSec Authentication Header (AH) 4

3.2      Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and Internet Key Exchange (IKE) 5

4.0      IPSec authentication using IPv4 versus IPv6. 5

4.1      IPv6. 5

4.2      IPv4. 5

5.0      IPSec tunneling. 6

5.1      IPSec Tunnel Mode. 6

5.2      IPSec Network topology: Packet from Chicago to San Diego. 8

5.3      Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) over IPSec. 9

6.0      References. 1

IPSec Tunneling

1.0  IPSec Overview

The Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) provides Layer three security (RFC 2401). It is a collection of algorithms, services, and protocols that are utilized in securing IP data at the network layer. It provides a complete security solution for an IP network. The services and protocols of the IPSec combine to offer different kinds of protection. Given that the IPSec works at the IP layer, it is able to offer these protections for higher-layer TCP/IP applications or protocols with no need for extra security methods (Somesh, 2011). The protection services that the IPSec offers are as follows: it authenticates the integrity of a message so that the message is not altered en route; it encrypts user data to ensure privacy; and it protects against some kinds of security attacks for instance replay attacks. Other kinds of protection services are: the capability of devices to negotiate the security keys and algorithms that are needed to satisfy their security needs; and 2 security modes – transport and tunnel – to satisfy the various network needs (Somesh, 2011). IPSec combines various constituents: internet key exchange (IKE), authentication headers (AH), security associations (SA), and encapsulating security payload (ESP).

2.0     IPSec Standards

Given that IPSec is in fact a set of protocols and techniques, it is not described in just one internet standard. The services, architecture, as well specific protocols that are utilized in IPSec are defined by a set of Request for Comments (RFCs). There are a number of Internet Protocol Security Standards as illustrated in the table below:

  RFC Number Name Description
1 RFC 2402 IP Authentication Header (AH) This defines the IPSec AH protocol utilized for ensuring origin verification and integrity of data
2 RFC 2401 Security Architecture for IP This is the key Internet Protocol Security document. It describes the architecture as well as the operation of the technology. It also illustrates how various parts fit together (Kozierok, 2012).
3 RFC 2403 The use of HMAC-MD5-96 in AH and ESP Defines a certain encryption algorithm for use by the ESP and AH protocols known as Message Digest 5 or MD5, HMAC variant.
4 RFC 2406 IP ESP Defines the IPSec Encapsulating Security Payload protocol that provides encryption of data for confidentiality (Somesh, 2011)
5 RFC 2404 The use of HMAC-SHA-1-96 in AH and ESP Defines a certain encryption algorithm for use by ESP and AH known as Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1), HMAC variant
6 RFC 2409 The IKE Defines the Internet Key Exchange protocol which is utilized in negotiating security associations and exchanging keys between different devices for secure communications.
7 RFC 2408 Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) Describes the techniques used to exchange keys and negotiate security associations
8 RFC 2412 The OAKLEY Key Determination Protocol Defines a generic protocol for key exchange (Kozierok, 2012)


The IPSec technology is mostly used to implement virtual private networks (VPNs)

3.0     IPSec Architecture

3.1       IPSec Authentication Header (AH)

This offers authentication services for Internet Protocol Security. AH enables the recipient of a message to confirm that the hypothetical originator of the message was in fact the one who sent that message. Moreover, the AH enables the recipient of a message to confirm that intermediate devices have not altered any of the data within the datagram. In addition, it offers protection against reply attacks, a situation in which an authorized user captures a message and then resends it (Somesh, 2011).

3.2       Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and Internet Key Exchange (IKE)

ESP encrypts the payload of the Internet Protocol datagram. It encrypts the data and secures it against eavesdropping during transit (Knight, 2010). IKE is a protocol negotiation as well as key exchange protocol, which enables the communicating parties to negotiate the techniques of secure communication. The IPSec offers security in 3 situations: gateway-to-gateway; host-to-gateway; and host-to-host. The IPSec operates in 2 modes: tunnel mode for virtual private network (VPN), and transport mode for end-to-end (Knight, 2010).

4.0     IPSec authentication using IPv4 versus IPv6

4.1       IPv6

In IPv6, the Authentication Header protects nearly all of the IPv6 base header, the authentication header itself, the IP payload, as well as the non-mutable extension headers after the authentication header (Dominik & Yvette, 2011). Protection for the IPv6 header does not include the mutable fields.

4.2       IPv4

In an IPv4 datagram, Knight (2010) stated that the Protocol field shows the identity of the UDP or TCP that is carried in the datagram. This field therefore points to the next header at the front of the IP payload. In IPv4 the Authentication Header protects the IP payload as well as every header field of an IP datagram with the exception of mutable field – those which may be in transit –, and the IP options like the IP Security Option RFC 1108 (Knight, 2010).

5.0     IPSec tunneling

5.1       IPSec Tunnel Mode

IPSec could be configured to operate in either the Transport mode or the Tunnel mode; Tunnel mode is the default mode. When the IPSec is configured to operate in the Tunnel mode, the whole IP packet will be protected by IPSec; the IPSec will wrap the original packet, encrypt that packet, add a new IP header, and then send it to the other side of the Virtual Private Network tunnel (Dominik & Yvette, 2011). It is notable that Tunnel Mode is mainly utilized between gateways – ASA firewalls or Cisco routers. It is also commonly utilized at an end-station to a gateway; the gateway will act as a proxy for the hosts behind it. Tunnel mode is used in encrypting traffic between secure IPSec Gateways, for instance 2 Cisco routers that are connected over the internet through IPSec Virtual Private Network (Dominik & Yvette, 2011).

An IPSec tunnel between an IPSec Gateway and a Cisco VPN Client is an example of tunnel mode. The client will connect to the IPSec Gateway. Traffic from client is encrypted, encapsulated within a new IP packet and is then transmitted to the other end. Once a firewall appliance decrypts it, the original IP packet of the client is sent to the local network. An IPSec header – ESP header or AH header – in the tunnel mode is inserted between the upper layer protocol and the IP header. Between ESP and AH, ESP is most widely utilized in IPSec virtual private network configuration (Somesh, 2011).The figure below shows IPSec Tunnel mode with an ESP header:

The figure below shows IPSec Tunnel mode with an AH header:

 When IPSec is in the tunnel mode, the AH could be applied together with the ESP or it could be applied alone. The function of the AH is to protect the whole packet (Hoffman, 2011). It is notable that the AH does not protect each field in the New IP Header since some change while in transit, and the sender is not able to envisage the way they may change. In essence, the AH will protect everything that does not change while in transit (Hoffman, 2011).

5.2 IPSec Network topology: Packet from Chicago to San Diego

Path of the packet from Chicago to San Diego

The IPSec network topology above illustrates how a packet moves from Site A in Chicago to Site B in San Diego. VPN is a secure and inexpensive technique for site-to-site connectivity such as the one illustrated above (Hoffman, 2011). Each site runs VPN servers. With IPSec Virtual Private Networks, offices in the two different locations can be connected together over the internet with the strong encryption as well as security that the IPSec protocol offers. In this topology, IPSec offers secure communication in the path through which the packet moves through from the sender in Chicago to the destination in San Diego.

5.3 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) over IPSec

L2TP is basically an industry-standard internet tunneling protocol which offers encapsulation for the sending of Point-to-Point (PPP) frames through packet-oriented media. Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol enables IP traffic to be encrypted before being sent via any medium which supports PPP datagram delivery, for instance IP (Hoffman, 2011). The Microsoft implementation of the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol makes use of IPSec encryption in protecting data stream from the Virtual Private Network client to the VPN server.

Tunneling, as Knight (2010) pointed out, is the whole process of encapsulation, routing, as well as decapsulation. The tunneling process encapsulates or wraps the original packet within a new packet, which may have new routing and addressing information that allows it to move through a network. When data confidentiality is combined with tunneling, then the original packet data in addition to the original source and destination, is not made known to those who listen to traffic on the network (Hoffman, 2011). The encapsulation is removed the moment the encapsulated packet gets to its destination, and the original packet header is utilized in routing the packet to its last destination, which in this case is San Diego. It is notable that the tunnel is the logical data path wherein the packets that have been encapsulated travel through. To the original source as well as destination peer, this particular tunnel is transparent and it appears similar to another PPP connection within the network path. The peers are not aware of any routers, proxy servers, switches, or other security gateways between the starting point and the endpoint of the tunnel (Hoffman, 2011). Tunneling can be utilized in providing a Virtual Private Network when it is combined with confidentiality.

In the figure shown above, the packets that have been encapsulated travel through the network within the IPSec encrypted tunnel. The internet is the network. The gateway is an edge gateway which stands between the private network and the outside network. Carmouche (2009) pointed out that the edge gateways could normally be a proxy server, a firewall, a router, or any other security gateway. Moreover, two gateways could be utilized within the private network for the purpose of protecting traffic across untrusted sections of the network. Whenever the IPSec is utilized in tunnel mode, Carmouche (2009) stated that the IPSec itself offers encapsulation only for the IP traffic. IPSec tunnel mode is utilized mainly for interoperability with other gateways, routers, or end systems which do not support Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol over IPSec (Carmouche, 2009).

6.0     References

Carmouche, J. H. (2009). Basic IPSec VPN Topologies and Configurations. Columbus, OH: CRC Press.

Dominik, S., & Yvette E., G. (2011). Securing IP Multimedia Subsystem with the appropriate Security Gateway and IPSec Tunneling. 보안공학연구논문지, (3), 385.

Hoffman, P. (2011). Cryptographic Suites for IPSec. Crescent City, CA: Penguin Publishers.

Knight, P. (2010). Dynamic Routing Inside IPSec VPNs. Nortel Networks.

Kozierok, C. (2012). TCP/IP Guide: IPSec Authentication Header. Boston, MA: Penguin Publishers.

Somesh, J. (2011). IP, IPSec, and Related RFCs. Albany, NY: CRC Press.

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Internet Service Provider Grant to Block Address

Internet Service Provider Grant to Block Address I need to answer those questions below and show the simple steps:

Internet Service Provider Grant to Block Address
Internet Service Provider Grant to Block Address

6. An ISP is granted the block The ISP needs to allocate addresses for one organization with 200 addresses, one organization with 100 addresses, and one organization with 50 addresses. [For all parts of this question, assume the address blocks include addresses where the host ids are all zeros and all ones.]
a. How many addresses are in the ISP’s original block?
b. What are the first and last addresses in the ISP’s original block?
c. For the block of 200 addresses, what is the length of the net id?
d. For the block of 200 addresses, what are the first and last addresses in the block? Assume the first address of the block is the first address in the ISP’s block.
e. For the block of 100 addresses, what is the length of the net id?
f. For the block of 100 addresses, what are the first and last addresses in the block? Assume the first address of the block is the next available address after the 200 address block.
g. For the block of 50 addresses, what is the length of the net id?
h. For the block of 50 addresses, what are the first and last addresses in the block? Assume the first address of the block is the next available address after the 100 address block.
i. How many addresses from the ISP’s original block are unallocated after the above blocks are assigned?
7. An ISP is granted the block The ISP needs to allocate the following sub-blocks:
o 3 subblocks of 1000 address
o 2 subblocks of 500 addresses
Design the subblocks using variable length subnet masks.

Stuxnet virus Essay Paper Assignment

Stuxnet virus
Stuxnet virus

The subject of the research paper is “• Stuxnet virus “. This is a research paper for a Cyber Security course.
Here is the instructions:
“After you have performed your research, use your sources to analyze the major characteristics of the cyber security incident. Your analysis must include:
identifying the type of breach
• identifying and explaining how the breach occurred (or suspicions by authorities as to how it may have occurred)
• identifying and discussing known or suspected losses of confidentiality, integrity, and availability for information and/or information systems
• identifying and discussing technological improvements that would help prevent recurrence

Grading Rubric
Organization and presentation of content: 40%
Analysis and critical thinking: 20%
Selection (appropriateness) and citing of sources: 20%
Professionalism (writing style and grammar/spelling/punctuation): 20%”
After you have performed your research, use your sources to analyze the major characteristics of the cyber security incident. Your analysis must include:
• identifying the type of breach
• identifying and explaining how the breach occurred (or suspicions by authorities as to how it may have occurred)
• identifying and discussing known or suspected losses of confidentiality, integrity, and availability for information and/or information systems
• identifying and discussing technological improvements that would help prevent recurrence

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Best practices for Network Security Assignment

Best practices for Network Security
Best practices for Network Security

Best practices for Network Security

The key to the research assignment is to demonstrate your understanding of the topics, not to re-word the text or reference material. Constant site reference is a no go.Use these sites if possible

Use at least three (3) quality references Note: Wikipedia and other related websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

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Software development project Assignment

Software development project
Software development project

Software development project

Order Instructions:

Please read this assignment 4 instruction.


1. Prepare a small scale project. Use as your model one of the following:

a. Remodel project
b. Software development project
c. Events management project ( an awards banquet, or events at your choice)

Develop a statement of work for the project, using the format of: (1) background, (2) task, (3) objectives, (4) approach, (5) input source. Next, create a Work Breakdown Structure for the project.

What are the key steps, including work packages, tasks, and any related subtasks for the project?

2. Using the project you have identified in Problem 1, create a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) for it, identifying at lease six fictitious project team members.

3. Research a real project resources and develop a brief scope statement for the project, a general WBS, and any other information pertaining to the scope management for that project.

There are a total of 25 points for Assignment 4.
Grading rubrics for this assignment:

Quality and depth of analysis 20
Quality of Presentation
Effective presentation of information
Timeliness of submission


Background Information

This project provides a template to be used in software development. It includes a simple workflow accompanied with its statuses representing the tasks that go through the development project. Most software projects fail though. According to the Standish group reports, over 80% of the software development projects do not succeed. This is simply because they may be late, over budgeted, have some missing functions or a combination. The records also show that about 30% of the software projects are canceled before they are completed simply because of their poor execution. The projects that use the modern technologies such as the J2EE, XML, Java and Web Services are also no exception to this rule (Subramanyam, Weisstein, & Krishnan, 2010).


It is important to carry out best practices during the project in order to run a successful software development project. It is important to put into consideration the development process and choose the most appropriate development lifecycle process because all other activities during the project will be derived from that process. Most software development projects however use some kind of spiral based methodology over a waterfall process.  The choices include the IBM Global services method, Rational Unified Process (RUP) and the eXtreme Programming (XP). What process to use in the project does not matter rather how well the process will be executed.

Gathering and agreeing on the requirements of the project is essential to a successful software project. The development team should understand what needs to be built not necessarily to all the requirements before any design and coding are done. Quality requirements could be divided into functional and non-functional requirements. The use of the use cases documents the functional requirements. Non-functional requirements on the other hand describe the characteristics of the system and performance of the application. They are important because of the major impact they have on the application architecture, performance and design.

The application architecture should also be chosen appropriately. This contributes majorly to projects failure if not chosen well. Tried and true architectural practices are known as patterns and they range from the java patterns, to EJB design patterns (Subramanyam, Weisstein, & Krishnan, 2010). The concept of antipatterns however is brought about by the projects that fail and they are valuable because of the knowledge they provide about what works and what does not.

A good design is mandatory despite having a good architecture. Most project managers either under design or overdesign their applications. Performing object oriented analysis and design using the UML is important for software projects. Code construction is the most visible task for a total project effort. It is equally important to the architecture, analysis, design and test.

Testing is an integral task in the software development project. It is not an afterthought when the schedule becomes tough. Instead, it should be done proactively meaning that the test cases are planned before coding is done and are developed while the application is under design and coding. Lastly, a successful project must be under project management. A good project manager is aware of the existence of the above mentioned tasks and applies the lessons learnt from the previous projects.

Objectives of a Software Development Project

The objectives are what give a project a clear direction and thus the most important thing that one can do in a project. Project objectives provide a measuring stick to make the project more effective. One only qualifies the venture as a success only if the project objectives are met. It is a practical way that enables the project manager to keep track of the progress made during the project and it does not matter whether what was to be done was actually done.

The project objectives should be done during the initial and planning processes of the project management. During the initial stage, the objectives are defined of what the project expects to accomplish. During the planning stage, they are just narrowly defined and they become part of the process in determining how the project will be accomplished.

The objectives should be clear and concise to communicate succinctly what the project should accomplish. Muddled objectives could show that the project was not necessary. The smaller objectives designed to help achieve a greater objective makes the task seem more manageable. However, its main importance is to ensure that members are able to make measurable processes.

The software development project is helpful in keeping the objectives in mind as it gives space for the objectives to be listed thus ensuring that the project manager is on track. By getting ideas from various stakeholders and team members, a project manager puts together a list of objectives that he or she believes will guide the project to a successful outcome.  Examples of these objectives are: Control on Project Lifecycle, standards and methodology, metrics, transparency, stakeholders’ rights among others.


The overall goal of the software development project approach is to allow clients to have total visibility all throughout the project. If the project is broken down into logical iterations, the project manager and the team are able to focus on all the aspects of business in detail without feeling overwhelmed. Examples of the software approach include: the document initial scope, draft statement of work with fixed price and schedule, among others.

Input Source

Inputs and preconditions in the initial stage of the software testing are not feasible not even with a simple product. This is the most fundamental problem in the software testing. The number of defects in a software product can be extremely large and the infrequently occurring defects could be difficult to find during the software testing. Software developer however can test everything. However, they can at the same time use a combinatorial test design to identify the minimum test number for the required coverage (Di Tullio & Staples, 2013).

Work Breakdown Structure

The analysis phase in the project has two tasks: the Glossary and the Requirements Specifications. The Requirements Specification is the divided into three sub-tasks: the Use cases, Supplementary Specification and the Reporting requirements. The sub-tasks however can be broken down further into components that could be estimated for the time, cost or the resources required (Lee & Xia, 2010).

Responsibility Assignment Matrix

OBS Units

WBS Activities

1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5
Project management R
Analysis P RP
Design RP
Construction RP
Testing P RP


R=Responsible Organizational Matrix

P=Performing Organizational matrix

Software Project Management Resources

Resources are always limited all over projects. The human and software resources are always limited since they service multiple projects. Thus, the onus on a software project manager is to organize his project management resources carefully and use them in the right way to achieve the set objectives for the ongoing project. The feasibility to deploy more resources so as to reduce the calendar time is applicably limited in the software development projects. Thus the available resources need to be managed effectively. Example of resources used in the software development project is: time, the human resources, computer resources and money (Di Tullio & Staples, 2013).

The resources are majorly classified into four standpoints: Availability, place of availability, elasticity, and shared and dedicated. Availability could be recurring or depleting. An example of recurring is the human resources that are equally available day-after-day. Depleting resources are like time and money whereby their use depletes them. The place of availability could be classified as movable or immovable. An immovable place of availability is only available in the situated place and cannot be moved from one place to another. For example, the computer resources are not moved from one place to another during the project. A movable place of availability like the human resources and even money can be moved from one place to another.

Elasticity is further classified into elastic and plastic resources. The elastic resources are those that can have their supply either increased or decreased such as the human resources and money. Plastic resources, however, cannot have their supply extended. A good example for this is time. Lastly, the shared resources are those that are needed for only a short time such as the database Administrators. Dedicated resources are those assigned fully to the project such as the programmers.


Di Tullio, D., & Staples, D. (2013). The Governance and Control of Open Source Software Projects. Journal Of Management Information Systems, 30(3), 49-80.

Lee, G., & Xia, W. (2010). Toward agile: An integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative field data on software development agility. MIS Quarterly, 34(1), 87-114.

Subramanyam, R., Weisstein, F., & Krishnan, M. S. (2010). User Participation in Software Development Projects. Communications Of The ACM, 53(3), 137-141.

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The Impact of Complex Adaptive Systems Discussion

The Impact of Complex Adaptive Systems Discussion
The Impact of Complex Adaptive Systems                                  Discussion

The Impact of Complex Adaptive Systems Discussion

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The Impact of Complex Adaptive Systems
As a teenager beginning a new school, you likely searched for other students who were similar to you to befriend. You may have looked for students with similar backgrounds, interests, hobbies, and academic abilities. It is likely that no one explicitly told you to do this but that you did it naturally. Others did likewise, and groups began to form. As your group began to interact with other groups, rules governing these relationships may also have formed. Again, these relationships were likely not instituted by anyone in formal authority but passed informally among members and between groups. However, some members may have deviated from these informal relationship rules. If the influence of these individuals were strong enough, they could permanently alter the relationships within and between groups.

Those who apply complexity theories suggest that organizations and even entire industries develop in much the same way as individuals or entire organizations pursue individual goals, react to the actions of others, and form relationships. Scholar-practitioners must ask themselves what implications these theories have for those attempting to develop strategy for modern organizations.

To prepare, review this Week’s Learning Resources on complexity theory. Consider the potential impact of a complex adaptive system for the organization you chose for your SSP.

By Day 5 of Week 5, read all of your colleagues’ posts and respond to two colleague’s individually in one of the following ways:

•Critique your colleagues’ analyses of how a small change in a system may lead to large or radical organizational transformation, and offer additional insight from your personal experience or the literature.
•Refute or support your colleagues’ analyses of the potential impact of complex adaptive systems on leadership using an example from your own experience or support from the literature.
•Refute or support your colleagues’ analyses of the potential impact of complex adaptive systems on innovation using an example from your own experience or support from the literature.
•Answer one of the questions posed by your colleagues in their posts.

Colleague post 1 (Geraldine)
The Impact of the Complex Adaptive Systems

Organizational strategic goals is set up by executing the traditional strategic thinking (“Strategy,” 2005). Many attributes exist within the organization that causes the inconsistent, unlink processes, and business units key relation disconnections. CAS acronyms stand for complex adaptive system. CAS defines how corporation classifies innovation, complex as living machine, and growing organization (Lucas, 2004) and describes as organizations compete with other and compete with other organizations in the same trade is a form as a complex system (Stacey, 2011). Scholars describe combination of a number; populations of entities called as agents, each behaves according to the define set of rules (Laureate Education, 2013; as cited by Stacey).

The Impact of Changes within a CAS

Organization carried out many changes by the force of the changing environment and advanced technology. Internal business units within CAS transform due to the communication and collaboration with other business units (Stacey). IBM has undergone many changes and transformed over the past 100 years. For example, the business focus transformed from a hardware product offering to product and services offering. IBM today has been committed as service oriented.

During the revolution, the organizational culture depends on their CM known as changes management to ensure the success of the project deliverables, while the IT industry will make significant transformations over time as well. IBM cultures innovative thinking, with that a great collaboration and communication, this attributes is one key for the technology enhancement and advancement, procedural and processes improvement.

Potential Impact of CAS on Leadership and Innovation

The organization creates innovative thinking culture; leader encourages employees on innovation and management uses technology and skills to advance processes and competitiveness (McCarthy, 2003). New product and services offering is a key differentiating themselves from another industry. IBM and Apple were the major company during the personal computers (PC) era. The product serves the same deliverables, although serves different types of entities. For instance, Apple was more focus with a graphical interface, whereas IBM focuses with a command line interface system. Microsoft dominated the PC operating system and transformed the PC by incorporating IBM, Apple, and other ideas.

Communicating with the agents within the CAS is the key, because if communication does not exist, then innovative thinking and technology advancement would not stimulate for driving the technological growth. Still true today, a greater collaboration and communication is still the key and continuously exercise. CAS more significant today than ever value, an innovation and flexibility must exist to be sustainable.

The question remains on whether the organization measure the results of these interactions attribute aligned with the leadership expectations (Laureate Education). What is the leadership perspective about the system complexity? What is the next big thing for PC? How quickly consumer adapt the advancement of PC? Any advice for IBM, Microsoft, or Apple?


Baran, M. (2010). Teaching multi-methodology research courses to doctoral students. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 4(1), 19-27. doi:10.5172/mra.2010.4.1.019

Fleming, L., & Sorenson, O. (2001). Technology as a complex adaptive system: evidence from patent data. Research Policy, 30(7), 1019-1039. Retrieved from

Harvard Business School Press. (2005). Strategy: Create and implement the best strategy for your business. Boston, MA: Author

Hill, A., & Brown, S. (2007). Strategic profiling: a visual representation of internal strategic fit in service organisations.

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 27(12), 1333-1361. doi:10.1108/01443570710835642.

IBM. (2014). About IBM. Retrieved from

IBM Human Ability and Accessibility Center | Industries … (n.d.). Retrieved from

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013). Analyzing complex adaptive systems [Video file]. Retrieved from

McCarthy, I. P. (2003). Technology management–a complex adaptive systems approach. International Journal of Technology Management, 25(8), 728-745. Retrieved from

Colleague #2 post(Quintin)
The Impact of Complex Adaptive Systems

The field of complex adaptive systems theory (complexity) seeks to understand how order emerges in complex, markets, and social systems. High smith (2013) stated “complex adaptive systems provides an alternative to the linear, reductionist thinking that has ruled scientific thought since the time of Newton.” Complex adaptive systems theory maintains that the structure emerges from the interaction of individuals or a group. Successful business transformation has proven to be a complex issue. Cumming and Norberg (2013) stated, “In Darwin’s theory, it is commonly held that the evolution is a gradual process in which all species go through changes at regular intervals.”

Semetsky (2013) described CAS as a living system, which has several recurring conditions. The critical starting point from which the system enters into a presence at the edge of chaos is Disequilibrium. Semetsky described disequilibrium as being fluidity. Merriam-Webster defined fluidity as “the quality or state of being fluid and the physical property of a substance that enables it to flow.” Keyhani, Lévesque, and Madhok (2013) described disequilibrium as a “state in which old processes and strategies are disrupted.” Presence at the edge is an active state, which is a condition that allows old processes, structures, and customer to yield or try new approaches. Highsmith (2013) explained cultivation of self-organization and emergence are results of distributed intelligence. Systems achieve order because multiple local agents interact and those interactions produce unintended outcomes without the intervention of a central controller. Organizations take on properties and structures that are unexpected because people and groups. The most one can do to change and improve themselves is relative to what the other agents are doing (Bolman & Deal, 2013).

Highsmith (2013) described CAS’s as being characterized by perpetual novelty. In an economy, the agent may be an individual or household. Control of the CAS tends to be highly dispersed. A CAS has many levels of an organization with agents at levels servings as building blocks for agents at a higher level. A group of individual workers will produce a department; a group of departments will form a division, and will continue to build throughout the company and world economy. The systems processes are learning and adapting to changes in the system. The agents continuously throughout the process are exchanging information.

Alcock, Burgess, and Hasan (2013) described CAS’s as fluidly changing collections of distributed interacting components that react to both environmental and to one another. Examples of CAS’s include power grids, the internet, social groups, and human society. Power grid refers to the electrical grid that delivers electricity from suppliers to the consumers. The grid has stations that supply electricity to different areas and equipment. Power travels from the plant to the consumer to use for heating, lighting, sound, and refrigeration. Power failure can cripple plants, firms, airports and many other locations that require power. Power grids that cease to operate can cause broad hardships. Devices that need power can stop operating until powers restored. People can die from extreme cold or excessive heat, and the economy could suffer billions of dollars in damage.

Bullock et al. (2014) described how leaders of organizations expect to achieve stability by reducing complexity through codification, solving problems using reductionist rather than holistic thinking, understanding critical cause and linkages, and engaging in complex planning for a world they believe is predictable. Thus, leaders cannot control the future because, in complex systems such as organizations, unpredictable internal dynamics will determine future conditions. Heylighen (2013) described how leaders have learned the importance of interactions, correlation, and unpredictability among individuals. Leaders facilitate communications, but they do not direct communication. The leader allows communication to emerge through linear processes. Involved leaders facilitate development by becoming catalysts for actions, and function as “tags” Tags help speed up specific behaviors by directing attention to what is important and providing meaning to events.

Collins, Fizzanty, and Russell (2013) described that collaboration with other leaders in other areas is important to reduce problems within the organization. Collaborative members suggest that a shift in power relates to change and emergence of new patterns of interactions. Leaders can have available a list of occurrences that can happen and ways to solve the problems. Each leader or agent can have control of their station during any problems within the system. Leaders have to be flexible and recognize change has to occur. The fix used yesterday may not work with the same issue today. Schneider (2012) described leadership as an indirect, catalytic process that facilitates productive self-organization, a movement in which activity reformulates around a common cause.

Examples of CAS include the ecosystems and the biosphere. At the global level, the homeostatic nature of processes crucial to the maintenance of life, especially atmospheric processes which treat the biosphere. Another example of CAS is power companies. Power companies provide power to millions of customer all over the US. When part of the grid goes bad, if not properly corrected, power loss could affect millions of customers. The dispersed and local nature of an autonomous selection process assures continual adaptation.

Leaders cannot predict the future; can leaders use models to give them an idea of what could happen in the complex adaptive systems related to their organization?

A complex system has the ability “to switch between different modes of behavior as the environmental conditions are varied.” It is adaptive. What would be the outcome of a complex adaptive system that makes the incorrect decision/malfunction. Example: Medical equipment used to sustain life.


Alcock, C., Burgess, L., & Hasan, H. (2013). Information systems for the social well-being of

senior Australians in building sustainable information systems (pp. 89-100). New York,

NY: Springer.

Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (2013). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Bullock, J., Colombo, D., Linkov, I., Seager, T., Sweet, D., Tylock, S., & Unrath, U. (2014). Sustainability awareness and expertise: Structuring the cognitive processes for solving wicked problems and achieving an adaptive state. Retrieved from doi: 10.1007/978-94- 007-7161-1_5

Please answer each colleague post individually with three references each !!!!!


The Impact of Complex Adaptive Systems

Colleague One

In response to the post made by the first colleague, Geraldine, I agree with him that each and every organization has strategic goals, which are executed through strategic thinking. Nonetheless, there arises the need to specify that modern organizations have fostered the application of complex adaptive systems by reinforcing their operations. Given the definition of the term Complex Adaptive Systems, which Geraldine notes as being the process of classifying complex living machines and innovations so as to stimulate growth in organizations, the example given on the PC industry adds a different perspective to the argument. This is because even though the industry was shaped by the existence of competitors who impacted on the micro environment through innovations, research and development, it is still appreciated that the slotting in of strategic managers, market researchers and public relation officers facilitated the integration of CAS (Hill & Brown, 2007). In the end, the complexity of the relationship between Apple, IBM and other companies led to a transformation of the industry where currently, companies that were previously specialized in software programming such as Microsoft have ventured into hardware production through mergers and takeovers while hardware producing companies such as IBM have vertically integrated into software programming.

From this example, the impact of CAS is seen as having a neutralizing impact on the growth of the PC industry as all the companies have vertically integrated. This critique moves the argument closer to answering the questions posed by Geraldine asking whether organizations have a way of measuring the results accrued from an interaction of the adaptive systems. The answer to this question is yes. This is because the inauguration of various departments into modern organizations facilitate the identification of key parameters that cause an impact on the adaptive systems (Solvit, 2012). Additionally, the leadership perspective has increased thus necessitating the creation of specific departments to monitor the efficiency of the system. As a result, the next big thing for PC is further vertical integration where companies will be self-sufficient by creating their own software and hardware respectively (Hobbs & Scheepers, 2010). The consumer are very adaptive because the increased competition courtesy of CAS has led to more sophisticated innovations at a relatively low cost. I would advise Apple, Microsoft and IBM to invest more in research and development so as to create more user friendly PCs.


Hill, A. & Brown, S. (2007). Strategic profiling: a visual representation of internal strategic fit in service organizations. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 27(12), 1333-1361.

Hobbs, G. & Scheepers, R. (2010). Agility in Information Systems: Enabling Capabilities for the IT Function. Pacific Asia Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 2 (4).

Solvit, S. (2012). Dimensions of War: Understanding War as a Complex Adaptive System. Paris, France: L’Harmattan Press.

Colleague Two

The second colleague (Quintin) acknowledges that the complex adaptive system theory defines the process of attaining order in complex markets and social systems. I support the definition of the theory since it seconds the ideas by Alcock, Burgess & Hasan (2013), who identified that CAS is pertinent in integrating complex business ideas. A critique of this note is that the author identifies more with many disciplines that skip the main logic behind the application of the theory in modern business scenarios. In spite of the scattered ideas, the author acknowledges that CAS is likely to result into distributed intelligence. By so doing, the systems attain order by interacting with the agents and this results into unintended outcome. In my opinion, which is seconded by Bronder and Pritzi, (2012) the central controller guides the reaction of the various stakeholders thus their outcome becomes focused towards using the integrated system to maximize on profitability and returns realized from a business. The process of gaining from applying the CAS theory is advanced by the institution of a learning organization where the employees are motivated into learning new skills that will help in shaping the company into adapting to the new systems. An example of this complex adaptations is seen in the technological advancement of medical equipment and machinery which rises the need for hospitals to create learning environments where their medics can interact with the macro environment through social networks and communication (Holland, 2006). By so doing, a cohesive system is created by borrowing knowledge from other better performing systems.


Alcock, C., Burgess, L., & Hasan, H. (2013). Information systems for the social well-being of senior Australians in building sustainable information systems (pp. 89-100). New York: Springer Press.

Bronder, C. & Pritzi, R. (2012). Developing Strategic Alliances: A Conceptual Framework for Successful Co-operation. European Management Journal, 10 (4), pp. 412-421.

Holland, H. (2006). Studying Complex Adaptive Systems. Journal of Systems Science and Complexity, 19 (1), 1-8.

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