Sensory Perceptual Disturbances and Impairment

Sensory Perceptual Disturbances and Impairment Order Instructions: kindly view attached Week 5 Module 5: Sensory Perceptual Disturbances: Visual and Hearing Disturbances

Sensory Perceptual Disturbances and Impairment
Sensory Perceptual Disturbances and Impairment



Brunner & Suddarth’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing**

  • Chapter 63: Assessment and Management of Patients With Eye and Vision Disorders
  • Chapter 64: Assessment, and Management of Patients With Hearing and Balance Disorders

Pharmacology: A patient-centered nursing process approach**

  • Chapter 49: Drugs for Eye and Ear Disorders

Sensory Perceptual Disturbances and Impairment and Nursing Diagnosis Guidebook

  • Use your chosen Nursing Diagnosis Guidebook to review the nursing diagnoses specific to the content covered in this module.

Maternal and child health nursing**

  • Chapter 50: Nursing Care of a Family When a child Has a Vision or Hearing Disorder

Basic nursing: Concepts, skills & reasoning**

  • Chapter 25: Medicating Patients (sections on “Administering Topical Medications: ophthalmic medications, otic medications”; “Procedures on Administering Ophthalmic Medication, Irrigating the Eyes, and Administering Otic Medication”)
  • Chapter 31: Sensory Perception (except section on “Seizures”)

Web Based and Other Professional Resources:

  • Nursing: Scope and standards of practice (2015)SAMPLE ANSWER

Sensory Perceptual Disturbances and Impairment

An individual experiencing sensory impairment may face quite a number of challenges in life. With respect to higher level needs that are defined in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. A visually challenged individual may find it harder to actualize these higher level needs. The higher level needs that include self-actualization, self-esteem and love and belonging needs, are among the particular needs that this paper will try to elaborate on how challenging they are to a visually challenged individual to meet them.

Love and belonging is nature to most if not all human beings.  These needs depict the nature of the interpersonal relationships that are adopted by most humans. However, for a visually challenged person. It may be quite difficult for them to find a sense of belonging in an environment that does not favor him or her. Creating interpersonal relationships with people without actually seeing their physical appearance will be the main issue to be dealt with.

Consequently, self-esteem needs are quite important in Maslow’s hierarchy. But for a visually challenged person, attaining this needs may be a challenge. They may find it extremely hard to gain confidence. It might be quite difficult for this particular individual to be able to satisfy his or her desire to be valued by other people when he or she is visually challenged.

Lastly, self-actualization needs is on the pinnacle of Maslow’s hierarchy. Self-actualization entails five key things that are key to human beings. However, for visually challenged individuals, to fully satisfy their self-actualization need may prove to be hard if the person has not yet accepted the impairment condition that faces him or her.

The nursing intervention that would be applied by a registered nurse may include the following practices. First of all when meeting the patient, the nurse will have to make a good first impression. Reason being first impression go a long way into helping visually impaired patients feel cared for. This also helps in creating a healthy relationship between the two parties (Treas & Wilkinson, 2013). Second of all, the nurse would help the patient meet their self-esteem and self-actualization goals by helping then get to know the environment they are staying in. This would help them feel confident by not requiring aid all the time to perform the basic life activities from time to time.

Therefore, for a visually impaired individual, the attainment of the love and belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization goals may be a cumbersome task. However, with the application of the right nursing intervention by a registered nurse. The attainment of these needs in the long run may be an overcome able situation.

Sensory Perceptual Disturbances and Impairment References


Treas, L. S., & Wilkinson, J. M. (2013). Basic nursing: concepts, skills, & reasoning. FA Davis.


Anatomical Analysis of Tennis Serve

Anatomical Analysis of Tennis Serve
Anatomical Analysis of Tennis Serve

Anatomical Analysis of Tennis Serve

Order Instructions:

Paper instruction : Tennis serve
Descrition of the Motor skill : Beginning Phase, Middle Phase, Final Phase( Anatomical analysis:Muscle participation and form of contractions. )
*NO Websites and online database (wikipedia) are accepted; Google scholar web search preferred.
*No Instruction No conclusion needed. Just directly talk about the subject in detail.


Anatomical Analysis of Tennis Serve

The Beginning Phase

The stage involves player’s preparation for the serve. Different muscle activities take place in four phases. At the initial phase, there is minimal involvement of the shoulder and scapular muscles (Kovacs & Ellenbecker, 2011, Pg. 506). The player proceeds to the release phase where there is little activation of the left erector spinae but increasing participation of the right erector spinae muscles. Trunk stabilization is crucial at the stage and lower trunk muscles are activated to stabilize the lumbar spine. Muscles activated include rectus abdominis and internal and external oblique muscles. In the third phase, the player generates potential energy by properly positioning the feet. The foot-up and foot-back techniques are the commonest techniques, and they involve knee joint extensor muscles to a significant extent. In the foot-up technique, the posterior compartment of lower limb muscles offers upward and forward drive for the player. On the other hand, the anterior compartment offers stability for rotational momentum (Kovacs & Ellenbecker, 2011, Pg. 506). The same events occur in the foot-back technique, but there is more contraction of the knee joint extensors than in the foot-up technique. The third phase also involves a lateral rear tilt of the pelvis and the shoulder. The activity generates angular momentum for lateral flexion of the trunk. For right-handed servers, the ipsilateral erector spinae muscle activation is higher than that of contralateral erector spinae (Kovacs & Ellenbecker, 2011, Pg. 506). The left lateral erector spinae plays significantly in lateral flexion of the trunk during the third phase. Iliocostalis and longisimus dorsi are also active during the phase. They contract unilaterally to flex the lumbar vertebral laterally. The fourth phase begins with the activation of serratus anterior (Kibler, Chandler, Shapilo, & Conuel, 2010, Pg. 747). The upper trapezius muscle is then activated resulting in acromion elevation and stabilization of the scapular. The activation of the lower trapezius later enhances scapular stabilization and elevation of the acromion (Kibler et al., 2010, Pg. 747). The deltoid and supraspinatus are also activated to depress the head of the humerus and control external rotation.

The Middle Phase

The phase involves acceleration, and muscle activity exceeds the one in the beginning phase (Kibler et al., 2010, Pg. 747). For the internal humeral rotation, activated muscles include the serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, subscapularis, and pectoralis major (Kovacs & Ellenbecker, 2011, Pg. 507). The first phase of the middle phase ends with the activation of the gastrocnemius, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis. Both the trunk and legs coordinate to generate the greatest kinetic energy for the middle phase. The last stage of the middle phase involves minimal extension of the knee, wrist, and elbow joints. Rectus abdominis participates actively during this phase (Chow, Park, & Tillman, 2009). The phase also involves increased activation of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles that are mostly involved in trunk flexion. Internal oblique is mostly activated during twisting of the trunk.

The Final Phase

The stage involves deceleration and follow-through. The infraspinatus is activated, and it contributes as an assistive muscle for humeral deceleration and distraction of the shoulder joint (Kibler et al., 2010, Pg. 747). The posterior rotator cuff is also activated together with biceps brachii, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi and deltoid. The right erector spinae is also more active than the left erector spinae during deceleration. Deactivation of the anterior deltoid precedes that of other muscles. During the final phase, internal rotation and horizontal adduction are not needed. The serratus anterior and upper trapezius muscles are the next on the trend and their deactivation occurs as the acromial elevation decreases (Kibler et al., 2010, Pg. 747). The deactivation of infraspinatus occurs as humeral rotation decreases. Complete restoration of posture results following the activity of the lower trapezius for the scapular, supraspinatus and teres minor for the humeral head, and posterior deltoid for the upper arm (Kibler et al., 2010, Pg. 747).


Chow, J. W., Park, S.-A., & Tillman, M. D. (2009). Lower trunk kinematics and muscle activity during different types of tennis serves. Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy, and Technology : SMARTT, 1, 24.

Kibler, W. B., Chandler, T. J., Shapilo, R., & Conuel, M. (2010). Muscle activation in coupled scapulohumeral motions in the high performance tennis serve. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(7), 745-749.

Kovacs, M., & Ellenbecker, T. (2011). An 8-Stage Model for Evaluating the Tennis Serve: Implications for Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention. Sports Health, 3(6), 504–513.

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A Musculoskeletal Case Study Assignment Paper

A Musculoskeletal Case Study
A Musculoskeletal Case Study

A Musculoskeletal Case Study

Order Instructions:


Case Study Evaluation
•Analyze the disorder addressing the following elements: pathophysiology, signs/symptoms, progression trajectory, diagnostic testing, and treatment options.
•Differentiate the disorder from normal development.
•Discuss the physical and psychological demands the disorder places on the patient and family.
•Explain the key concepts that must be shared with the patient and family to achieve optimal disorder management and outcomes.
•Identify key interdisciplinary team personnel needed and how this team will provide care to achieve optimal disorder management and outcomes.
•Interpret facilitators and barriers to optimal disorder management and outcomes
•Describe strategies to overcome the identified barriers.

Care Plan Synthesis
•Designed a comprehensive and holistic recognition and planning for the disorder.
•Addresses how the patient’s socio-cultural background can potentially impact optimal management and outcomes.
•Demonstrated an evidence-based approach to address key issues identified in the case study.
•Formulates a comprehensive but tailored approach to disorder management.

APA Style/Format: Free of grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. Citations and references are written in correct APA Style.


A Musculoskeletal Case Study

The patient in the scenario has developed a musculoskeletal abnormality. The disorder entails the impairment of the functions of the bone structure and or abnormalities on the muscular functionality. Other musculoskeletal structures that lose functionality in the pathological occurrence on the system include tendons, cartilage, ligaments, and intervertebral disks (Mobasheri & Mendes, 2013). Usually, musculoskeletal structures are relaxed and free from the pressure under normal physiological conditions.

The psychological difficulties that he patient has to cope with include depression, low self-efficacy, helplessness, and lack of social support (Marwaha, Horobin, & McLean, 2013). The patient’s divorced status together with the lack of children could worsen the psychological impacts of the disease. The patient is also likely to face physical demands such as the inability to work.

Optimal management of the disease would require the involvement of the patient’s family. The management plan should aim at informing the family of the necessity of psychological support for the patients. Supporting the patient would help overcome effects of the disease such as depression.

Interdisciplinary stakeholders in the care plan could include physiotherapists, nurses, pharmacists, educators, and social relations experts. The team should see to it that the patient undertakes the necessary disease condition assessments and that he receives care of high quality. Optimizing the patient’s use of medication and improving social relations would also be important tasks of such a team.

An important facilitator to optimal care provision includes the patient’s willingness to learn and implement management strategies for the disease. Undertaking the recommended physiotherapy practices would facilitate the achievement of effective care. Barriers include the patient’s misleading beliefs concerning the occurrence and management of the musculoskeletal condition (Sanders, Foster, Bishop, & Ong, 2013). The patient believes that the condition would disappear automatically, and he is not willing to spend money on treatment.

To overcome the barriers, care providers should aim at educating the patient on the importance of managing one’s health. The care team should also suggest an appropriate insurance plan for the patient to overcome the challenge of spending too much of the patient’s little finances. The team should also advise the patient against drug abuse as such practices could interfere with medication adherence and proper use.

Care Plan

The musculoskeletal condition in the patient is work related and has developed slowly over years. The root of the painful sensations is either injury or tension to the various components of the musculature and skeletal structures. Roofing necessitates the patient to take postures and positions that place him at the risk of hurting the musculoskeletal structures. The patient in the scenario could best manage his condition by use of pain relievers and restricting his movements.

The socio-cultural background of the patient is likely to hurt care strategies. The patient has no family, and he may not receive the help that he needs in managing the condition. Also, the disjunction with his wife places him at the risk of psychological stress. Stress could worsen musculoskeletal disorder and slow the recovery from the ailment. Also, the abuse of marijuana and alcohol place the patient at a high possibility of failing to comply with treatment procedures.

An evidence-based strategy of addressing the condition would include proper work design to overcome the physical straining that the patient faces in his job. The use of tools such as well-structured ladders and belts could minimize physical straining. The patient could also adopt a culture of practicing simple but regular exercises with the aim of relaxing his body.

The management of the illness could include the use of the applicable NSAIDS for pain alleviation. The patient could also receive an injection of anesthetics at the site of injury to fasten pain alleviation. He should also perform light exercises to relax the strained structures. Use of heat in massaging affected sites could help restore comfort in the affected sites.


Marwaha K, Horobin H, & McLean S. (2010). Indian physiotherapists’ perceptions of factors that influence the adherence of Indian patients to physiotherapy treatment recommendations. International Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation. Retrieved from

Mobasheri, A. & Mendes, A. F. (2013) Physiology and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal aging: current research trends and future priorities. Front. Physiol. 4(73). doi: 10.3389/fphys.2013.00073

Sanders, T., Foster, N., Bishop, A., & Ong, B. (2013). Biopsychosocial care and the physiotherapy encounter: physiotherapists’ accounts of back pain consultations. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 14(65), n.p.  doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-65

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Musculoskeletal,Neurological,Genito-Urinary Systems

Musculoskeletal,Neurological,Genito-Urinary Systems
Musculoskeletal,Neurological,Genito-Urinary Systems

Describe the process you would use to systematically assess the Musculoskeletal,Neurological,Genito-Urinary Systems in your client care.

Write a 3-5 page APA paper not including the title page or the reference page. Utilize at least 2 sources for your information. Be very specific include how, why, and what you are looking for.

The genitourinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, and one urethra. The genitourinary system also includes the reproductive organs: the prostate gland, testicles, and epididymis in men, and the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina, external genitalia, and perineum in women.

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