How We Can Stop Cyber bullying Research

How We Can Stop Cyber bullying
How We Can Stop Cyber bullying
How We Can Stop Cyber bullying

How We Can Stop Cyber bullying

Order Instructions:

How Can We Stop Bullying / Cyberbullying Now?
Per the text and assigned course readings, bullying in general and bullying in particular are ongoing issues which many students today experience, often with tragic consequences. As an educator, one important job you will have is to develop safeguards against bullying in your classroom.
Imagine that you are asked to give a presentation at a conference on a K-12 public school teacher who is preparing to cover the topic of bullying and bullying in your class. To prepare for the presentation, you first have to do some research on your topic.
Write a five to seven (5-7) page paper in which you:
1. Define the terms “bullying” and “bullying”, and specify the main difference(s) between these two terms.
2. Design a lesson which addresses both bullying in general and bullying specifically, focusing on the following elements:
a. Learning objectives of the lesson
b. Measurement method(s) used to determine student learning and lesson effectiveness
c. Description of lesson type (i.e. lecture, interactive, peer learning activity, etc.)
d. Materials needed for the lesson
e. Costs and funding for the lesson
3. Use at least four (6) peer-reviewed academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and many Websites do not qualify as academic resources. Peer-reviewed academic resources refer to articles and scholarly journals that are reviewed by a panel of experts or peers in the field. View this video for more information on obtaining peer-reviewed academic resources through your Blackboard course shell.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
• Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
• Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
• Analyze how educational theories and practices impact contemporary issues in education.
• Survey and analyze issues facing the changing demographics of education.
• Evaluate the impact of technological change on contemporary issues in education.
• Use technology and information resources to research contemporary issues in education
• Write clearly and concisely about contemporary issues in education using proper writing mechanics


How We Can Stop Cyber bullying Now

Bullying as defined by psychologists is physical or verbal abuse repeated over a given duration of time and it involves power imbalance (Feinburg, 2013). Bullying occurs when a person purposely and frequently says or does upsetting or cruel things to another. There are three major categories of bullying namely: physical bullying whereby an individual uses his own body or objects to harm another individual for example, kicking, hitting or breaking somebody’s possessions are forms of physical bullying. Verbal bullying on the other hand includes ushering threats, using derogative statements, name-calling or teasing which may affect the other person mentally interfering with their self esteem (Feinburg, 2013). Social bullying entails using relationships or friends to harm someone else; this form of bullying can be presented in form of gossips and spreading rumors which make the targeted person appear foolish or brainless; this kind of bullying is commonly found amongst the girls (McNamee, 2014).

Cyberbullying on the other hand its mainly etched on the social media platform through which a person utilizes communication technologies such as the internet, social media, text messages and emails to defame, harass and repeatedly intimidate others(Feinburg, 2013). Cyberbullying can be presented through various forms such as, disseminating mean and menacing emails or short messages, posting embarrassing photographs of an individual online, like sharing nude photos of a friend via the face book platform. Cyberbullying could also entail publishing embarrassing information concerning others on the website. Other people also impersonate and use names of an individual pretending to be that person and post mean information concerning the person they are impersonating (McNamee, 2014). Some cunning individuals also trick others into posting very personal information online and then they forward it to social groups in order to embarrass them. Cyberbullying is exceedingly distressing because it affects the targeted individual in diverse ways as compared to the traditional bullying. It can follow an individual everywhere on their phones and their computers, from school to mall and even at home. A lot of people could also be involved meaning that the defamatory information leaked could be accessed even globally.

 Lesson Addressing Bullying And Cyber bullying

(a)Learning objectives of the lesson

After the conclusion of this course the student will be able to . . .

  • Define and explain traditional bullying in school setting.
  • Distinguish the difference between traditional bullying and cyber bullying.
  • Explain the three major types of bullying in the traditional bullying context
  • Explore factors that could lead to cyber bullying.
  • Understand the various measures that could be used to prevent traditional bullying and cyber bullying.
  • Understand the various interventions that could be instituted to mitigate the occurrences of bullying in schools and on the cyber space.
  • To discuss and explain the various strategies that can be used to respond to bullying incidences.
  • To provide continuing professional development and family education for adults on bullying and its ramifications.
  • In a position to increase awareness of internet safety strategies among youth and their families to ensure that they can minimize occurrences of bullying incidences.

(b) Measurement Methods

Student measurement methods help the teacher to establish what the students know and what they need to learn. This gap can be closed by instituting bench mark and interim tests which help to track specific skills and knowledge through progress monitoring (Sheal, 2010). For the purposes of this course formative assessments and other integral methods will be used to measure student’s knowledge and progress.

  • Proper planning of the lessons and design of the learning program in relation to the established course objectives.
  • Pre-course identification of the student’s needs in order to establish the knowledge acquired after course completion.
  • Pre-course briefing between the student and the trainer to find out the areas that the student needs further guidance and training.
  • Test before and after the training to find out the knowledge acquired through the course.
  • Thorough assessment of terminal knowledge and skills and the completion of perception to ensure that the students has acquired attitude change through the training.
  • Letting the student complete the end of programme reactionnaire
  • Letting the student complete end of program learning questionnaire to make sure that the stipulated objectives have been met.

(c) Description Of Lesson Type


The first lesson on the definition of bullying and the nature of cyber bullying and their distinctive traits will be delivered through an interactive lecture session. Cyber bullying is frightening; often its victims are prone to suicidal thoughts, its increased power it’s due to the extensive nature of the internet (McNamee, 2014). A lot of emphasis will be exerted on the power of the cyber space which is multifaceted and extensive since the defamatory information can be stored on variety of online media causing the victim to relieve the experience over and over again, this can be extremely traumatizing. Unlike the traditional face to face bullying this kind of can be stored on a variety of online media. The student must understand that treatment of cyber bullying must include the realization of the significant risk it creates in victims.

Interactive Question And Answer Session (Preventing Cyber Bullying)

The participants will be given a chance to offer suggestions on how cyber bullying can be prevented. And then trainer will proceed to highlight some of the cyber bullying prevention strategies.

  • Assessing Bullying In The Learning Institution

In order to combat bullying and also cyber related bullying, the school management should administer surveys amongst the students, staff members and families to find out the nature of bullying experienced in the school and to what extent it has affected the schooling community. This will help the management to formulate the necessary intervention strategies and measure their progress over time (Feinburg, 2013).

  • Creating An Oversight Team

The management should create a committee and charge them with the responsibility of overseeing bullying related matters. The committee should be informed about the right policies, practices and trends about cyber bullying (Feinburg, 2013). This will help in establishing protocols on how to respond to bullying incidences. This committee should also plan school wide events  plan school wide events and build relationship with law enforcers so that they can be active participants in case bully cases are reported.

  • Educating The Community

The schools should continuously provide continuing professional education for the families and the students on bullying and how to prevent it. Moreover, the curriculum should capture issues related to bully prevention and anti-bias education so as to address ethical standards for both online and off line communication(Robinson, 2011). Youths should be enlightened to know that any form of bullying is crime and unacceptable and they should be taught the right strategies for responding to any form of social aggression.

  • Establishing Policies

Learning institutions should implement anti-bullying, non-discrimination and non harassment policies which should be clearly defined stating guidelines and the consequences for offenders. Schools should also establish technology related guidelines which must be accepted and assimilated in the learning institution (Sheal, 2010). This way they will be in position to handle any form of bullying happening in the school compound whether through the traditional methods or through the internet platform.

  • Promoting Online Safety

Online safety can be enhanced through increased awareness of the internet and safety strategies. This project should include the students and the parents/guardians to make sure that they have practical information on how to cyber bullying. Moreover, the appropriate blocking and filtering soft wares should be used to make sure only necessary information can be accessed by the community (Schmalenbach, 2012). Schools should establish safe and private mechanisms for reporting any incidences of bullying. Clear procedures should be instituted to make sure that any bullying incident is investigated properly.

Materials Needed For Lesson

Laptop, projector, notes prepared on the power point platform, a note book, a board and mark pen for illustrating the complex concepts.

Costs and funding for the lessons

Face to face communication is a winning formula for imparting knowledge; in this conference some of the costs associated with the training include the conference hall, Hotel amenities, food and drinks, study materials, note books and the training fee the cohort of the students attending the conference. The funding organization will be expected to pay up to $800 to cater for the costs and funding of the lesson. {Student to append a realistic figure}


Feinburg, T. (2013).Cyberbullying: Intervention and Prevention Strategies. Helping Children at Home and School III (n.d.): 1-4. National Association of School Psychologists

McNamee, D.(2014).Cyberbullying ’causes Suicidal Thoughts in Kids More than Traditional Bullying. Medical News Today. MediLexicon International.

Rae, L. (2012) The Skills of Human Relations Training. Gower.

Robinson, K. R., (2011).Handbook of Training Management. Kogan Page, 1981. (Chapter Schmalenbach, M.(2012)The Death of ROI and the Rise of a New Management Paradigm’, Journal of the Institute of Training and Occupational Learning, Vol. 3, No.1, 2012.
Sheal, P. R.,(2010) How to Develop and Present Staff Training Courses, Kogan Page.

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Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?

Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?
Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?
Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?

Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?

‘In this discussion you will respond to the following question: Should the media be allowed to airbrush ads of both females and males in popular

magazines? Support your opinions with evidence. Use MLA citations and respond to two peers.’
Could you please a total of one page including responding to two peers that I will copy and paste bellow. So, three different sections.
And please use MLA because all the previous assignments the I ordered were in APA not MLA, although I chose MLA!
One of my fellow wrote:
"I feel like airbrushing and photoshopping models and famous people is very popular topic right now. Why is it so popular? I try to ignore all of this
stuff because it seems sort of superficial, but since we have to talk about it here, I will address it. First of all, I don’t understand why models are
airbrushed in the first place because they are already beautiful and skinny. What more could you do to make them look better? If magazines and the media wnat
perfect looking people, then why do models have to be perfect if all they have to do is airbrush the photo? This is entire business of "perfection"
seems like BS. I feel like the rich and powerful created it to make the poor and normal looking people down about themselves. Those in charge and the
inventors of photoshop and airbrushing, especially those who are making money from all of this don’t care about the reprecussions or how its destroying the
way people feel about themsevles. They are just doing it for money. So to answer the question, no I do not think the media should be allowed to airbrush ads
in magazines. No more lying should be allowed."
A second one said:
"I do not think the media should be allowed to do anything that consitutes as lying. What I don’t understand is in advertisements and magazines, the
people being photographed are already very beautiful and good looking people. Why are these magazines going out of their way to make them look
"better" when they are already better looking than most people? It seems, to me, to be a complete waste of time and money. Why are all these
magazines trying to create a person that isn’t real? It would make more sense if they were just drawing pictures or cartoons of unrealistic looking people,
but they aren’t. What confused me even more is that these models starve themsevles to meet a certain idea of what the magazines want and yet they are already
so skinny and good looking. Why aren’t there laws to stop the magazines from lying to the public? If people are so outraged, why do they continue to buy the
magazines and support the magazine companies? It all seems so strange and backwards to me. There is all this outrage, yet nothing is being done to stop it.
There needs to be no more purchasing of magazines until this comes to an end."

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United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

The Raise;United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNHCR)

Order Instructions:

In “The Raise” scenario, you were asked to construct arguments in favor of getting a raise. Using the knowledge you gained from the “The Raise” scenario, pick something that you are passionate about and create an argument, either inductive or deductive, to present your strongest position on that issue. Present your argument in premise-conclusion form. View the following human rights videos listed under this week’s required multimedia:
Gem Slaves: Tanzanite’s child labour – Part – 1
Why women count video clip collection: Southeast Asia, Pacific, Caribbean, Latin America
Children and human rights, part 1: Rights & wrongs – Human rights television
Child labor, part 1: Rights & wrongs – Human rights television
Focus your analysis on a specific contemporary human rights issue. You can use an issue from these videos or use what you learn in these videos to address another specific issue that is of interest to you.


In 1989, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNHCR) was founded to protect children’s rights. This convention has been one of the most widely ratified treaty in the world. The treaty takes into account basic health and welfare, education, rights and freedoms, and a child’s family surroundings (Dubbink & Van, 2011, Pg. 203). The episode Child labour- Rights and Wrongs highlights the system of child labor and the movements that have been established to counter it.

Rarely, children are subjected to one form of abuse at a time. For a long time, physical abuse has been a standard element of domestic life in countries such as Australia. Currently, incidences of domestic violence subjected on children or women have remained epidemic proportions.  Studies have indicated that quite a number of  children have been bitten, kicked, burned, scalded, or even attacked and threatened with a knife or gun by their caregivers (Epps, 2012, Pg. 76). Most of the parents or guardians that commit these forms of abuse are associated with emotional impairment, drug and substance abuse or have a history of childhood abuse.

These children find it difficult to relate to their peers and adults around them. The threat of violence at their place of residence makes them perpetually mistrustful and consistently vigilant. They become aggressive in their attempt to determine and keep control of other people’s behaviour. Continuous violence causes anxiety, depression, and low-self esteem to set in.

The good news is that community attitudes to child abuse are now changing for the better. Some countries such as Australia have made the campaign against child abuse to be an uphill task. It has failed to prevent violence against children and to commit to legislative reform. It is, therefore, of great importance that countries recognize that children occupy a unique position in the society; they hold the future of the community. Thus, they should be accorded paramount care and protection


Epps, G. (2012). Wrong and dangerous: Ten right-wing myths about our constitution. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Dubbink, W., & Van, L. L. (2011). European business ethics cases in context: The morality of corporate decision making. Dordrecht [etc.: Springer. 203

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The United Nations Convention on the Child Rights

The United Nations Convention on the Child Rights Order Instructions: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has been widely criticized but also hailed as an important means to improve children’s lives.

The United Nations Convention on the Child Rights
The United Nations Convention on the Child Rights

Discuss the different views of the convention,

The United Nations Convention on the Child Rights Sample Answer

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has been widely criticized but also hailed as an important means to improve children’s lives. Discuss the different views of the convention.

Following a decade of negotiations, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (the CRC) in 1989. This marked the first international legal instrument for recognizing the basic rights and freedoms of children. 1989 attempted to get rid of the perceptions in different parts of the world that children are mere possessions. The Convention also indicated its recognition of the significant role that parents and families play in the provision of the best environment for the growth of children.

The CRC has been identified as the international legal instrument with the highest record of ratifications by UN countries. So far, the treaty has been ratified by 193 nations. With regard to UN member states, it is only the United States and Somalia that heaviest ratified the treaty. Following the ratification of the Convention, the Party State is required to ensure that its provisions are implemented. Accordingly, the state has to take up relevant administrative as well as legislative measures for purposes of implementing CRC’s provisions.

The Declaration of Geneva of 1924, which was adopted by the League of Nations, and the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1959 preceded the CRC. These two non-binding legal instruments basically cover social and economic rights. The 1924 instrument basically provided for the most fundamental needs of the child, and it called on State Parties to recognize them. The 1959 United Nations Declaration also provided for the physical welfare of the child and additionally for the prohibition of discrimination against the child on grounds of race, property, social or national origin, political or other opinion, language, sex, color, birth or any other status. The Declaration further provided for the right of a child to a name and nationality. There are also other international legal instruments with provisions for the rights of the children, some of which apply to “everyone” while others provide explicitly for the children. One of such instruments is the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).

Since the time it was adopted up to date, the CRC has greatly played an important role with regards to the protection of the rights of the children in many different countries as governments have made efforts to implement their obligations under the Convention. The Convention provides a comprehensive approach for the protection of children rights; in the sense that it amalgamates civil and political, cultural, social, and economic rights in one human rights instrument. CRC’s inclusion of civil and political rights of the child is of great importance owing to the fact that these rights need immediate implementation, unlike social, economic and cultural rights that merely need programmatic or progressive implementation. This implies that although states need to take measures to ensure the implementation of economic and social rights of the children, they can only stretch to the extent that the internal resources can allow. This aspect of progressive implementation has been generally set out in Article 4 of the CRC, and it has also been reflected with regards to such other rights as the right to education provided under Article 28. According to Article 3, every decision made by the government or an adult needs to consider the best interests of the child. The overriding obligation of State Parties is provided under Article 4 which requires them to put up appropriate administrative and legislative measures to ensure that the provisions of the Convention are implemented. The Convention also imposes a duty on parents and care givers as well as local and international NGOs, UN agencies, the media and the judiciary to take contribute to the promotion and protection of children’s rights.

The governments which have ratified the Convention have indicated in reports their commitments in allowing children to grow effectively in an environment without hunger, without violence, without poverty, and without any other injustices or hardships. These injustices can be avoided through the promotion and protection of the political, cultural, civil, economic, and social rights of the children.

Most of the provisions under the CRC exclusively cover the needs of the children by virtue of them being children and not adults. These rights and freedoms are established from the fact that children do not have the capacity to protect themselves or to provide for themselves. Children do not have the ability to survive on their own without having a supportive environment. Article 27 of the CRC obliges the Party States to acknowledge the rights of all children to adequate living standards required for their physical, social, moral, spiritual, and mental development.  According to Article 33, Party States should adopt necessary measures for protecting the child from illicit drug use. Several other provisions in the Act require the Party States to adopt necessary measures for purposes of protecting children from such harms as exploitation at work, sexual exploitation, and sexual abuse. In almost all situations, these harms against which children are protected from are also harms from which adults need protection. However, it is claimed that children have a special need for protection due to the fact that they are not mentally and economically capacitated, making them more vulnerable to harms.

The greatest point of weakness for the CRC is with regard to the implementation of its provisions. The Committee on the Rights of the Child is a UN institution which was established with the mandate of ensuring compliance with CRC’s obligations. The Committee is now properly constituted and it has ensured that State Parties submit reports with regards to the manner in which they are implementing the provisions of the Convention as provided under Article 43.  The Committee is further charged with the responsibility to devise and recommend most appropriate methods for implementing the Convention, to come up with particular recommendations, and to provide necessary assistance and technical advice. Nevertheless, the CRC is still perceived to be in its childhood phases as an international legal instrument, due to the fact that it does not have sufficient jurisprudence as to the proper interpretation of its provisions. Due to the lack of this jurisprudential guidance, the State Parties do not have a clear picture of what they should do or omit to ensure that the obligations under the Convention are met. As a result, it has proven difficult for the Committee to ensure that the implementation is monitored meaningfully.

There are also various challenges presented to CRC with regard to the resolution of other differences in national and cultural contexts. For instance, Article 17, which provides for children and social communication means, ignited a complex debate due to the defense by western delegates of a formulation that allowed for the free flow of information. From the perspective of these delegates, Article 17 would play an important democratic role in the fight against the censorship as well as the regulation of information, in addition to recognizing the privacy of certain information (Hammarberg, 1999). Nevertheless, this is not the view taken by all other Partner States. It is also not clear as to whom the responsibility of developing implementation guidelines is vested. The CRC only provides the guidelines and requires the Partner States to follow them. According to Hammarberg (1999), the insufficiency of clarity in the Convention portrays the Convention as a mere invitation for discussing objects and not a prescription of the required implementation methods.

There has also been the concern with regards to the fact that the Party States frequently delay in delivering their reports to the UN Committee. According to the Commission of Human Rights (Working Group on Human Rights of Children), there has been a failure on the part of the Convention with regard to fulfilling its objectives as the main body for securing human rights. The Commission further pointed out that the CRC had only achieved a few objectives, and that the inadequacy of its results was because of the lack of interest by the Party States in discussing human rights in such states where the political, economic and cultural interests of the people are at stake.

As a result of this, various Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) as well as other observers have questioned the legitimacy of the CRC Committee. These observers have contended that by virtue of membership to the Committee, it is not a guarantee that the members will resort to self-regulation mechanisms that adhere to the provisions of the CRC. Thus, according to the NGOs, it is imperative that proper reforms are initiated with regards to the operation of the UN Committee such as establishing better and stricter requisites for membership. The NGOs criticized the intentions of the Party States in ratifying the treaty since some of these states such as Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, China, the Russian Federation, Nepal, and Sudan have been involved in serious human rights violation allegations.

Besides the issues of interpretation, the CRC has also been criticized for its procedural shortcomings which partly explain the hurdles existing in light of its full promotion and guarantees. Furthermore, there is tension among the ten Committee members as regards the number of meetings that they should hold annually. The meetings are held only bi-annually and they only analyze a maximum of five reports in a year, leading into further delays in analyzing the submitted reports. Consequently, there have been recommendations for the need to increase the number of the Committee members to eighteen.

In addition to implementation issues, despite the exceptional number of states that ratified the Convention, it is still not effectively applied due to the fact that a significant percentage of the Party States have also included reservations against all applications of the Convention that have inconsistencies with the provisions of either internal legal instruments or Islam.  Such countries as Syria, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Malaysia, Iran, Kuwait, Djibouti, and Brunei Darussalam have entered into reservations with regard to inconsistencies of the provisions of Convention to Islamic principles. Countries that have reserved some provisions of the Convention on grounds of their local laws or constitution include Syria, Oman, Malaysia, Indonesia, Kuwait, and Brunei Darussalam. The CRC Committee and other State Parties have widely objected these reservations due to the fact that they are against the objectives and purpose of the Convention, and that they contravene Article 19 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.

In conclusion, it is evident that the CRC is a very important international legal instrument for unifying the laws regarding the promotion and protection of the rights of the child. This convention is a mark of the international milestone of utmost significance with the highest number of states having ratified it. In addition, the Convention symbolically represents the era global awakening whereby the entire global community has shown its consciousness towards the promotion and protection of the rights of the children. However, regardless of the symbolic significance of the CRC, this instrument will be pointless if there is no proper consideration of the historical context in which it operates, which has inhibited its objects of promoting and realizing the rights of the child.  To achieve the full realization of the CRC, it is important that the CRC is granted more supervisory powers. The mere submission of reports by the Party States is not a full guarantee for securing the implementation of the Convention. Consequently, it is imperative to consider stricter regulatory measures and control.

The United Nations Convention on the Child Rights Bibliography

Freeman, M. (2000). “The future of children’s rights’, Children and Society, 14(4), 77-293.

Gareth, A. (2005) “Children and development: rights, globalization and poverty”. Progress in Development Studies 5(4), 336-342.

Hammarberg, T. (1999). “Criancas e Influencias Novicas da Midia. O significado da Convencao da ONU”. In U. Carlsson and C.von Feilitzen….

Ramesh, A. (2001). UN Convention on Rights of the Child: Inherent Weaknesses. Economic and Political Weekly, 36(22) <> last accessed 28 April 28, 2015

Save the Children. (2007). “Reporting to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Starter Pack Country Programmes.” <> accessed 28 April 2015.

Todres, J. (1998). Emerging Limitations on the Rights of the Child: The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and Its Early Case Law. Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 30 (1959).

Tomas, C. “Childhood and Rights: Reflections on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child”. <> accessed 28 April 2015.

Tomas, C. “Childhood and Rights: Reflections on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child”. <> accessed 28 April 2015.

Some states such as Tunisia and Oman have made reservations with regard to these provisions.

Save the Children. (2007). “Reporting to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Starter Pack Country Programmes.” <> accessed 28 April 2015.

Hammarberg, T. (1999). ‘Criancas e Influencias Novicas da Midia. O significado da Convencao da ONU’. In U. Carlsson and C.von Feilitzen….

This was during the 60th session that took place in Geneva in 2004.

Gareth, A. (2005) “Children and development: rights, globalization and poverty”. Progress in Development Studies 5(4), 336-342.

Todres, J. (1998). Emerging Limitations on the Rights of the Child: The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and Its Early Case Law. Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 30 (1959).

Ramesh, A. (2001). UN Convention on Rights of the Child: Inherent Weaknesses. Economic and Political Weekly, 36(22) <> last accessed 28 April 28, 2015

Treaty Series No.58 (1980), in force 27 January 1980.

Freeman, M. (2000). “The future of children’s rights’, Children and Society, 14(4), 77-293.

“Right to be forgotten” ruling (C131/12)

“Right to be forgotten” ruling (C131/12)
“Right to be forgotten” ruling (C131/12)

Right to be forgotten” ruling (C131/12)

Order Instructions:

The word must amount to 800 words minimum, no upper level. including introduction

Assignment Task:
You are required to research and discuss how the “Right to be forgotten” ruling (C131/12) may affect the quality of information shared on the Internet. Use Harvard referenced case studies and academic theories to lend validity to your ideas.
The word must amount to 800 words minimum, no upper level. Your mark will be reduced if below word count.

Your work could consider the implications for private individuals, businesses, politicians or those with criminal records. Discuss how the ruling is being received and enforced by search engines and news publications. Are there differences in international levels of enforcement? There are academic level studies and case studies available on the subject – what are they saying about how the ruling will affect the quality of information available on the Internet?
Constructive critical analysis: Appropriate use of (800 words minimum) to describe current issues and future trends in topic area. Demonstrates that you have consulted widely and can describe the key issues in your topic – use case studies and referenced sources to substantiate your arguments.
Provides alternative views on your topic.
Language and grammar is appropriate to the audience and the topic.
Accurate use of Harvard style referencing
Extra credit for clarity of description of technically complex concepts.

Style and originality Grammatically correct language, original and creative flair in writing and ideas

Please i need to explain on this task very well. This task is an article writing that based on private Individual, businesses, politicians and those with criminal record. Each main point of article must have minimum word limit of 200 words. can the writers work on these categories with vital comprehensive words. Also, I live in UK which is under European Union.

All answer and referencing must not based on canada or USA university student portal because i know what I am talking about. i do not want any mistake


“Right to be forgotten” ruling (C131/12)

Internet has become one of the medium through which individuals’ access to information on various aspects that affects them.  However, court rulings may affect the information that people receive via internet. The right to be forgotten ruling on may 12 against  Google by the European Court of Justice is one of the rulings that will trigger a number of changes in information transmission (Coy, 2014). The ruling requires the operators of search engine (Google) to remove links from person’s name to third party information upon their request if the information is irrelevant, inadequate or excessive in relation the purposes of the processing  at issue. The author therefore discusses how this ruling may affect the quality of information on the internet. It further, deliberates on the impacts of the ruling for the private individuals, politicians, businesses and those people with criminal records among others

The ruling will affect the quality of information shared on the internet in many ways. One of the ways this will affect the quality of information is that information will not be provided and this will hinder people from accessing information that is relevant and important to them.  People will not get information especially if the information is perceived to be negative or affecting certain parties (Coy, 2014). This therefore, hinders or curtails the freedom of expression and accessible or right to access to information shared through the internet.

The ruling would also produce a censoring effect in the company. Because the company-Google will not wish to be fined, hence due to the act, Google may end up deleting whole information as opposed to facing the fines. This action will lead to a serious ‘chilling effect’ hence information will not be provided on the internet and this would be curtailing freedom of accessibility to information.

Information shared on internet will not be of quality, as it will lose objectivity. People will not provide sufficient information because they will have fears of their links being deleted. Therefore, most of the people will only use rumors to make their decisions and this will affect the way people make decisions and will curtail their level of understanding on various aspects in the society (Mantelero, 2013).

The act will as well lead to neutral search results that will produce patchy and biased results hence compromise on the integrity of the internet-based information.  The internet users will not believe and trust or have confident in the information they access through internet (Voss, 2014). This doubt would therefore, reduce the level that people or users will use this information.

The ruling has implications for private individuals. The ruling means that an individual that feels that information on the internet pertaining to them portrays them negatively will demand removal of such information. This therefore means that people will be denied the freedom of accessing information through internet.  If such links will not be viewed through search engines, then the users will not be in a position to access to such information (Mantelero, 2013). The ruling therefore, gave individual persons more freedom to demand for removal of information pertaining to them.  Furthermore, the ruling impacts on these individuals as it will discourage posting of information on private individuals especially projecting them in negative manner. Lack of such information will deny people the freedom of knowing or understanding the way people live in a society.

This ruling will also affect the businesses. Business use internet as one of their platforms to reach to their customers.  Internet has become one of the most important channels of marketing and doing business and with ruling; it will impact on the information sharing (Crovitz, 2010). Many of the business links will be deleted especially when they are suspected to be carrying information that is not required by the law. Such incidences will reduce their reach and definitely affects their business returns. Furthermore, Google Company may delete business information wholesomely to avoid any fines or penalties. Such acts will affect businesses in negative way.

Politicians are as well important internet users that this ruling will affect. Internet has been found to be one of the tools that politicians use to campaign and convey their agendas to the public. Activists as well use the platform to voice their concerns to politicians. Therefore, this ruling will have significant implications on how information will be shared. Politic rivalry will   increase especially if some politician posts scanty information about their rivalry. Such acts will see information about certain politicians deleted without their knowledge hence deterring them from reaching many people. Furthermore, activism will also be censured on the internet hence will make it difficult for the information to circulate to many individuals to trigger support.

People will criminal records will also be affected by the ruling. They will now have a privilege to demand for delete of any information pertaining to their past criminal records. The ruling will see a lot of information on criminal censured and this will contribute to increase criminal activities (Fioretti, 2014). People will be denied the freedom of sharing or accessing to such information and it will therefore become a bit challenging to deal with crimes as well as identify them. Criminals will get reprove and those that may have left crime may as well get a reprove as they will not be found on the internet

Stakeholders have received the ruling differently. Some support the ruling while other has criticized it as breaching the freedom of the people. The line between privacy and right of information seems to be glimpse (Ball, 2014). Enforcement of the ruling is underway but search engines such as Google have cried foul. The Executive chairperson of Google Eric Schmidt claimed that the balance struck by the court between privacy and the right to know was wrong (Skovic, 2014).  Even as they enforce the ruling they are still evaluating the requests people are sending and will consider whether the information is outdated and whether it is a public interest information before  making a decision of deleting the information.  No significant differences exist in international levels of enforcement of the law.  Various articles and features studies are available on the internet   discussing about the ruling. These academic studies provide in-depth analysis of the ruling stating the benefits and drawbacks. Some state that the ruling will affect the quality of information while other refute

In conclusion, I do believe that the court ruling aimed at improving the way information is shared through the internet. However, it would have required more time to incorporate the ideas and views of stakeholders. Private individuals, businesses, politicians and people with criminal records have their rights but other people as well have the right to free speech and to access information. With the ruling, I believe quality of sharing internet information will be negatively affected.

References list

Ball, J 2014, ‘Right to be forgotten’ ruling creates a quagmire for Google et al,’ available at    quagmire-google

Coy, P 2014, ‘Europe’s ‘Right to Be Forgotten’ Ruling Is Unforgettably Confusing,’ Available    from ruling-is-unforgettably-confusing

Crovitz, L 2010, “Crovitz: Forget any ‘Right to Be Forgotten’ – WSJ”. Retrieved   2014-08-09

Fioretti, J 2014, ‘EU official criticizes Google meetings on right to be forgotten ruling,’     Available at

Mantelero, A 2013, “The EU Proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation and the roots of the ‘right to be forgotten'”. Computer Law & Security Review, vol. 29  no. 3, pp. 229–235.

Skovic, A 2014, ‘Google takes steps to comply with EU’s ‘right to be forgotten’ ruling,’    Retrieved from      idUSKBN0EA04O20140530

Voss, G 2014, ‘The right to be forgotten in the European Union: enforcement in the Court of       Justice and amendment to the proposed General Data Protection Regulation,’ In: Journal of Internet Law, Vol. 18 no. 1, p3, 5

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Australian Human rights commission Act 1986

Australian Human rights commission Act 1986
Australian Human rights commission Act 1986

Australian Human rights commission Act 1986

Order Instructions:

1. Say which act you are researching

say which company you have chosen and why like eg like Vodafone , Coles , Woolworths any company of our choice.

what are the companies policies in brief mention.

2. Explanation of act i.e Australian human right commission act 1986 brief summery do not copy and paste.

who is the act designed to protect and what are the powers.

3. How does the act promote diversity in work force, give examples.

4. diversity within the company you have chosen.

Summary of companies diversity and their policy.

explanation in details of how act promote diversity example – mention any diversity program

5 conclusion

Summary of point 2,3,4 stated above.
also provide recommendations.

6. Must be referenced font style Arial .
size – 12 life spacing 1.5 heading in bold, text not bold.


Australian Human rights commission Act 1986


The study is aimed at evaluating the act that was enacted in Australia in 1986 concerning the rights of human beings. To aid on the research of this paper, Woolworths Australia has been chosen as the company in focus.  Woolworths Australia was chosen because of the fact that its employment policies and employee codes of conduct were easily available. It was also chosen because of its dynamic employee policies and the inspirational example it has shown for equal opportunity employment by its inspirational employment of people with disability, of different races, genders, and ages.

Background information of Woolworths Company

The company operates under clearly outlined rules and regulations that govern how they do their employee recruitment. In this code of conduct, employees are expected to demonstrate high degrees of integrity, trustworthiness, and honesty at all times. They are also required to put their best foot forward when they are representing the company even outside the working hour. In addition, each employee is required not to engage in immoral behaviors like drug abuse especially when they are at work. As a general rule, employees are required to use decent language, behave in a decent manner and should not misuse company resources such as the standard issue employee discount cards. In this digital year, they are also required to respect their fellow colleagues and not harm then in any way by posting any malicious comments about them or the company online.

The Australian Human Rights commission

The Australian Human Rights Commission Act was created in order to promote equal rights and an acceptance of equal and fair treatment in the workplace. It was also mandated to ensure the compliance of international covenants and declarations in which Australia is signatory to. Its major role was to handle discriminatory complaints in Australia as covered by the federal anti-discrimination legislation. Furthermore, the acts covered included the act that protects people being discriminated on the basis of their race, sex, disability or age. The commission was also mandated, however, with limited power to investigate and to conciliate complaints of employment discrimination as covered by the ILO Convention Concerning Discrimination in respect of Employment or Occupation.

The Act was, therefore, necessary to protect vulnerable people against discrimination on the basis of age, color, race or nationality, religion, sex and sexual orientation, pregnancy, marital status, social origin, criminal record, medical record, physical, mental, intellectual, or psychiatric disability, and impairment of any kind, political opinions or even trade union activities.

The act that protects the rights of human beings in Australia does so through the encouragement of people from diverse backgrounds working together in several ways: It contains within itself very strong provisions that support a diversified workforce and promotes the reflection of the entire diverse Australian community in the workplace (Australian Human Rights Commission Act, 2014). The section on the promotion of employment equity also goes on to explain the need for the establishment of a diverse workforce. With regard to the fulfillment of this Act, Woolworths limited is also committed to providing equal opportunities for all employees in the workplace free from bullying, discrimination, and harassment.

Woolworths Limited role in protecting Human Rights 

Woolworths limited offers equal employment opportunity to everyone is always in the forefront championing for the protection of the rights of human beings. This is enhanced by the company’s employment handbook which outlines clearly how each employ has to behave at the work place concerning race, age, color, sex, sexuality, religious beliefs, political opinions and disability. The company also opposes discrimination in any way including discriminatory harassing and bullying behavior such as body language, gestures, verbal humiliation and even sexual harassment. Physical molestation and the use of vilifying behavior such as inciting hatred and inciting others to have contempt about other workmates attributes is strictly prohibited and may result in disciplinary action and even termination  of employment. The company also ensures that every employee at Woolworths work by the principles of anti-discrimination with no fear of retribution should any complaint be made on the grounds of discrimination.

Woolworths as a company is very strict in its rules and regulations and ensures that the right of every worker is protected. The fact that the company has put effective anti-discrimination strategies in place is a good practice, which is good for business as it improves employee productivity and fosters a cohesive workforce. It also helps to build the morale of the workforce and adds to the bottom line, thereby building the reputation of the company. A discrimination-free work environment also ensures that employee turnover is reduced and the best people are gotten for the job (Australian Human Rights Commission Act, 2014).


From the study, it is very clear that each human being is treated with the utmost respect that they deserve. For instance, in a recent Australian census report that was conducted in 2011, it was noted that many Australians have native origins abroad with more than fifty percent arising from Europe and ten percent from Asia. In the 2011 census, 21.5 million Australians were male, which represented 49.4 percent of the population, while 50.6 percent represented the female gender.  The census also noted that of all the population, the original Australians being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander decent made up of 2.5 per cent of the population. In a different 2012 disability survey, it was estimated that nearly 4.2 million Australians who represented twenty percent of the population had a disability.

Furthermore, Australian Human Rights Commission Act has ensured that discrimination at the workplace is reduced as much as possible in Australia. This has been done through provision of strict rules that encourage gender equality at the work place. As a representative measure, it is expected that in the Woolworth workforce, for example, should have a balance between the genders with half of the workforce being male and the other half being female. Out of a population of one hundred employees, twenty should be employees with a disability and at least three should be of aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander decent.

Reference List

Australian Human Rights Commission Act (2014). Common wealth consolidated act. Retrieved   from:

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Human Factor in an Accident Assignment

Human Factor in an Accident
Human Factor in an Accident

Human Factor in an Accident

Order Instructions:

I want the work edited
Hi , I wrote my course work about 1500 words ,  I want it to be a good one ,I mean it needs to be grammatically corrected it may need some addition or omission, and I need it to become Harvard style.
It’s a PDF in my email.


Human Factor in an Accident

“Human factors refer to environmental, organizational and job factors, as well as human and individual characteristics, which influence behavior at work in a way that can affect health and safety” (Health and Safety Executive, 2014). This definition includes three interrelated aspects that must be considered: the occupation, the employee, and the company.

The ’human factors’ to which employees and customers are subject sometimes lead to unintended errors of task management and professional judgment. They may also not deliver their practical skills at the trained level every time. The context for these errors may be simple lapses in the behavior of well-informed professionals or it may follow from an underlying failure to appreciate the full range of behavioral influences or their potential consequences. Errors may sometimes be intentional violations of varying degrees of severity and for varying motives. The organizational framework within which people function may not always be conducive to achieving the best from them – procedures may be inappropriate or ineffective (SKY Brary, 2014).

Case Study: Fokker-100 of Iran Air in January 5th 1998.

Iran Air Flight 378, a Fokker 100, departed Urmia (Orumiyeh) Airport (OMH) at 18:41 on a domestic flight to Tehran-Mehrabad Airport (THR). The flight was descending towards Tehran when the crew decided to divert to Isfahan. This was because the weather conditions at Tehran were not suitable for a landing on runway 29. Visibility was poor in snow and sleet and there was a 20-knot tailwind.

The flight positioned for an approach to runway 26 at Isfahan.  There was fog in the area and the airplane descended until it landed a dry riverbed, some 8 km short of the runway.

Figure 1: Initially intended route map

Figure 2: Image of the plane after accident. Visibility is still low

Undisclosed Report

Captain A and first officer B were assigned to do the flight 378 from Tehran to Orumieh on January 5th 1998. Both crewmembers were new on this type of plane and it was their first experience on new generation of glass cockpit. Captain A had 60 hours and first officer B had only 20 hours of flight on the type. On assessment, Captain A’s record showed that he had failed during his training in the past and been grounded for quite some time and first officer B record showed that he had insufficient hours of experience on the jet.

Approaching Orumieh, they experienced a problem on the captain’s screen that shows navigation data. The captain’s navigation display intermittently switched to its default mode by itself. On the ground Orumieh engineer were advised and he fixed the problem by resetting the respective computer. Approaching Tehran the sun had already set and crew noticed the bad weather had reduced visibility and there was light snow with slippery runway. The captain of the airplane that had just landed in before them was Captain A’s instructor who passed him in the simulator test and let him come back to work again. He advised that the runway condition is poor and very slippery.

During approach, the crew noticed that several airplanes were diverting to the alternate airport Isfahan. They decided to discontinue the approach and go to Isfahan. The crew had difficulty setting up the computers of the aircraft for new destination. Closing to the alternate destination, they experienced significant pressure as the airport was very busy and they were short of fuel, the captain’s navigation display went to its default mode again that shows only basic data. Prior to final approach, they committed themselves to land, as there would be no fuel to make a go around and come back again.

On the short final approach course, the distance to runway on the captain’s display switched from eight to two miles, and the captain who was flying the aircraft became confused and nasty, and dived the plane to the ground in anticipation of not losing the runway in the last seconds, resulting to missing the minimum altitude at which a visual clue to the runaway must be obtained. At last, in total confusion, while looking for the runway, the first officer, to avoid hitting the ground, pulled the plane up and increased the power, but the main wheels of the aircraft touched the ground and the aircraft skidded on the cold and icy desert for about one mile before stopping around five miles short of runway. All 104 passengers and 9 crew members survived.

Figure 3: Hind view of the aircraft

Types of Errors and Violations

The causes of accidents in the workplace can be divided into three distinct factors: unsafe acts, unsafe conditions or a combination of both. Scientific research has shown more than 90% of workplace accidents, injuries or illnesses are linked to human factors.

Effective Human Performance is fundamental to operational safety in aviation. The majority of undesired outcomes can be attributed to the people who occupy the aviation system. They may especially occur in relation to the interface between people and complex procedures and equipment, which exist to support the safe and efficient completion of their duties.

Errors that contributed to the above accident can be classified as:

  • Knowledge based error:

Both crews were unable to show the minimum standard of knowledge to set the flight management computer to guide the aircraft to the alternate due to poor training and lack of knowledge. Both of them had difficulty to interpret the default mode of navigation display, which was the basic mode of the flight showing only the necessary information to land the aircraft safely.

The crews were unaware of auto tuning of navigational aids, which is automatically changed from one to another in certain conditions, that’s why the distance to runway suddenly changed from 8 to 2 miles. Standard operating procedure clearly states to tune the appropriate navigational aid to avoid auto-change during approach preparation.

  • Skill base error:

Pilots usually go down from minimum safe altitude towards the runway three miles prior to runway where the final approach fix is located and visual contact with the runway is established. The Captain suddenly noticed that it’s only two miles to the runway, and as a habit of landing at this stage of the flight went down without required visual clue.

  • Violations and Rule based error

The first violation happened approaching Tehran and the Captain decided to go to alternate without checking with the tower. Preceding aircraft report was just an advisory, the airport was officially open, and decision to divert was affected and influenced by the instructor who landed in front of them and in the silence of first officer. Another unjustified violation happened before reaching the alternate destination when the aircraft went suddenly below minimum safe altitude without any visual contact to the runway.

  • Organizational Gap:

The scheduling department didn’t have clear rules and regulations regarding new crew flying together. Normally scheduling should not put two inexperienced crew together, the requirement is minimum of 150 hours on almost all airlines


Over the past 20 years, a lot has been learnt about the origins of human failure. We can now challenge the commonly held belief that incidents and accidents are the result of a ‘human error’ by a worker in the ‘front line’. Attributing incidents to ‘human error’ has often been seen as a sufficient explanation in itself and something, which is beyond the control of managers. This view is no longer acceptable to society as a whole. Organizations must recognize that they need to consider human factors as a distinct element that must be recognized, assessed and managed effectively in order to control risks

We all make errors irrespective of how much training and experience we possess or how motivated we are to do the right thing. Failures are more serious for jobs where the consequences of errors are not protected. However, errors can occur in all tasks, not just those that are called safety-critical (Health and Safety Executive, 1999).

Thinking about potential human factor problems and planning ahead is more effective than waiting for incidents to occur and then trying to fix them after the event. Statistics have shown that companies that have correctly implemented and maintained an effective behavioral safety program have seen accident rates fall by between 40% and 70% (STS Solutions, 2014). This is a relatively high degree of significance. Ultimately, the goal is to minimize errors, and the consequences of those that remain, using either the monitoring or crosschecking of colleagues or technical solutions (SKY Brary, 2014).

The above accident shows the necessity of implementing a safety culture in all departments of an organization along with the training department. All departments and employees must strictly follow the Standard Operating Procedures, Checklists and CRM as well as retrain and debrief as necessary. Attending Human Factors seminars regularly and promoting no punishment reporting cultures are among safety nets that an organization could consider preventing any accidents.


It is no longer acceptable to attribute all accidents to human error. Instead, researchers have identified a better culprit that gives accidents a chance of avoidance. Human factors comprise a majority of all accidents. They should, therefore, be carefully managed to ensure that employees, their clients and the instruments of trade are safer. Every company should create a mechanism for managing human factors and follow up on it to ensure safety is guaranteed. The case study of Fokker-100 of Iran Air, which had an accident on January 5, 1998, is a good example of how human factors can influence the chances of an accident. As shown in that case, most of the human factors can at least be minimally controlled.


Health and Safety Executive, 2014, ‘Human factors/ergonomics – Introduction to human factors.’ [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Oct. 2014].

Health and Safety Executive, 1999, ‘Reducing error and influencing behaviour.’ 2nd ed . Richmond. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Oct. 2014].

SKY Brary, 2014, ‘Human Factors/Human Performance.’ [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Oct. 2014].

STS Solutions, 2014, ‘How do human factors lead to accidents, injuries and illnesses in the workplace?.’ [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Oct. 2014].

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Human Rights Reflection Essay Paper

Human Rights Reflection
Human Rights Reflection

Human Rights Reflection

Order Instructions:

International Perceptions of Human Rights

You might recall from Week 3 the importance of ethical reflection when determining the impact of your actions as a public administrator. Engaging in a similar type of reflection when reviewing literature in the field also can help you determine the possible impact of the latest theories and research on the field of public administration. How might the human rights readings from this week affect your role as a public administrator? Did the readings change your perception of human rights?
For this Assignment, you reflect on your perception of human rights and its role in public administration. You also examine the potential implications that human rights literature might have for public administrators.
The Assignment (3–4 pages in APA format): Your Assignment should include the following:
• A detailed and objective description of the human rights issues presented in this week’s readings
• An explanation of the nature of the issue(s) and its significance to you as a public administrator
• An explanation of what the readings meant to you in the context of your feelings, values, knowledge, and experience
• An explanation of the implications these readings might have for public administrators
• A summary of one of the following:
• What you learned about yourself as a public administrator based on your reaction to the readings
• What you learned about global governance from examining these readings
• Why this knowledge is important to you as a developing public administrator
• How you might apply this knowledge in your future practice
Note: Provide specific examples and cite your references.
Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. Provide a reference list with all resources included in the paper.
Your Assignment must demonstrate both breadth and depth of knowledge and critical thinking appropriate to graduate-level scholarship. It must follow APA Publication Manual guidelines and be free of typographical, spelling, and grammatical errors.




Human Rights Reflection

Human Rights Reflection

A detailed and objective description of the human rights issues presented in this week’s readings

According to (De Schutter, 2012), it’s possible to achieve self-determination at the national level if the international economic environment can be reshaped, and that internationally recognized human rights provide an effective basis for the realization of this objective. De Schutter presents the ‘double-mind’ problem that indicates the requirements for countries to comply with their human rights commitments at home while at the same time being discouraged from doing so in practice due to the fact that the international environment has not evolved to favor this. Nevertheless, it is very artificial to separate human rights and trade because fair trading provides a basis for fairness in human treatment.

Twiss (2011) also suggests that the human rights movement in all its moral, political and legal aspects provides the most effective basis for a practicable global ethic both in the present and the foreseeable future. This is supported by the contemporary efforts depicted by the movement to intersect explicitly with politics and other areas of international law (Benedek, 2007).

During the initial development of human rights as a branch of international law, it was viewed as an introduction of the Copernican revolution in that through human rights, international law was being used as a regulatory mechanism of state-citizen relations that hitherto were shielded almost wholly from international scrutiny. However, in the contemporary world, there is need for another Copernican revolution in three dimensions: to make possible for use of human rights as a guide of the exercise of the powers of international organizations, to make sure that transnational corporations apply their influential abilities in supporting human rights, and to monitor the influence of measures adopted by states on their national territorial surroundings. There is also a need for development of coordination forms at the international level which have been discouraged by the specialized regimes and organizations. Mitigation of the negative effects of fragmentation is not enough; we need to work towards improving convergence. Finally, we should not be contented with status quo.

An explanation of the nature of the issue(s) and its significance to me as a public administrator

Twiss’s concern is that many globalists tend to overlook the defining similarities between human rights and other spheres of international law because they misconstrue the open-textured nature of human rights and the human rights regime. (De Schutter, 2012) notes that there is need to solve the ‘double-mind’ problem and that it is not enough to guard against violations of human rights in the global economy. Rather, we should plan a transition and slowly transform the structure itself, piece by piece. These issues are significant in public administration because they give insight on implementation of human rights. Public administrators need to develop structures to secure the participation of citizens in public decision-making based on human rights public policies. It is also important for a public administrator to ensure that poor, vulnerable and discriminated people have a say and take part in the public decisions, and not only influential stakeholders. There is need to consider the human rights of the most vulnerable groups in all decisions (Aguilar & Zavala, n.d).
• An explanation of what the readings meant to you in the context of my feelings, values, knowledge, and experience

Twiss’s tactical use of examples of recent human rights developments to show how human rights movement significantly incorporates the goals, norms, and features of global ethics created a reflective encounter with my feelings as to the manner in which the goal of good life for all can be achieved. With regard to knowledge, the readings challenged my deep-rooted misconception that human rights are simply an expression of neo-liberal economic hegemony. I realized that human rights are in fact firmly rooted in relational and mutual understandings of communities and individuals that coordinate strong notions of communal and individual entitlements among present and future generations over all matters relating to survival and flourishing of the entire world. Accordingly, all the readings appealed to my values in the sense that the most important aspect of leadership respect for human rights in the broad sense. These readings also indicated that my professional experience should be tailored in with the promotion of human rights across all dimensions of life.
An explanation of the implications these readings might have for public administrators

These readings might affect public administrators in that they may consider promoting the establishment of social capital and building capacity to enhance the technical and institutional quality of the participation of citizens. The readings might challenge public administrators not to entertain status quo and to take up necessary steps to promote human rights in all dimensions of the leadership. They may be compelled to promote transparency and accountability of the governance process and its results. In essence, public administrators are likely to reconsider the definitive similarities between human rights and other fields of international law.
What I learned about global governance from examining these readings

Global governance greatly affects state-citizen relations and it cannot go unchecked. Effective global governance can best be achieved if human rights are properly incorporated in all its dimensions. This is because human rights inform global ethics due to the fact that human rights movement is well-entrenched throughout the world and it forms a solid basis for democratic leadership and protection of vulnerable groups in the global society.


Aguilar, L. F. & Zavala, L. E. (n.d). Challenges and Ways Forward for Public Administration Globally. Retrieved from:

Benedek W. (2007) ‘The World Trade Organization and Human Rights’ in: Wolfgang Benedek, Koen De Feyter, Fabrizio Marrella, Economic Globalisation and Human Rights, pp. 137-169. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

De Schutter, O. (2012). The Role of Human Rights in Shaping International Regulatory Regimes. Social Research: An International Quarterly, 79(4), 785-818.

Twiss, S. B. (2011). GLOBAL ETHICS AND HUMAN RIGHTS: A REFLECTION. Journal of Religious Ethics, 39(2), 204-222.

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Humanitarian doctrine of responsibility to protect

Humanitarian doctrine of responsibility to protect
Humanitarian doctrine of responsibility to protect

Critically evaluate the political and ethical implications of the humanitarian doctrine of responsibility to protect

1- Includes footnotes and excludes bibliography
2- The essay should demonstrate an understanding of the theoretical literature on war and security studies, the relevant concepts, and an ability to
integrate theory with references to contemporary examples.

Use at least three (3) quality references Note: Wikipedia and other related websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

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The Philosophy of Human Rights Protection

The Philosophy of Human Rights Protection
The Philosophy of Human Rights Protection

The Philosophy of Human Rights Protection

Essay of no more than 5000 words on the following subject.
‘Human rights do not really resolve the tension between competing interests and various visions of how the world should be; rather, human rights ideas
provide the vocabulary for arguing about which interests should prevail and how best to achieve the ends we have chosen.’ (Andrew Clapham,2007).
Discuss this view of the concept of human rights and it’s role in the legal, moral and political world. What do you understand by the reference to
“competing interests” and “various visions of how the world should be”, and how may these interests and visions be relevant to the process of rights protection? Does the view that human rights ideas provide a vocabulary for argument suggest a limited role for the enterprise of achieving moral and political goals through such a legal process?

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