Administration in Health Care Institutions: Budgeting

Administration in Health Care Institutions: Budgeting
Administration in Health Care Institutions: Budgeting

Administration in Health Care Institutions: Budgeting

Order Instructions:

All health care organizations have complicated budgeting policies and procedures. The more the nurse understands the process, the more effectively they can participate in the process. The budget process usually starts with an interdisciplinary approach.
1.Describe the potential members of the interdisciplinary team for budget development and the role of each individual.
2.What are the specific responsibilities of nursing in the development of the budget?
Are the responsibilities for budget specific only to the leadership of the nursing department or are they found throughout the organization


Administration in Health Care Institutions: Budgeting

The health sector requires considerably large amounts of financing. The management of funds in institutions within the sector calls for strategic budgeting plans. In most organizations, the executive formulates financing plans, and different departments implement them. At times, budgets may not concur with the financial status of health care firms. Under such circumstances, managers have an extra responsibility to match budgetary needs to organizations’ financial resources. Involving interdisciplinary participation in organizations’ budgeting is a common approach that managers consider in easing management. Involving members of varied disciplines helps organizations to develop an integrated budget.

Financial budgeting teams should constitute of the management as well as clinical practitioners. The management controls funding and should, therefore, play centrally in budgeting. Practitioners from different bodies require presenting their requirements to the managerial body for consideration. Nurses, pharmacists, and physicians are the lead clinicians in matters of budgeting. When the three departments communicate, appropriate budgets would be easy to design (Edwards, 2011). Financial experts are also important in budgeting as they would advise other team members on the profitability of the approaches they propose.

Nursing practice predominates the activities undertaken in hospitals. Also, hospitals spend most of their resources through nursing activities. Nurse leaders manage most of the activities within healthcare especially the workforce (Douglas, 2010, Pg. 270). Therefore, they could identify most of the budgetary needs of their hospitals and present them to interdisciplinary teams. As such, the professionals should enjoy representation in management committees.

Though budgeting mainly involves leaders, nurses are also important in budget development. Nurses should communicate their suggestions to their leaders who may in turn forward them to the interdisciplinary financial management teams. Nurses interact with patients more than does other professionals, and they could help connect budgeting with patient care. Nurses should also implement budgets in manners that reduce the costs of care provision (Sherman & Bishop, 2012).


Douglas, K. (2010). Taking action to close the nursing financial gap: learning from success. Nursing Economics, 28(4), 270-273

Edwards, R. (2011, November 1). In struggle to cut expenses, hospitals eye the pharmacy. Hospitals and Health Networks. Retrieved from

Sherman, R. & Bishop, M. (2012). The business of caring: what nurses should know about cost cutting. American Nurse Today, 7(11), n.p

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Quality of Products for Competitive Position

Quality of Products for Competitive Position Order Instructions: Quality of Products for the Competitive Position of an Organisation

Quality of Products for Competitive Position
Quality of Products for Competitive Position

Note: To prepare for this essay please read the required articles that are attached then answer the following questions:

How important is the concept of ‘goal translation’ in the methodology of continuous improvement used at STM?

Could this approach be applied effectively in your own company or another organization you know well? Explain your answers with examples.


1) The answer must raise appropriate critical questions.

2) Do include all your references, as per the Harvard Referencing System,

3) Please don’t use Wikipedia web site.

4) I need examples from peer-reviewed articles or researches.

5) copy percentage must be 10% or less.

Note: To prepare for this essay please read the required articles that are attached

Appreciate every single moment you spend in writing my paper

Best regards

Quality of Products for the Competitive Position Sample Answer


TQM W8 Reply

Quality of products that a company produces in terms of quantity, price, and delivery time is very important to the customer. Any entity which is determined in maintaining its competitive position in terms of quality products should ensure that it integrates all levels of management in its organization in quality management so as to achieve total quality management at all levels. Most entities have realized that quality can only be achieved if all operations of the organization were involved. An organization is expected to improve quality and performance in all its aspects to exceed customer expectations. In order for an organization to know whether their products are of quality, a survey should be carried on customers because they are able to define quality better. Organization’s management has the duty to improve on its products’ quality all the time. Improvement of organizations’ operations and continuous examination lead to increased and improved quality (Murray, 2015, para2).

Continuous improvement is whereby an organization puts never-ending efforts to expose problems and do away with them. It involves small innovations rather than huge innovations. Japanese view continuous improvement as the root of their business culture (de Jager, et al, 2004, pg. 320). The goal of this philosophy is to improve change operations in the organization in a consistent manner. All members of the organization are involved in the process of reducing waste in labor materials, machinery and production methods.  The organization needs to have a culture which promotes the process to ensure continuous improvement. All its goals, objectives, mission and vision statement need to be in line with continuous improvement. In addition, all firms’ activities, functions, and employees are supposed to be ready and adapt to the culture (de Jager, et al, 2004, pg 320).

Setting firm’s goals in line with continuous improvement makes it easy for the organization to be able to achieve its set goals. This because organization goals and objectives give direction to the organization and are used to predict its future. With the increasing competition in the business world today, most companies are adopting continuous improvement concept to maintain competitive position. Applying the concept of continuous improvement in an organization leads to cost saving which a major goal for all industries. Also, an organization is able to have motivated employees which lead to increased productivity and reduced employee turnover Evans, 2010, pg.179). Through the concept, organizations have the capability to produce quality services and products at reduced prices improving customer satisfaction. Finally, organizations are able to enjoy long-term benefits whereby their product becomes reliable, of higher quality, advanced, cheaper and attractive to customers (Jorgensen, Boer, & Gertsen. 2004, pg 345).

STM microelectronics tried several strategies to be able to maintain its competitive position in its industry, given that electronics industry is very competitive all over the world. Factors such as economic forces greatly influence the industry and to be able to maintain their competitive position all the time forced them to adopt a strategy that will enable them produce quality products and sell them at cheap prices to maintain their market share. To deal with these issues in 1987, the company decided to merge the two bodies into creating a company which could compete globally. This did not work out properly the company still had financial problems. This led to the company launching a TQM initiative in 1991 which was based on European foundation for quality management model.

First, the company expects commitment from management as well as staffs to ensure that they achieve success in their implementation of TQM. Company has as well has made some changes such as revising its strategic guidelines, mission statement and new objective , guidelines principles, Total quality management principles of the future were set to all employees all over the world. A team was formed to implement TQM strategy in the organization and the company set a common culture, ways of working and vision of the culture to all its branches all over the world. It also fixed long-term policies, which were to enable the STM monitor the progress of its TQM strategy and improve, were necessary.

One of the method that STM used in its policy deployment to enhance its total quality management in their management. To make its deployment policy effective it made the approach simple by combining many existing initiatives as possible. STM defined its deployment policy in different styles which made it easy for employees to understand it better. To manage and achieve its objectives, the company set goals and clear performance targets to attain by the end of the year. The company is committed to ensuring that it achieves total quality as espoused in its philosophy, goals, values and strategy as they are spread down the organization.  This has enabled the company to provide clarity and focus of direction and alignment. STM ensured effectiveness of its deployment policy by setting its goals and actions in line with its quality strategy and ensuring that they were clear to all employees at all levels.

STM’S approach could be applied in any company all over the world to achieve competitive advantage over competitors and company’s success too. In my company, the approach would help us improve on our customer relationship because the process will enable production of quality products, at lower prices which would lead to customer satisfaction. In addition, we will be able to gain a wider market share, and our reputation will also improve. This process will also lead to improved teamwork in my company because people will have to work together.

In addition, our company will have motivated employee more than ever because the process will involve all the employees at all levels hence, making them feel as part of the organization which is very important in employee motivation. Finally, my company will be able to reap great profits due to reduced costs of production and material costs too.  Total quality management is very important to all organizations it leads to many advantages, but it is hard to achieve it if the company does not set its goals and objectives in line with it. It is therefore very important to ensure that whenever an organization is adopting TQM in its organization all its functions and operations are geared towards quality (Bhuiyan & Baghel, 2005).

Quality of Products for Competitive Position Reference list

Bhuiyan, N., & Baghel, A. 2005. An overview of continuous improvement: from the past to the present. Management Decision, 43(5), 761-771.

de Jager, B., et al., 2004. “Enabling Continuous Improvement: A Case Study of Implementation.” Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 15(4) 315–324.

Evans, R. 2010. Managing For Total Quality and Performance Excellence. South- western. Cengage learning

Jorgensen, F., Boer, H., &  Gertsen, F. 2004. “Development of a Team-Based Framework for Conducting Self-Assessment of Continuous Improvement.” Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management. 15 (4) 343–349.

Murray. M. 2015. Total Quality Management (TQM). Retrieved May 7/2015, from:

Implementation of the Balanced Scorecard

Implementation of the Balanced Scorecard  Order Instructions: Implementation of the Balanced Scorecard

Implementation of the Balanced Scorecard
Implementation of the Balanced Scorecard

The term balanced scorecard became part of professional accounting vernacular in the early 1990s. This nontraditional approach to measuring strategic performance was developed by Dr. Robert Kaplan and Dr. David Norton. As the name implies, the goal of the balanced scorecard is to provide stakeholders with a balanced view of the performance of an organization. To prepare for this Application, review Case 14-1 “Global Oil” in Chapter 14 of your course text. After reading and analyzing the information presented, respond to the following:

The Implementation of the Balanced Scorecard  Assignment

Provide a critical analysis of M&R’s implementation of the balanced scorecard, including an identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the program.
?Prepare a response to the following: Was the adoption of the balanced scorecard at M&R responsible for turning around the organization’s financial performance? Explain your answer

Implementation of the Balanced Scorecard  Sample Answer


The balanced scorecard has been applied by many managers to spearhead performance measurement tool in view of strategic management to enhance control and performance improvement. The balanced scorecard (BC) tracks any changes that have been made and provides feedback to the management on the systems that have been introduced and their performance ratings. The basis of the BC is that no single measure can provide clear performance target but a series of balanced presentations of both financial and operational measures can result in the successful performance of any company. The major perspectives are financial perspectives, internal business perspectives, customer perspectives and innovation and learning perspectives (Kaplan & Norton, 1993).

The success of the company cannot be largely attributed to the implementation of the BSC alone. Other factors like staff motivation and expansion strategies also contributed to the success of the company. However, the introduction of the one stop center for gas and snacks has contributed much more to the company than other strategy as its part of the customer perspectives and innovation and learning perspectives (Kaplan & Norton, 1996).

The initial success of the M & R was largely due to the reorganization of the management’s major operations and the expansions of the various departments of the organization but most of the successes were registered when the BSC feedback systems provided a control system for its performance and identified the weaknesses of the company. Lack of effective coordination and accountability accounted for the poor performance of the company during its difficult periods. To conclude, the success of the BSC also depends on other factors as it cannot be successful on its own. The performance metrics applied in BSC measure the overall performance of a company.

Implementation of the Balanced Scorecard References

Kaplan, R.S., Norton, P. (1993) Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work, Harvard

Business Review, 71 (5), pp. 134–142.

Kaplan, R.S., Norton, P. (1996) Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management

System, Harvard Business Review, 74 (1), pp. 75–85.


Administrative Assistant Interview questionnaire

Administrative Assistant
Administrative Assistant

1. You need to design a questionnaire and interview an Administrative Assistant/Secretary. one page
2. The questionnaire should have at least 20 questions in order to collect relevant information for the Job Description and the Person Specification.
two pages
3. To help you decide on the questions, use the week 3 class slides and also search for examples of job descriptions and person specifications for this job
position. one page
4. Look at the requirements stated on the Marking Scheme in the attachment. and completed all project

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Collaboration and Innovation in Public Administration

Collaboration and Innovation in Public Administration Order Instructions: This is a Graduate course. Please use double-spaced format. Responses should be in APA style and must include citations and a bibliography.

Collaboration and Innovation in Public Administration
Collaboration and Innovation in Public Administration

You are strongly advised to access a variety of information from academic journals and other scholarly works. Ensure that your answers are well-organized and that they respond to the specific question asked, display the range and depth of your learning, and demonstrate your ability to conform to the analysis, writing, and research standards of master’s level work. The question must be answered fully. The question needs to be 11 pages and should have at least 9 references.

Question 1

Collaboration and innovation are two words at the heart of modern-day Public Administration. Examine the academic literature on public sector collaboration and alliances within the field. What opportunities do collaboration between public agencies and non-profit organizations, or between public agencies and for-profit organizations, offer for innovatively addressing issues and challenges in the public sector? As a part of this, please explore in detail three examples of real-world collaboration, either at the local, state, national, or international level.

Collaboration and Innovation in Public Administration Sample Answer

The world today is being faced by an avalanche of problems that need radical solutions. The major challenges include an aging society, climate change, financial crises and obesity. Man scholars including Harris and Albury (2009) and Nambisan (2008) feel that the current state of the public sector is incompetent to finding solutions for these problems. These scholars propose collaboration and innovation as a new approach towards strengthening the public sector in order to deal with these problems and many more. While it is inevitable to acknowledge the deficits in the public sector, one has to be skeptical about the form and extent of innovation required for amicable solutions to the major global problems to be found. One of the major contributing factors to this skepticism is the lack of research in public sector innovation. Moore (2005) states that there is no consensus on what constitutes innovation in the public sector.

The private sector is more competitive than the public sector. This has led to it having more innovations in order to create competitive advantages for different industries and players in those industries. Innovations are important since they help in opening up new markets, in improving products and in cutting costs for private enterprises. The lack of innovation in the private sector means that a company will lose its competitive advantage, will witness shrinkage in profits and market share and will eventually close down. The need to for innovation in the private sector has led large enterprises to devote entire departments to research and development or to rely on crowd-sourcing in order to improve on the products they have or open new markets. On the contrary, small and medium enterprises, in satisfying their need for competing with larger enterprises, form alliance that allow them to pool their resources and play catch-up by copying successful systems.

The public sector is a little trickier when it comes to innovation as there is skepticism in its capacity for investing in innovations for organizations, services and policies. Most people employed in the private sector and majority of people in the larger population view the public sector as an area that is devoid of inertia and is riddled with bureaucracy and a stalemate that makes innovation difficult. In the 1980s, the neo-liberalist movement garnered support due to its stance on the status quo propagated by the public sector. This perception of the public sector is not completely off mark as it is riddled by extensive use of formality in rules and procedures, has hierarchies that are multi-layered, has no incentives for growth and improvement, has organizational silos, and has divided political leadership at the top of most bureaucracies. These factors are deterrent to innovation and are key to the public sector being labeled as stagnant (Halvorsen et al., 2005). The myopia exhibited in the public sector extends to use of resources for the sake of fighting territorial wars with other public bureaucracies and for maintaining internal coordination.

The notion that there has been little innovation in the public sector is somewhat misguided. This is evidenced by the fact that there has been steady growth in the sector since it does not resemble what was there 20 or 30 years ago. The new public sector is governed by more conscious policies in terms of climate change management, preventative health care and labor-market relationships. The digitization of services and the changes in organizational structures and cultures have radically altered the operations of most public sector organizations. Although many of the changes have been necessitated by changing times, they nonetheless indicate that the public sector is driven by innovation albeit minimalist.

One of the greatest drivers of public sector innovation has been the political powers of the day that have promised and delivered on reforms in the public sector when seeking for votes and in numerous settings including debates in parliament and other forums including press briefings and public hearings. Another avenue that has helped advance innovation in the sector has been the presence of well-educated and knowledgeable individuals in various capacities in public bureaucracies. These competent and driven individuals adhere to professional standards and are ambitious enough meaning that they seek to improve services in the public sector so that they can build their portfolios and attract more responsibilities in addition to propping themselves for bigger and better challenges.

The other group of individuals that is responsible for innovation in the public sector is the public that is the recipient of the services offered.  The public is more involved in molding the public sector that it is in the private sector. They give their opinions through voicing criticism and offering constructive feedback in forums such as public hearings, town gatherings and board meetings. They also offer their opinions through threatening to boycott services and products and by voting the leadership they want in some bureaucracies. The combination of threats for boycotts and voicing concerns is a major motivator in encouraging change in the public sector. The sheer size of the public sector and the lengths to which it spans means that it has the capacity, more than the private sector, to explore and exploit options. This is because it has nearly limitless resources meaning that it can absorb costs that are associated with failed innovations.

Borins (2008) argues that many countries in the world and especially western democracies are preoccupied with ensuring that innovation is at the top of their administrative and political agendas. This is evidenced by the numerous initiatives including the issuing of white papers on innovation, setting up of innovation labs, and creation of innovation ministries. In order for the personnel being charged with the responsibility of fostering innovation to be ready for the challenge, there have been special training courses that have been created.

Innovation is now widely used in the public sector but skeptics caution that the fashion may soon dissipate as have all other buzzwords that were synonymous with the public sector prior to it. The majority of experts otherwise view innovation as a means of reducing costs in public sector operations and also an opportunity for policy deadlocks to be broken while services are improved for the betterment of the population at large, private enterprises, and all other stakeholders. There are three historic factors that contribute to the current focus on innovation. First is the relationship between limited resources and the rising pressures and expectations of the public that has diminished the fiscal crisis. Traditionally, the public’s demand for better services was met by increased budgetary allocation to the public sector. While this is no longer possible, the public sector has been forced to craft more innovative solutions to meet these needs.

The second factor is the increasing difficulty of problems that are being faced by modern civilizations including climate changes, rising poverty levels, rural-urban migration and overpopulation in urban areas. These problems are abstract since they are difficult to quantify and consequently difficult in managing. These complexities warrant the application of specialized knowledge in order to mitigate against conflicts between various stakeholders. Standard solutions and increased budgetary allocation cannot solve these problems meaning that more creativity is warranted. The third factor is globalization that has increased competition not only between enterprises but also between governments making the most innovative governments also the winners in exportation of knowledge and solution of domestic problems.  The innovativeness of the public sector can translate to the private sector and form the difference between two nations.

Innovation is a complex process that enables for problems and challenges facing the public sector to be defined so that creative solutions are developed. The process has many feedback loops and jumps that must be navigated for the best solutions to be identified and the best strategies implemented. Innovation is often learning based and intentional albeit with chance discoveries. The starting point for having an innovative organization is breaking down conventional wisdom as well as challenging established practices. One of the major sources of innovation is the private sector. Contrary to popular belief, innovation does not always stem from new inventions but is rather mainly a translation of policies that are successful in other areas into present situations. Thus, the policies, ideas and solutions that have contributed to the success of for-profit and non-profit organizations can be implemented in the public sector context to solve recurring problems and address the changing challenges.

Collaboration between public organizations with for-profit and non-profit organizations should not be based on the development of new solutions for recurring problems but on how well already established and tested solutions can be tweaked to address existing and arising problems. One of the most reliable sources for solutions is digital technology. This development has given rise to opportunities that if well exploited creates a platform through which the public sector, the private sector and citizens of a country interact for the improvement of enterprise and service delivery. The exploitation of digital technologies has led to challenges and consequent improvement in the rules of engagement between different stakeholders.

Elected politicians, public managers, policy experts and citizens have an obligation towards the improvement of public bureaucracies. However, these groups are not enough as they have limited knowledge. Consequently, collaboration with the private sector allows for the incorporation of innovative entrepreneurs that have the necessary skills to articulate problems and craft possible solutions. These experts also possess knowledge on material flows and mobilization of immaterial resources to the different points of use or consumption. These experts have the necessary knowhow to exploit windows or opportunities that arise in the public sector reform. Traditionally, political theories placed the responsibility of improving the public sector on elected officials. However, development in the area has shifted the focus from these officials to public managers or to private contractors. Additionally, public employees no longer play a passive role in the operations of their organizations. There has been a radical shift that has opened an avenue for their involvement in the new concept of user driven innovation.

Undoubtedly, collaboration between the public sector and various domains in the private sector leads to public innovation. Furthermore, the involvement of many actors in the political and social contexts in a collaborative context allows for even greater innovation in the public sector. Solutions to complex problems can only be developed where there is a relationship between all stakeholders. The most important aspect of these relationships should be trust. Collaboration ensures that relationships are trust based and that there is a cross-fertilization of ideas that are both creative and new and fit into solution of the defined problems. Sorensen and Torfing (2011) argue that new solutions can only be implemented if there is joint ownership between different stakeholders including private enterprises and the public sector which should be facilitated by coordination and exchange of resources. Bommert (2010) asserts that a case can be made for collaborative innovation as it ensures that the public sector benefits from drawing upon knowledge, creativity, imagination, resources, courage, political authority and transformative leadership that is contained in both the private enterprise and public sector human resources. Collaboration ensures that there is sharing of ideas which is often absent in market competition and bureaucracy.

The public sector and private enterprises both gain by engaging in collaborative ventures with each other simply because they exchange ideas and share the risks and benefits that are associated with innovation. Left to their own devices, private enterprises engage in cutthroat competition that more often ends up in the patent office. Similarly, public bureaucracies do not have incentives for collaboration between each other and only engage at the most rudimentary level inside their institutional boundaries. They do not have the incentives and infrastructure to exchange ideas at a strategic level where skills and competencies are shared throughout organizational structures and hierarchies.

Large firms have realized the constraints of market competition and bureaucracy in the public sector and are now actively pursuing private public partnerships. Public bureaucracies have responded to these developments by breaking down their organizational silos, creating inter-organizational networks and flattening their organizational structures. Cross-sector collaboration between the private and public organizations has ensured that all opportunities for innovativeness are pursued at a mutually agreeable cost. Innovations are done close to where services are produced in the public sector so that they are directly tested by public sector employees with different backgrounds in a wide array of professions through collaboration with users. Policy makers and managers are also present in these settings so that they observe the operations of different innovations and work to improve on them.

The private sector can be considered as being way ahead in innovation. As a starting point, the public sector should seek to capitalize on existing knowledge in the private sector before attempting new innovations. This opportunity has been realized by a number of public sector organizations that have created networks with private sector executives in order to transfer some of the knowledge into the public sector. Eggers and Singh (2009) argue that the interdependence between the private and public sectors can lead to creation of viable solutions to the problems that are a constant source of difficulty in the public sector.

In 1992, Clinton campaigned on the platform of increasing standards for federal fuel economy from 28 to 40 miles per gallon. The president and his running mate, Gore (1992) referred to the fuel situation as a mortal threat to the security of every nation. US automakers at the time were vehemently against this move and they had blocked the amendments to the law in Congress in the previous administration and had instead raised mileage standards. The Clinton administration thought it prudent to avoid a direct conflict with automakers since it realized that achieving the standards it envisaged would require much more effort than what the industry would have been willing to concede. The government instead consulted with experts in the automobile industry with the intention of changing the design of the automobile altogether instead of making improvements. The administration entered into a public private partnership with three of the US’s largest car makers including Ford, GM and Chrysler. The partnership was referred to as the PNGV (partnership for the new generation vehicles). The goal of the PNGV was the creation and marketing of cars with three times the fuel economy of those in 1993 with no sacrifice in terms of performance and costs. The move was collaborative as the undersecretary of commerce worked with executives from the three companies and ensured that scientists and technicians had access to the state of the art government laboratories. Buntin (1997) states that the developers had a direct line to the White House and had access to $300 million in annual spending for research and development. The PNGV was discontinued by the Bush administration and in its place was an appeal to shift focus to the development of hydrogen fuelled cars (Garsten, 2002)

One of the earlier forms of private public partnership occurred in New York city starting in the early 1980s until early 2000s. The city was hit by a fiscal crisis that made funds for maintenance of its parks scarce. Since the city was growing at a very high rate, most of the parks became dangerous places for the public. The city management was forced to improvise and implemented a strategy that entailed enlisting private firms in maintenance, upgrades and management of the parks. There were several outlets that expressed interest and included conventional volunteers dubbed friends of the park, conventional outsourcing and more complex arrangements that required sharing of discretion.

The most notable group was a coalescing of private citizens into a non-profit organization dubbed the Central Park Conservancy that took up responsibility of New York’s largest park in the late 90s. Other parks like the Bryant Park were delegated to the business improvement district, which was mandated to collect special levies from businesses around the park for its maintenance and management. These partnerships helped steer the parks of New York at a time when the city could not. The partnerships were innovative since the city did not cede ownership of the parks but rather empowered non-governmental actors to upgrade and maintain them at a small cost to the city.

Presently across the US, there are many public private partnerships that are ongoing. Some of the most common partnerships are with state governments and private enterprises for building, repairing and maintaining public infrastructure. The state government of Pennsylvania is planning to have at least 500 of its bridges replaced. The plan is to give the contract to a single firm. The project is estimated to cost around $1.2 billion if financed through traditional means. However, the state is looking to enter into a partnership with a company that is willing to take the contract at a lower fee.

The planned construction in Pennsylvania is expected to follow the model that was adopted for the construction of the Goethals Bridge connecting Staten Island in New York to New Jersey and which was undertaken by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.  The plan is for the port to reimburse the private developers that took the contract through the payment of regular instalments while the bridge and road will be available for use. This mode of payment is referred to as availability payment and is involved in numerous other projects across the US. The New York port authority intends to apply the same model in the replacement of the terminal at LaGuardia Airport in a project estimated to cost over $3.6 billion. While the company given the contract is expected to maintain and manage the terminal until 2050, construction will have been complete by 2021.

The use of private public partnerships is on the rise. These partnerships are as a result of collaborative ventures between the public and the private sector informed by the need to solve the complex problems of the 21st century. The advantage of these partnerships is that they present mutual benefits and allow for shared risks between stakeholders in the private and public sectors.

Collaboration and Innovation in Public Administration References

Bommert, B. (2010). Collaborative innovation in the public sector. International Public Management Review, 11(1), 15-33.

Borins, S. (ed.). (2008). Innovations in Government. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Buntin, J. (1997). From confrontation to cooperation: how Detroit and Washington became partners. Kennedy School of Government Case Study. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University.

Eggers, W.D., & Singh, K.S. (2009). The Public Innovator’s Playbook: Nurturing Bold Ideas in Government. Deloitte Research.

Garsten, E. (2002). Bush abandons high-mileage program for hydrogen fuel-cell. Associated Press State and Regional Wire Service, 9 Jan.

Gore, A., Jr. (1992). Earth in the Balance. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Halvorsen, T., Hauknes, J., Miles, I., & Roste, R. (2005). On the differences between public and private sector innovation. Publin Report, D9.

Harris, M., & Albury, D. (2009). Why radical innovation is needed for the recession and beyond: The Innovation Imperative. NESTA discussion paper, March.

Moore, M.H. (2005). Breaking-Through Innovations and Continuous Improvement: Two Different Models of Innovative Processes in the Public Sector. Public Money and Management, 25(1), 43-50.

Nambisan, S. (2008). Transforming Government Through Collaborative Innovation. IBM Center for the Business of Government.

Sorensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2011). Enhancing collaborative innovation in the public sector. Administration and Society, 43(8), 842-68.



Administrative System Essay Assignment

Administrative System
Administrative System

Administrative System

Order Instructions:

Handle each assignment on a separate documents.

See the attached files.


Administrative System

Assessment One

  1. Identify what would be some of the requirements for this type of system.

The administrative system would require several things to be in place: the components of the system to support the system, the number of the users and the type of users who would use the system, what the organization requires the purpose and nature of the system, the purpose and the nature of the organization, and the size of the system. In addition, the size of the system, the skills of the existing staff, their training and the work practices are also very important.

  1. Who should you consult with (speak with) to ensure their needs were met?

In order to ensure that the needs of each stakeholder are met, several people need to be consulted: the organizational personnel, the clients from outside and the casual l personnel have to be consulted for any success to be realized.

3. Who would you need to obtain approval from to spend the money to investigate and develop your system?

Before spending any money on the development and investigation of this system, several people need to be consulted for approval. Some of the people that have to be consulted include: Administration system consultants, software suppliers, people who determine efficiency of the system, those who supply equipments, technicians who deal with information technology, those who offer training in information technology, people who work within the organization and also those who supply equipments to the office.

 4. Develop a flow chart of how the system would work, based on the needs of the users and stakeholders.

IF NO                                                                       IF YES

  1. Develop materials of what your system would look like. Add extra pages if necessary.

The materials to be used to offer for assistance include: invoices, checklist and quotation sheets.

From:  Cypress Technologies Invoice Number: _________
Suite 7, 77 Marwood Place Invoice Date: dd/mm/yyyy
Crestwood, B.C., V6T 7Q7 GST Registration No: _________
To:  Sarah’s Computer Bin
8424 Business Plaza
Vancouver, B.C.
Attn:  Sarah Norgaard
Item Unit Cost Quantity Price GST PST Subtotal
HP OfficeJet Inkjet Color Printer $583.97 1 $583.97 $29.20 $40.88 $654.05
Grand Total $654.05
Payment Terms:    To be paid within 30 days of Invoice Date


Personal Affairs of Business Owner


ü Activity Person



Due Date/



Some Actions to Consider


Ensure trust distributions

are properly made


At least annually


There have been considerable changes to the tax treatment of trusts.

These changes could expose you to

large unforeseen tax bills. Speak to

your adviser about your trust.


Undertake tax and

personal financial





(before year



Year-end presents a number of tax planning opportunities and

risks. Speak to your accountant

about tax and personal financial


·Don’t invest in any year-end tax planning schemes until you

speak to your accountant.




  1. Obtain costs for your system. Where electronic systems are required use $1000K for a computer with a monitor and point of sale equipment at $5000K per register. Access for EFTPOS is included.  For any programs necessary estimate at $7000.  Where you are missing costs contact your trainer for a figure you can use.
Internet services 2000
Software 7000
Printer 1000
Computer system 1000
Point of sale equipment 5000
Scanner 100
Server 4000
Total 21000


  1. Identify methods you could use to implement your ideas.

The method that will be used to implement these ideas would involve: the staff confidence will be boosted to ensure that they adopt this system; the management strategies will be changed to ensure that the people responsible are able to implement this system, will ensure that the culture of the organization is completely changed ,the systems have to function very correctly, people from outside sources will be consulted in order to get more input on the system, the staff members will be trained and the roles of all the staff members will be redefined.

  1. Write a procedure for how this system is to work. Include a step by step process using the following as a template.

The purpose of this procedure is to describe an electronic administrative system that would help in ordering of goods from clients.

The procedure applies to an owner of a shop. However the owner of this shop is computer illiterate.

Step 1: the user has to start the program in order to access into the subsequent processes that are relevant to the needs of the company

Step 2: The owner has to input the order. The system displays several orders that the owner requires. From this menu, the owner will be able to select the specific orders which are required.

Step 3: The owner will then specify the amount of items that are required.

Step 4: In order to ensure that there is no any delay, the owner will have to specify the exact date when the goods have to be delivered by the suppliers.

Step 5: as soon as the owner is satisfied with the order, the order is submitted to the supplier for consideration and delivery.

Step 6: the owner will then wait for the response from the supplier. As soon as the owner receives a response from the supplier, the program can then be terminated.

  1. Identify the training requirements for the other staff, the owner and the suppliers.
Staff Owner Suppliers


On the job trainers

Professional development

Skills assessment


Coach, mentor and/or buddy systems


Training handbooks


Online tutorials



  1. Define what possibly could go wrong if your process was put into place and what could be done to stop that from happening.
Problem Solution


Loss of staff confidence Ongoing assessment of staff skills
Need for additional training Ongoing feedback opportunities
Need to modify system providing professional development opportunities


Temporary reduction of work output Boosting staff confidence


  1. One of the suppliers has stated they found the system confusing as some were identifying materials to order based on name only rather than product code and there was often a mistake on the unit price. What would you need to change in your process to ensure these issues were improved?

In order to ensure that there was no confusion on how to use the system by the client, I would ensure that the system offers comprehensive audio direction to the client in order that there was minimal or no confusion at all. In addition, would use codes that closely represent each type of commodity. Through this approach, the user of the system will easily navigate through the whole process.

  1. What processes could be used for monitoring the new system for accuracy, assisting staff in its use, useability from staff and suppliers.

In order to monitor the new system for accuracy, assisting staff in its use and usability from staff suppliers, several processes have to be considered. The feedback from both the internal and external users is very key. This are the people who use the system on day to day basis hence are the right people to provide reliable feedback. In addition, the trained technicians can assist in observing the performance in order to ensure that the system is in a perfect condition. Furthermore, monitoring tools and processes help keep records of how the system performs on a day to day basis.

  1. What modifications would need to be made to your system if the boss wanted to make sure the ordering system would link with the creditors accounting system?

If the boss wants to make sure that the system links with creditors accounting system, several modifications would have to be done. This would include provision of additional equipments that would aid in the linking of the current system. In addition, there should be some form of training on the negotiation of the time limit within which the changes have to done. Furthermore, the roles of the administration and their duties have to be redefined in order to ensure that all the changes are effectively implemented. Also, the company would have to develop specialized software to handle these changes.

  1. How would you communicate that to the current users of the system?

Current users of the system would be communicates to through the email messages and facsimile messages. This would pass any important information to the users about the changes being implemented to the system. In addition, through meetings and training days, the users would be trained on the use of the new system and informed on the advantages of using this system in comparison to the older system. Furthermore, office memorandums, professional development time and photocopied instructions would be provided to aid in ensuring that every member is informed on the changes.

Assessment Two

  1. Write a report to the director outlining the requirements for an administrative system the costs as found in your investigation and which cloud system you would select based on the needs of the organization. Within this report
  2. Include an implementation strategy with an action plan identifying the responsibilities for and a timeline for completion (use the attached action plan template).

The method that will be used to implement these ideas would involve: the staff confidence will be boosted to ensure that they adopt this system; the management strategies will be changed to ensure that the people responsible are able to implement this system, will ensure that the culture of the organization is completely changed ,the systems have to function very correctly, people from outside sources will be consulted in order to get more input on the system, the staff members will be trained and the roles of all the staff members will be redefined.

The cloud technology would therefore require a very elaborate action plan for its implementation. The action plan would therefore entail: the components of the system to support the system, the number of the users and the type of users who would use the system, what the organization requires the purpose and nature of the system, the purpose and the nature of the organization, and the size of the system. In addition, the size of the system, the skills of the existing staff, their training and the work practices are also very important

  1. Define a procedure staff can use to work with this new technology.

The purpose of this procedure is to describe the implementation procedure for cloud technology for an organization on behalf of its director.

The procedure applies to a director who wants to improve the performance of the organization which is having challenges dealing with accounting processes and serving its clients.

Step 1: the program has to be started to allow for the normal processes to take place. Step 2: the end user has to specify the activity that wants to be performed

Step 3:  input the information about that particular activity

Step 4: specify the form of output required

Step 5: Make any changes

Step 6: Generate the output.

  1. Discuss contingencies (problems) which may occur and how you could address them.
Problem Solution


Loss of staff confidence by both the staff members and the customers in the system ongoing assessment of staff skills
Need for additional training due to the introduction of a new system ongoing feedback opportunities
Need to modify system due to huge challenges as a result of several tasks within the organization Providing professional development opportunities


Temporary reduction of work output due to the staff members still getting used to the system. Boosting staff confidence


  1. Define a monitoring system which could be used to ensure the system is secure and usage needs are maintained

The system has to be monitored in order to ensure that the system is secure and the usage needs are well maintained. The feedback from both the internal and external users is very key. This are the people who use the system on day to day basis hence are the right people to provide reliable feedback. In addition, the trained technicians can assist in observing the performance in order to ensure that the system is in a perfect condition. Furthermore, monitoring tools and processes help keep records of how the system performs on a day to day basis.

  1. Identify the training needs for staff

The staff ought to be trained on how to use the cloud technology. This is simply because the technology has new procedures that are different from the current system being used. In addition, the staff members ought to be trained on how to upgrade the system and handle any challenges in case they arise.


  1. What legislation should be considered

Several legislations have to be considered during and before the start of the implementation of this technology. The intellectual property right has to be effected. This would ensure that no one claims ownership of this technology apart from the real developers.

  1. Create a training presentation (you will not present this, you will just prepare a presentation) for staff to understand and use this new technology.

The technology is aimed at offering rapid solution to the several challenges experienced in this organization. As a result of the adoption of this technology, the organization will be able to store its data safely, the procedures will be performed efficiently, the customer data bases will be accessed very fact and the accounting information would be processed within a very short time

The technology therefore would entail several stages which are very simple to navigate and use. To begin with, one will be required to specify the activity that is to be processed. This would be displayed on the desktop. The software platform is user friendly hence easy to use. The next step is to input the instruction which then be processed and the output displayed inform of an output. Every kind of data can be processed as so long as correct information is provided.

  1. As a result of the use of cloud technology, orders have increased dramatically requiring more data to be kept in the cloud. What modifications would need to be made to ensure these changes could be handled successfully?

In order to ensure that cloud technology is handled successfully due to its excellent performance, several modifications have to be done. This would include provision of additional equipments that would aid in the linking of the current system. In addition, there should be some form of training on the negotiation of the time limit within which the changes have to done. Furthermore, the roles of the administration and their duties have to be redefined in order to ensure that all the changes are effectively implemented. Also, the company would have to develop specialized software to handle these changes (Wollmann & Kuhlmann, 2014).


Wollmann, H., & Kuhlmann, S. (2014). Introduction to comparative public administration: Administrative systems and reform in Europe.

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Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Policy

Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Policy
Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Policy

Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Policy

Order Instructions:

For this project component, you generally assess the impact of corporate social responsibility policy on the workplace and corporate America.

To complete this assignment:
• Assess how, and to what extent, corporate social responsibility can be meshed with a corporation’s obligation to maximize profits for its shareholders.
• Then, assess the ethical nature of the company you selected.
• Next, with regards to the issue you chose for the project, assess the impact on the chosen company and other stakeholders—including monetary, legal, and reputation-wise—of continuing the status quo versus addressing your issue via corporate policy.


Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Policy

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is achieved when an organization is able to incorporate social and environmental concerns into its business operations and other interactions with stakeholders.  It is a way of allowing an organization achieve triple-bottom-line – balancing environmental, economic and social goals of an organization, without compromising shareholder and stakeholder interests (Ruggie, 2014).

Increasingly, Corporate America has appreciated the importance of CSR to the operations of the organization – triple-bottom-line.  This has changed the psyche of corporate America to appreciate that maximizing economic returns alone is not sustainable in the long-run.  Corporate America is not tripping over itself in an effort to maximize the returns that accrue from engaging in CSR.  This should not be confused with philanthropy or charity.  CSR is a policy that is engrained into the organization’s psyche such that all stakeholders understand it; appreciate why it is engaged in and the value to the organization and community benefiting from it (Ruggie, 2014).  It is not an afterthought, but a deliberate well-thought out decision.

American Express is a one of the leading credit card companies in America.  It permeates all aspects of American lives given the American love for credit.  This being the case, American Express discovered that given the extent of their reach in the society, a CSR policy would give the organization more benefits that the cost it would incur to implement the policy.  Thus, at American Express, they believe that community service is not only key to the organizations operations, but is actually central to the organizations survival.  Thus, American Express has endeavored to permeate good corporate citizenship by supporting communities so that the organization’s reputation is enhanced among its various stakeholders and shareholders.

One of the areas that American Express has chosen to focus on is preservation and sustainability of unique historical places for the future.  This aspect of CSR was borne out of a realization that preservation assists communities understand whom they are while shaping relationships with other communities around the world.  American Express thus seeks to ensure these historic places can be easily accessed by communities because, this is the only way their history will survive in addition to increasing the public understanding of their significant contribution in sustaining communities presently and for posterity (Ruggie, 2014).

By choosing to tackle corporate social responsibility in this way, American Express seeks for its stakeholders and shareholders to associate it with America the country.  American are very proud of their history and view those who their history positively.  To an outsider looking at the Corporate Social Responsibility Policy of American Express could be forgiven for not immediately establishing a connection with preservation of historical sites.  However a critical look at it reveals a calculated and deliberate decision by American Express.  By associating American Express with the history of the United States of America, consumers have a positive view of the organization.

This positive view of the organization, translates to increased business and by extension growth in its profits.  When viewed in this light, American Express becomes by default the legal custodian of American historical sites.  For American Express, the embedding of Corporate Social Responsibility as a policy changes the status quo and the results are positive with regards to the triple-bottom-line.


Ruggie, J. G (2014).  Just Business:  Multinational Corporations and Human Rights, W. W Norton & Company, Inc, New York, NY.

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Admission Letter Charged with Misdemeanor

Admission Letter Charged with Misdemeanor Order Instructions: See the attached file.

Have you ever been charged with or have you ever been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor (including expunged and pending records), other than a minor traffic violation?

Admission Letter Charged with Misdemeanor
Admission Letter Charged with Misdemeanor

(Expunged records may be reviewed by Licensing/Certification Boards. A felony is a disqualification for most board exams and licensures.) A background check is required of accepted students. If yes, enter a brief explanation of the date(s) of the charge(s), current status, and outcomes: (2000 characters max)

Admission Letter Charged with Misdemeanor Sample Answer

 Admission Letter

Back on Feb 2, 2008, my girlfriend and I got involved in a small mishap as we went shopping in Wal-Mart. I accidentally hit another cart belonging to some guys of African American origin. I apologized immediately to them but they would hear none of it and instead, they became very aggressive and abusive to us. This made me very agitated and could not help but hit back at them causing such a scene at the mall. The manager and the security had to intervene to calm down the situation. After shopping, we paid for everything we had collected at the mall but just about the time we were leaving the mall, the security alarm at the mall’s entrance sounded and the security had to search our pockets. Surprisingly, the security guy found a watch of $40 value in my jacket pocket. I tried in vain explaining to them that the guys we had argued with before must have put the watch in my pocket to get even with me. What these guys did to me made me so perplexed and bitter and I resolved to seek some legal advice from a lawyer. The lawyer was, however, cynical of the magnitude of the case and suggested that I should stop pursuing it since it was not that serious and it would eventually cost me for no reason.

The situation was such big distress to me and for a long time, I could not get rid of the idea of being labeled a criminal. Much later, I decided to change my negative perception of the world around me and got engaged in community service in our church. I also started attending worship where I got a chance to interact with other youths. This new experience in my life helped me get rid of the much hatred that was for a long time in my heart. After forgiving the guys who got me into trouble my life changed for good and brought new joy to my heart.

The case was later dismissed and closed on Feb 24, 2009, and declared a low-level offense. The record of the case has, however, remained although I am hoping to acquire approvement to have the case expunged. Nevertheless, I accept the record because it resulted from my careless behavior in the past and whether or not it was my fault is not what is important, rather the new experience and lessons of life I have learned through the case.