Influential Individual Condition in Deseret News Order Instructions: Your task is to explore the individual, organizational and environmental conditions that were influential in the Deseret News case study and comment on the ways in which those conditions have impacted on the subsequent performance of the firm.
Also comment on how the conditions have enhanced or detracted from its sustainability potential for the future.
o Discussing the nature of the ‘climate for change’ created by the actions of individuals working at Deseret News, the structural design model adopted in the case study and the dominant characteristics of the operating environment
o Debating the extent to which Deseret News actions to date have represented an appropriate change response
Influential Individual Condition in Deseret News Sample Answer
Deseret News case study
This paper explores the environmental, organizational as well as individual conditions which were influential in the Deseret News case study. The paper also comments on how those conditions have actually impacted on Deseret News’ subsequent performance on the company. Moreover, how the conditions have detracted or enhanced from the company’s sustainability potential for the future is discussed.
At Deseret News, the environmental conditions which were actually influential include new technologies, low-cost start-ups and market shifts (Nadina 2011; Konno, Nonaka & Ogilvy 2014a). The specific environmental conditions include the following: the first is internet start-ups such as AutoTrader.com, Monster.com, and Craigslist which siphoned off classified revenues from Deseret News (Gilbert, Eyring & Foster 2012). Second is free news websites such as social media websites, the Huffington Post, and smartphones that diverted the attention and time of readers and in so doing drying up subscription dollars; and third is Google’s search-term advert which competed with Deseret News for display-advertising revenues (Gilbert, Eyring & Foster 2012). These environmental conditions have impacted on the subsequent performance of Deseret News in that they assaulted the company’s business model resulting in significant revenue decreases (Konno, Nonaka & Ogilvy 2014b). It is notable that declining readership of Deseret News traditional newspaper hit each of the company’s revenue streams at the same time and from the year 2008 to the year 2010, the company lost 70 percent of print classified revenues and 30 percent of its print display-ad revenues (Gilbert, Eyring & Foster 2012).
The individual conditions which were actually influential at the company include the actions of key personnel including members of the firm’s leadership team who did not see the situation as a hopeless one. The leadership team initiated 2 different efforts: on the 5th floor of their corporate head-offices in Salt Lake City, members of the company’s leadership team established Deseret Digital Media, a new company, aimed at taking over Deseret News’ websites and focusing solely on web publishing, and on the 1st floor, they reconceived the print operation (Gilbert, Eyring & Foster 2012). Some of the individual conditions include the nature of the climate for change that was created by the actions of Deseret News’ key people who mainly include publisher Christopher Lee and the firm’s chief executive officer Clark Gilbert. These key individuals along with others repositioned the news company to refocus its print content. Christopher Lee was the main individual who led the development of Deseret Digital that made use of online opportunities further than just repurposing the print newspaper (Gilbert, Eyring & Foster 2012).
The main organizational condition was the fact that the firm dismissed twenty-eight part-time and fifty-seven full-time staff members in 2010 August. The company devoted fewer resources to routine and sports news and invested more to producing investigative and in-depth journalism in 6 aspects of editorial emphasis including fiscal responsibility, education, faith, family, care for the poor, as well as the influence of the media on values. These conditions have enhanced the company’s sustainability potential for the future since the company managed to successfully adjust its existing business model to become profitable and found new ways to make use of opportunities available in the new digital landscape which helped the company to pull through and recover (Whelan-Berry & Somerville 2010).
In essence, the actions of this news company have represented a rather suitable response to change. This is largely because Deseret News managed to successfully reposition its core business and create a new model resulting in increased revenue and profitability. It repositioned its core by changing into a much leaner, local print broadsheet that provided detailed coverage of matters pertaining to faith as well as family, plus a similarly focused periodical targeted at countrywide audiences that could sell at higher-margin countrywide adverts (Gilbert, Eyring & Foster 2012). It developed a new model, Deseret Digital, to capture the higher-volume, lower-margin, opportunities made available by the internet’s greater reach. The result is that from the year 2008 to the year 2012, Deseret Digital makes up roughly ¼ of the company’s total revenues. Moreover, combined weekly/daily print circulation increased twofold and generated sufficient advertising revenues to turn this new company into a very fast-growing American print newspaper (Gilbert, Eyring & Foster 2012). All in all, the first part of Deseret News change was a defense against near future or an existing disruptive change, whereas the second part was an offensive strategy basing upon the creation of a disruptive and new change (Konno, Nonaka & Ogilvy 2014b).
Influential Individual Condition in Deseret News References
Buchanan, DA 2011, Good practice, not rocket science – understanding failures to change after extreme events, Journal of Change Management, 11 (3), pp.273-288.
Gilbert, C., Eyring, M. & Foster, RN 2012, Two routes to resilience, Harvard Business Review, 90 (20), pp.66-73.
Konno, N., Nonaka, I & Ogilvy, J 2014a, Scenario planning: the basics, World Futures, 70 (1), pp.28-43.
Konno, N., Nonaka, I & Ogilvy, J 2014b, The mind of the scenario thinker, World Futures, 70 (1), pp.44-51.
Nadina, RR 2011 Methods of identification of the need for organizational change as being opportune’, Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 20 (2), pp.707-712.
Whelan-Berry, KS & Somerville, KA 2010, Linking change drivers and the organizational change process – a review and synthesis, Journal of Change Management, 10 (2), pp.175-193.
Communication discourses that apply to television journalism
What are the communication discourses that apply to television journalism? What are some of the power relationships surrounding the field? What are some of the discourses that surround a television news room?
Media acts as a powerful medium, which connects the global world in the slightest of time, thus turning the worlds into one small global village. This clearly explains the reason why people hear more of the languages from the media than they do in a normal direct conversation(Hoskins, & O’Loughlin, 2007) This clearly explains the reason why people hear more of the languages from the media than they do in a normal direct conversation since people mainly talk about the things they see, read and hear through other platforms such as the internet and the mass media. It has been determined that these elements affect the manner in which people interact and learn different things about the world that surrounds them (Maier, & Potter, 2001).
It is however, essential to note that the manner in which the media presents the world and the events that surround it remains controversial. The manner in which the media covers certain issues in the society is considered subtle and can only be explained in various ways(Hoskins, & O’Loughlin, 2007). These media discourses can therefore be elaborated based on different perceptions since journalism has always been viewed as a critique that selectively represents groups, thus creating stereotypes that depict identifiable and unchanging negative characteristics (Segado, Grandío, & Fernandez Gomez, 2015). In addition to this, the media is also criticized for its approaches in portraying women, old and the young people including other minority groups in a derogatory way.
CommunicationDiscourses That Apply To Television Journalism
Giving discourses an illusion that they are social practices implies that there are relationships between a particular situation and event, structures and institutions which frame and shape a discursive event. A discourse socially constitutes the relationships between people and groups (Lorenzo-Dus, 2009). As persons are predisposedto the proponents of media, their opinions are also transformed, strengthened and exposed as well. It is therefore evident to ascertain that media affects the manner in which people interact and learn about the world and remains an important domain to which the communication discourses are applied.
The Media discourse remains a critical discourse among other discourses such as political discourse, inequality, gender, racism, and nationalism (Kovacic, &Erjavec, 2008). A media discourse therefore gives the totality of how reality may be presented and characterized within the print and the broadcast media, radio and newspapers (Lorenzo-Dus, 2009). Discourse therefore remains a medium that power and norms operate.
In the modern world, a scientific discourse that majorly covers the human sciences that reveal information through the television establishes norms within a people and approaches of conduct. This discourse also determines ways through which deviant subjects can be identified, understood and managed (Meinhof, & Smith, J. 2000). An instance of such a discourse is that of the advertisement discourse within a capitalist society. Through an advertisement, luxury products are portrayed that are naturalized to meet the needs of the people, a factor that depicts the manner in which a discourse reinforces a culture that is driven for consumption.
Power Relationships Surrounding the Field
Power remains an important element in a communication discourse. In this analogy, power defines the use of language by those in power through the media. Journalists have the capacity to control mass media discourses and access to various forms of shows and talks(Attallah, 2010). In many instances, communication discourses captures through its proponents in the analysis of language and the use of those who are in power who remain answerable for the inequalities that may exist since discourse can reproduce social domination, the abuse of power and manner through which the dominated groups may resist abuse caused through these platforms.
It is also vital to disclose that social power also have the capacity to influence the patterns of discourse. Ordinary people in a way have active access and control over social discourse genres since their everyday conversations revolve around the family, colleagues, friends, and in some cases the access of institutions through either a bureaucratic or media discourse (Haavisto, & Maasilta, 2015).The elites on the other hand may also have control and access to both the public and informal institutions through the media.
As indicated by the theoretic godfather of communication the media Phillips and Jorgensen, power has the capacity to hold good and what may make this accepted is the fact that it should not weigh on people but navigate and produce things(Thomson, & White, 2008). Power according to these thoughts can indulge pleasure, and inform individuals thus producing a discourse. Power in this case should therefore be treated as a productive network which runs through the media and the social body rather than act as a negative function represses the community (Masip, Guallar, Suau, Ruiz-Caballero, & Peralta, 2015)
Discourses That Surround a Television News Room
In determining the discourses that surround the television newsrooms, it is essencential to disclose that the use of visual imagery remains the central element of how organizations are represented through the media. Through the newsrooms, organizations are given the opportunity to represent themselves, communicate with the rest of the world and create their identities(Wodak, 2006). However, through a communication discourse through mainstream news websites remain an important element that is available in a newsroom. Nowadays there are mainstream news websites have provided online approaches of communicating with the aim of modifying the professionalized consumers aesthetic that has the capacity to attract a large audience. Visual communication in the newsrooms therefore remains vital in the discourses.
Media acts as a powerful medium, which connects the global world in the slightest of time, thus turning the worlds into one small community. However, the manner in which the media covers certain issues in the society is considered subtle and can only be explained in various ways (Cottle, & Matthews, 2013). In addition to this, the media is also criticized for its approaches in portraying women, the old and the young including other minority groups in a derogatory way.
In determining the impact of media in the society, it is essential to understand the communication discourses that embody a televised broadcast. A discourse socially constitutes the relationships between people and groups (Arno, 2009). As personalities are subjected to the media, their opinions are also changed, reinforced and exposed as well. Discourse therefore remains a medium that power and norms operate (Roy, 2013). On the other hand, power remains an important element in a communication discourse in that it defines the use of language by those in power through the media. Power should therefore be treated as a productive network which runs through the media and the social body rather than act as a negative function represses the community.
Arno, A. (2009). Alarming Reports. Communicating Conflict In The Daily News. New York: Berghahn Books. [[[B][Lg: Eng][Isbn: 9781845455798 (Alk. Paper)][Social Conflict In Mass Media][Discourse Analysis][Mass Media][Mass Media And Anthropology]]]
Attallah, P. (2010). Television Discourse And Situation Comedy. Canadian Review Of American Studies, 40(1), 1-24.
Cottle, S., & Matthews, J. (2013). U.S. TV News And Communicative Architecture: Between Manufacturing Consent And Mediating Democracy. Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media,57(4), 562-578. Doi:10.1080/08838151.2013.845831
Haavisto, C., & Maasilta, M. (2015). Towards A Journalism Of Hope? Compassion And Locality In European Mediations Of Distant Suffering. Critical Arts: A South-North Journal Of Cultural & Media Studies, 29(3), 327-341. Doi:10.1080/02560046.2015.1059548
Harro-Loit, H., &Kõresaar, E. (2010). National Temporality And Journalistic Practice: Temporalising Anniversary Events In Estonian Television News.Trames: A Journal Of The Humanities & Social Sciences,14(4), 323-341. Doi:10.3176/Tr.2010.4.03
Hoskins, A., & O’loughlin, B. (2007). Television And Terror. Conflicting Times And The Crisis Of News Discourse. Houndmills, Basingstoke New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [[[B][Lg: Eng][Isbn: 0230002315 (Alk. Paper)][Terrorism][Television Broadcasting Of News][Journalism][National Security]]]
Kovacic, M. P., &Erjavec, K. (2008).Mobi Journalism In Slovenia. Journalism Studies, 9(6), 874-890. Doi:10.1080/14616700802227860
Lorenzo-Dus, N. (2009). Television Discourse. Analysing Language In The Media. Basingstoke England New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [[[B][Lg: Eng][Isbn: 9781403934291 (Paperback)][Television Broadcasting][Television Talk Shows][Television Broadcasting Of News][Discourse Analysis]]]
Maier, S. R., & Potter, D. (2001). Public Journalism Through The Lens: How Television Broadcasters Covered Campaign ’96.Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45(2), 320.
Masip, P., Guallar, J., Suau, J., Ruiz-Caballero, C., & Peralta, M. (2015). News And Social Networks: Audience Behavior. El Professional De La Information, 24(4), 363-370. Doi:10.3145/Epi.2015.Jul.02
Meinhof, U. H., & Smith, J. (Eds.). (2000). Intertextuality And The Media. From Genre To Everyday Life. Manchester: Manchester University Press. [[[B] [Media Discourse] [News Discourse]]]
Patrona, M. (2012). Journalists On The News: The Structured Panel Discussion As A Form Of Broadcast Talk. Discourse & Society,23(2), 145-162. Doi:10.1177/0957926511431505
Peterson, M. A. (2001). Getting To The Story: Unwriteable Discourse And Interpretive Practice In American Journalism. Anthropological Quarterly, 74(4), 201-211.
Richardson, J. E. (2007). Analysing Newspapers. An Approach From Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [[[B][Lg: Eng][Isbn: 1403935653 (Pbk.)][Journalism][Newspapers][Discourse Analysis]]]
Rochester, S. (2011). Good News At Gerasa. Transformative Discourse And Theological Anthropology In Mark’s Gospel. Oxford: New York. [[[B][Lg: Eng][Isbn: 9783034302944 (Alk. Paper)][Theological Anthropology]]]
Roy, D. (2013). Juggling With Pronouns: Racist Discourse In Spoken Interaction On The Radio. Australian Aboriginal Studies,2013(1), 17-30.
Segado, F., Grandío, M., & Fernandez Gomez, E. (2015). Social Media And Television: A Bibliographic Review Based On The Web Of Science. El Professional De La Information, 24(3), 227-234. htps://www.doi:10.3145/Epi.2015.May.02
Thomson, E. A., & White, P. R. R. (Eds.). (2008). Communicating Conflict. Multilingual Case Studies Of The News Media. London New York: Continuum. [[[B][Lg: Eng][Isbn: 0826497829][Social Conflict In Mass Media][Discourse Analysis]]]
Principles of Public Service Broadcasting in the Case of ABS and SBS
– Discuss the principle of public service broadcasting in the case of ABC and SBS
– 10 references: mix of journals, book and media sources
– Double Spacing
– Please inform me earlier if the writer cannot finish the essay within today
Principles of Public Service Broadcasting in the Case of ABS and SBS
There are emerging confronting arguments as to whether ABS and SBS have evolved to fit the present media context. For instance, SBS has been heavily criticised recently due to its funding models, commercial operations, and the continued relevance of publicity-funded media Sabir (2013). Another reason why the roles of these media broadcasts are questioned as to whether they are relevant to the present media context is the crisis of legitimacy/independence. This is mainly drawn from the rising digital migrations, globalising media, and rejection of traditional forms of media use. Therefore, the following discussion will engage in discussing some of the principles of PSB (Public Service Broadcasting) in the case of ABC (Australia Broadcasting Corporation) and SBS (Special Broadcasting Services). In addition, the paper will critically analyze whether the functions and roles of ABS and SBS are indispensable to the new media context.
In the Australian context, SBS and ABC are the two main known sources of many radio and television stations. Chapter 6 of the Constitution of Australia gives that ABC is mandated to air programmes that have educational importance (Janssen & Crompvoets 2012). He mandate also extends to informing and entertaining people in Australia. In addition, ABS is given the function of promoting national cohesion through enhancement of cultural diversity (Ratkovic Njegovan & Sidiani 2014). Therefore, ABS authorises its stations to preach cultural diversity in all aspects ranging from sports, business, and religious matter. On top of these principles, such considerations given by ABC have its programmes have and aim for diversity agendas as well as important concerns addressing the country’s citizens. This principle should be followed to the later as failure to observe it has legal consequences (Janssen & Crompvoets 2012). It is being assured that a media house can be punished thorough legal penalties of revocation of licences or closure.
In the same Chapter 6 of Australia constitution, Special Broadcasting Service Act 1991 (SBC ACT) is found to give the legal roles of SBS. One of the distinguished functions given by this Act is that SBS is mandated to give radio and television services that are focused in the provision of entertaining and providing education to the citizens in Australia. In this regard as portrayed by Janssen & Crompvoets (2012) and Moe (2011), SBS has a role in establishing and fostering multicultural society. The contribution to meeting the communication demands of Australia’s multicultural society falls under the principles under PSB to promote diversity (Sawer, Abjorensen & Larkin 2009). According to Moe (2011), ‘SBS is more practical in Australian context, in that it has a role to promote deep understanding and acceptance of the cultural and linguistic diversity of the country’s people’. What this point indicates is that, the people of Australia will appreciate their cultural aspects when they see that those cultural aspects are aired through the media houses.
Another outstanding principle of PSB is that broadcasting is to be made available to all citizens. More importantly, the SBS Act that gives that SBS is mandated to preserve and continue to facilitate the progression of language as well as on the platform of cultural skills (Sawer, Abjorensen & Larkin 2009, p. 224). Therefore, this broadcasting service maintains this role by making sure that it aims for geographical diversity. Even the minority group in Australia constituting of the Aboriginals enjoys SBS’s services. Thus, all citizens receiving the benefits from SBS is one of the stated principles of PSB to ensure that it does not discriminate based on religion, race, skin-colour, or lifestyle (Moe 2011). To ensure they are proficient in following this principle, SBS strive to address the tastes and attentions of all diverse groups as well as providing them with opportunities, not only as consumers, Sabir (2013) but also as content providers and citizens.
Notably, provision of quality broadcast quality is another principle of Public Service Broadcasting. Provision of quality content is a decisive principle even in the international platform. Thus, provision of quality reports and news is the mandate of SBS and ABS(Sawer, Abjorensen & Larkin 2009, p. 256). SBS and ABS do know that it is punishable under the laws to bribe a source of information or threaten a source of information in the move to get information. To this matter therefore, they try as much as possible to provide news and reports that have legitimate sources. In addition, it is expected that SBS and ABS do provide news coverage and reports that are fair, believable, and objective. Therefore, (Sawer, Abjorensen & Larkin (2009) and Ratkovic Njegovan & Sidiani (2014) unanimously attest that SBS and ABS work down to earth to ensure that it furnishes present creative content, newer and fresher reports, which ethically are derived from a different and sundry perceptive. On top of that, the report and the news broadcasts should strive to holistically appeal or delight, attract advertisers and audiences (Sabir 2013). Moreover, in giving quality content, ABS and SBS broadcasts programmes that are quite unrelated to other players in the media industry.
Financial independence is another crucial standard principle of PSB. This principle is source of debate to many future analysts (Sawer, Abjorensen & Larkin 2009, p. 268). Some of the analysts argue that when independence of the media houses is limited to the government, it makes SBS and ABS to offer the broadcasts that are of low quality. This is because apparently they are economically guaranteed to get money from the government. In Australia to be specific, the government prohibits ABC from broadcasting commercial advertisings to make it rely wholly in the government’s funding. Ironically, Sabir (2013, p. 227) and Ratkovic Njegovan & Sidiani (2014) argues that the government guarantees ABS with freedom of expression, but diminishes its (ABS) other prospective sources of money. SBS also feel the same experience. SBS receives its funding or money from public grant, which is passed annually. However, as Ratkovic Njegovan & Sidiani (2014, p. 346) contends, SBS enjoys commercial broadcasting unlike its counterpart ABS, in that it enjoy a five-minutes broadcasting of commercials per hour. This becomes one of its supplemental avenues of supplementing its budget.
Another principle that is quite debated in most media houses in Australia is whether PSB’s practices have editorial independence. Another standard principle is that PSB must enjoy editorial independence, that is, to be legally recognised as an autonomous entity (Ranganathan & Rodriguez 2010). Editorial independence is quite crucial to ensure that freedom of expression and those of journalists are protected. According to Cunningham & Turnbull (2014, p. 267), PSBs should provide ‘authority of voice’ and not the other way round. Taking ABS into context, the federal government has legislative rule over ABS to ensure it air quality broadcasts. Opponents of editorial independence argue that editorial independence exists in theoretical forms. In practical form, it is not exhibited (Ratkovic Njegovan & Sidiani 2014, p. 350). They place their argument on the fact that since ABS has the limited source of funding, in fact, from the government alone; it has a high affinity to broadcast some broadcasts that are political influenced. Inadequate funding is more likely to compromise the integrity and quality of the services given by ABS on the point that the federal government has a massive supremacy on the public grants on which ABS is dependent (Sawer, Abjorensen & Larkin 2009). When SBS comes to focus, it has much editorial independence compared to ABC. However, it solely acts on the minister’s guidelines and statements (Meier 2008). The minister may have political affiliations, which makes the critics of editorial independence fear the future of broadcasting of ABS and SBS in Australia.
Another formidable principle of PSB as given by Moe (2011) and Perisin (2013) is that it should stick to sturdy accountability traditions. Therefore, PSB has a mandate to formulate and implement an open and transparent accountability. This practice enables to appraise whereby performances as objectives are given in details. Apparently, ABS and SBS strictly know the constraints posed to them and respect them. It is liable to be punished by the law when ABS and SBS lacks a transparent accountability system (Janssen & Crompvoets 2012). ABS and SBS have been engaging in formulating policies and updating them, as well as giving feedback on their productivity. This is in together with providing recommendations of how improvements can be realised (Cunningham & Turnbull 2014, P. 240). In Australia, ABS and SBS have well-established controls to augment accountability. This control ranges from provision of incentives, effectual training, and communication, as well as the endorsement of ethics and values.
Based on the function and roles given above, some are either important or non-important to the new media context. One of the principles, which are important to the new media context, is provision of quality broadcasts. Generally, innovation of the media houses is motivated (Sawer, Abjorensen & Larkin 2009). Notably, provisions of quality broadcasts aim at making media house to become competitive in the media industry. This is not forgetting that ABS and SBS do struggle to give quality contents by consciously promoting scientist researches, being ethical towards human rights, promotion of gender equality, as well as becoming a solid entity to mediate conflicts of political and economic grounds. Another function that is important to the new media context is adherence to all citizens. SBS, for instance, in provision opportunities to all citizens has a role towards building a media literate audience with the ability to participate vigorously in the advancement and sustainability of the services, as well as the appreciation of its contents. Some of the functions that are non-important to the new media context are editorial independence and non-independence in Australia.
When ABS and SBS are brought into the realm of this discussion, Sawer, Abjorensen & Larkin (2009, p. 287) their functions, not only do they not match the present media context, but also on future one. This is because freedom of expression is currently electrified in many societies, not only ranging from freedoms on human rights, but also from funding and editorial independence. Media analysts contend that, provision of freedom of expression and limiting the source of money to be one supply can make ABS close its radio and television stations in the future. This is apparently because they are being threatened by disastrous changing economic realities. This digital era is having the proliferation of commercial broadcasting posing an unquenchable threat to publicly funded broadcasters such as ABS and SBS (Cunningham, S., & Turnbull 2014, P. 267). The ongoing development of cable and satellite networks has a dramatic impact on access to broadcasting to the whole world. Therefore, citizens in Australia will prefer to tune to independent broadcasters than to a national broadcasting entity, which they view it as a government’s mouthpiece (Chab”Juk, & Kops 2011). Thus, the functions of the ABS and SBS can fit in the new media context if it enjoys economic and editorial independence.
In summary, the principles of PSB do strive to see that freedom of the press is adhered to the latter. However, when it comes to the ABS and SBS’s contexts, it is another case as their source of funding is constrained to the government’s sources. Therefore, editorial and economic independence are two pillars of broadcasting. This will at the end enable and motivate media house to broadcast quality programmes to the people. When this tradition is sustained, the functions of ABS and SBS will have importance in the new media context, as people will stop viewing them as being puppets of the government.
CHAB”JUK, O., & KOPS, M. (2011). Public service broadcasting a German-Ukrainian exchange of opinions. Wien, Lit.
CUNNINGHAM, S., & TURNBULL, S. (2014). The media & communications in Australia. Crows Nest, NSW, Allen & Unwin. Pp. 167-298.
JANSSEN, K., & CROMPVOETS, J. (2012). Geographic data and the law: defining new challenges. Pp. 145-245.
MEIER, H. (2009). INDEPENDENT REGULATORY BODIES AND IMPOSSIBLE JOBS: THE FAILURE OF GERMAN PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING REGULATION, Public Administration, 86(10, pp. 133-148, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 June 2015.
MOE, H. (2011). Defining public service beyond broadcasting: the legitimacy of different approaches, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 17(1) pp. 52-68, Academic Search Premier, EBSCohost, viwed June 1 2015.
PERISIN, T. (2013). Convergence Journalism and the Public Interest: The case of Croatian Public Radio Television (HRT)’ politicka Misao: Croatian Political Science Review, 50(5), pp. 155-172, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 June 2015.
RATKOVIC NJEGOVAN, B., & SIDIANI, I. (2014). Public Broadcasting crisis as management crisis: a case study of radio television of Vojvodina, journal of East European management Studies, vol 19, pp. 3, pp. 348-367.
To assess the students understanding of key concepts and their ability to apply critical analysis and writing skills to the development of a coherent theoretical argument. Choose one (1) of the following essay topics and write a 2500 word essay:
1. An analysis of the evolution of international communication ‘reveals a dominance and dependency syndrome – the domination of a few countries by virtue of their control of both the software and hardware of global communication and the dependence of many nations upon them’ (Thussu 2000:6). Does this statement confirm the Marxist dictum that whoever controls the means of production controls the ideas that circulate, in this case, internationally?
2. Are local cultures becoming homogenised by international media? Evaluate the evidence used to support claims of homogenisation. Discuss alternative views of the future impact of international media on culture (eg. contraflow, hybridisation, diversification, fragmentation, multiplicity, etc) using examples as evidence.
3. Many advances in communication technologies have greatly enhanced international communication. This not only occurs at the government to government level but has also enhanced business to business and people to people interactions at a global level unimaginable a century ago. As the 21st Century develops the communication networks that helped represent the world to itself, and let it be observed as a single blue planet, have also created a medium for revolutionaries and terrorists to go about their covert and explosive business – a business that lives and breathes through digital communication technology use, such as social media and the mobile phone networks, and the oxygen of media exposure, be it through Al Jazeera, CNN or the BBC. Discuss.
4. Some have argued that the new global communication infrastructure has the potential to deliver digital democracy which would privilege public good and creativity while others argue that commodified information and communication, colonized by a few multimedia mega-corporations and their localized clones, is what is actually occurring. Which of these positions is true?
The essay is to be uploaded through Turnitin and will be marked electronically. You are not required to submit a cover sheet.
If you want feedback on your essay, you must also include (immediately before the essay) a fully completed Essay Self-Evaluation/Feedback Sheet (available on Blackboard).
The assessment will be based on content, structure, style and format. Particular emphasis will be placed on:
a) the extent and quality of research evident in the essay
b) the identification of key issues
c) the originality, depth and quality of thought in analysing the topic
d) the quality of expression, argument and presentation in the essay
Please note that your reference list for this essay must contain, at the bare minimum, at least eight (8) monographs (i.e. books) and at least four (4) journal articles.
Course learning objectives of this assessment (1, 3, 4)
1. Examine the historic, geographic, economic and political context of international media.
2. Compare the role and function of the media in Australia with those in various other nations.
3. Examine the socio-cultural influence of international media.
4. Explore practical implications of international media in relation to new technology and global issues.
Essays or written assessments meet the course objectives of knowledge acquisition and demonstrated assimilation of data, upon reflection and analysis, to produce articulate and concise documents, which convey evidence-based understanding of the concepts and topics.
The advancement of technology which has seen the development and advancement of communication media has created great effects to the world. Technology has globalized the world with the creation of media platforms where information can be shared instantly and reach a very wide and varied audience. The use of the internet has globalized the world and enhanced communication among governments and businesses all over the world. Effective and enhanced media and communication has served the business world very diligently and companies all over the world value the power of the internet since it has enabled them communicate effectively to their clients and business partners all over the world. The 21st Century brought about the dot-com era in technology which impacted very positively to the way the world communicates. Organizations have been able to revolutionize communication since then and have benefited since they can be able to communicate more effectively and efficiently both internally and externally (Karacasulu, 2006).
Technology advancement has also changed the way the government communicates to the world and also to its people. Digital communication technology which includes the use of platforms such as social media has enabled governments to improve show services are offered to its citizens. Most of government agencies currently use media platforms to offer information about their operation and services to their target groups of the society. Most of the services including those offered by the immigration departments, revenue collection authorities and media licensing boards are now available online which is very different from how services where offered before the 21st century (Bilgen, 2012). Organizations too have not been left behind in the integration of technology in their activities. Most international companies currently carry out most of their operations ranging from board meetings, recruitments, internal communications and marketing of their products over internet-enabled digital platforms. This has been of great positive impact to the organizations and enabled them to reach a wide range of clients all over the world and save the organizations millions through enhanced and effective communication (Korstanje, 2013).
The advancement of communication and media all over the world has seen the world become a globalized place and information can now be passed from one point or individual to a wide range of recipients within a very short time. Media platforms such social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram among others have developed from the effects of technology advancement and have taken the world by storm (Hess & Kalb, 2008). These social media platforms are able to attract a very wide range of audience which makes them very important to the world of communication and international integration. Mobile networks have also evolved which have made telephone conversations very easy across boundaries all over the world. Mobile communication is currently seamless and different providers have made it possible the integration of their users and enhanced communication between the users a very easy and cheap task to accomplish. Media houses and television stations have not been left behind the internet revolution and they have also offered their news over these social media platforms and over other internet platforms which ensures that the information reaches people all over the world.
In the 21st century international media has seen great developments and the establishment of platforms which have changed how the world communicates. Media platforms such as the mobile networks, social media and international televisions have made information available to all parts of the world. This has impacted intergovernmental relations and communication since information can be easily posted and reaches a wider range of readers. Apart from benefiting international organizations and also small businesses and government agencies, the advancement of technology has also attracted revolutionary groups and terrorist groups that have been using these platforms to advance their activities. It is worth noting that there appears to be a symbiotic relationship between the media and the terrorist groups. The media world are interested in getting information for their readers and viewers all over the world about terrorism and at the same time the terrorists are interested in attracting the greatest attention from the world (Hess & Kalb, 2008).
Terrorism has turned out to be an explosive business that lives and breathes through digital communication technology including social media and mobile phone networks that are now available seamlessly all over the world. Terrorist groups all over the world are more interested in the media coverage and exposure through international media channels including CNN, BBC and Al Jazeera. This situation creates what many researchers have come up to point out as a symbiotic relationship between the international media and terrorism groups and their proponents (Lewis, 2010). The past two decades have seen the rise of terrorism and springing up of many revolutionary and terrorist groups all over the world. Be it in America, Australia, Europe, Middle East, Africa, every part of the world has witnessed a rise in terrorist attacks and these groups have taken the media for their hostage and promotion. From the details of recent terrorist attacks it can be noted that the architects of the attacks are interested in using the media for their own benefits in their operational efficiency, gather information on potential areas, carry out recruitment and carry out fundraising for their missions. The terrorist groups are using the media to develop their networks through creating propagandas and the increased coverage benefits them in their recruitment exercises and glorification of their actions (Baran, 2008).
The architects of terrorism have targeted the media to benefit them in their drive through the attention they gain, recognition all over the world or by a wider range of viewers and readers of information over the available media platforms. The terrorism groups feel that they gain respect in the world and sell their ideologies in the world thus at the same time gaining a wider range of supporters and members. It has been argued that through the coverage of the terrorists’ attacks, the media benefits too. Through the coverage the events of the terrorists’ attacks, the media is able to draw the attention of the world viewers and therefore benefits from information sales and huge follower audiences thus creating profits that are important for their running. In the event of a terrorist attack for instance the 9/11 attack in New York in 2001 and the Sydney attack of 2015, the eagerness of the public to get the information about the attacks drive the media to cover the events which also benefits the terrorists (Altheide, 2009). Researchers have for the last decade carried out studies to understand the symbiotic relationship between the media and terrorism and how the advancement of the world’s media platforms has benefited the uprising of terrorism groups in the world.
The socio-economic impact of international media advancement is notable in all sectors of the world business and all government agencies. The media has been seen to have been taken hostage by the terrorism groups that have emerged in the different parts of the world. Terrorism has grown steadily at the same rate which social media platforms and other media platforms have developed. This is due to the fact that these groups are organized in social media and these platforms are used to entice their backers to join them and organize attacks to their targets. It has been argued in many circles of the world business that, if the media coverage was not available in the points of terrorist attacks, the attacks would not have such impacts since the impact would only be confined to the victims of such attacks (Altheide, 2009). This is to say that the main goal of the terrorists is to ensure that they attract as much attention as possible as they are not only interested in the victims of the attacks but also the attention of world media and international governments. This is the reason why the attackers plan carefully the points to attack, carry put detailed researches about their potential victims and weigh on the attention that carrying out the attacks will draw (Papacharissi & Oliveira., 2008).
The international media has made terrorist groups’ leaders look like world leaders who ought to be listened to due to the advanced coverage of their actions including recruitment activities and trainings together with the coverage of the attacks. Terrorist groups use the media platforms such as the social media and television media to ensure that they publicize their political causes and ideologies and reach their proponents and opponents and gain mileage and support from the world’s governments to drive forward their agendas. Terrorist groups are currently organized and seem to have their ideologies and political views and in most cases seem to be fighting against established governments. They have used the media to create a link between their operations and those of the entities and governments that they fight against and create confusion of which side is doing the right thing to the public. Based on these advancements and publication of their actions and ideologies to the world media terrorists are able to carry out their attacks since they know that they will draw the attention of the government existent in the area of attack and draw more attention to the world media (ADL, 2014).
Social media is currently playing a very vital role to advance the activities of the terrorist groups all over the world. Social media and development of mobile networks has made it possible for terrorists to share their messages to a very large audience. They are able to communicate to the world via their websites where they post their activities and drive their operations. This way and with the use of the internet, the terrorists can have the messages they need to bring forth to the world audience and post them online and have a global reach. Terrorists are currently using the social media to pass out information about their activities and be able to attract interested individuals all over the world to join them. With the use of the social media, terrorists are able to have a worldwide reach and attention and sell out their ideologies and agendas to the world audience at very little expense. Internet advancement and the technological development have provided a perfect tool for the terrorists to use to advance their goals and reach a wider section of world’s audience (Wohlforth, 2010).
In the event of advanced technology and media platforms such as the social media terrorism has evolved and the groups are targeting people to join them from all over the world. For instance the Islamic State terrorist group currently operating in the Iraq and Syrian crisis has been using the social media to expand its influence and carry out recruitments for members from different nationalities all over the world (ADL, 2014). The Islamic State is building on technological platforms that were previously used by Al Qaeda in Iraq and Al Shabaab in Middle East and North East Africa. These terrorist groups have in past used social media platforms to drive their operations and carry out recruitments in their areas. The IS has been using media platforms to recruit western followers to the group and has also been targeting its western supporters to take part in the recruitment. IS’s propaganda on the media platforms has made the terrorist group be able to attract as many as 15,000 foreigners who are fighting in its support in the Syrian crisis. The propagandas of the terrorist group have been able to draw so much attention due to the integration of social media platforms in their activities. The group posts online propaganda videos featuring Westerners such as two Americans featured in 2013 and 2014 who have helped it gain worldwide attention.
The rate at which terrorists have been using the media platforms without fear has raised eyebrows all over the world. The sophisticated use of social media by these groups to drive their goals and reach a wider audience has been a concern with the current advancement in technology (Purpura, 2008). The terrorist groups are currently maintaining accounts in social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter where they disseminate their messages. In the earlier versions of media advancements, terrorist groups relied on extremist forums where information was passed to world through videos and magazines available on their websites and other media placements. This was a slower process according to the audience that could reach the information posted which has been enhanced by the current social media platforms where the terrorist groups are able to share their propaganda swiftly to the world audience and allow supporters to take part their processes. The Islamic State terrorist group has also been able to use social media to launch campaigns against the western countries and United States and also released videos beheading American citizens to try and gain more attention to the world’s super powers and governments (Abrahms, 2010).
Media coverage on terrorism has become one of the booming businesses for the media industry. This is due to the fact that terrorism reports attract a wider audience and bring in profits to the media organizations due to the higher rating of viewing. Some aspects of terrorism such as the fighting involved, shocking stories and experiences, and the heroes that are made in such attacks make the coverage of terrorism very captivating to the media organizations. With the increased coverage of terrorism in the world currently, the aspect of giving the right information and truthful information to the world has become very critical. This is due to the fact that due to the audience that is drawn by terrorism all over the world, social media and other platforms are used to pass false information to the world (Howie, 2012).
The concern of the media currently is how to cover terrorism and the information that gets to the public audience. Since the terrorist groups have made use of the social media and media stations to drive their agendas, it is important for the media to understand its role in the world. This is to say, despite the pull and thrill to report the terrorists attacks and activities of the terrorists, the media should understand that this information helps sell the terrorists groups and gain greater audience (Pastor, 2009). Media coverage of terrorists’ activities has faced biased reporting whereby factions of terrorist groups and rebels are now reporting based on their beliefs and ideologies. This has also happened to the reporters in areas of crises such as in Iraq and Syria who are affiliated to one of the factions fighting thereby reporting in support of the groups they support. This is done in that manner to gain the attention of the world without the knowledge that in most cases worsens the situation since the information given to the world does not depict the true situation. Social media platforms should also be monitored to ensure that the terrorist groups do not use them to drive their activities of causing fear and terror to the world and in their praising of their activities that helps in their recruitment activities and gaining support all over the world. International media has evolved greatly and it drives many activities in the world and the use of media by terrorist movements shows that media should be well governed (Korstanje, 2013).
Abrahms, M. (2010). What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counterterrorism Strategy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hess, S., & Kalb, M. (2008). The Media and the War on Terrorism. Washington, DC: Brookings.
Howie, L. (2012). Witnesses to Terror: Understanding the Meanings and Consequences of Terrorism. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Karacasulu, N. (2006). Security and Globalization in the Context of International Terrorism. Review of International Law and Politcs , 1-17.
Korstanje, M. (2013). Preemption and Terrorism. When the Future Governs. Cultura, 167-184.
Lewis, J. (2010). Language Wars: The Role of Media and Culture in Global Terror and Political Violence. London: Pluto Press.
Papacharissi, Z., & Oliveira., M. d. (2008). News Frames Terrorism: A Comparative Analysis of Frames Employed in Terrorism Coverage in U.S. and U.K. Newspapers. The International Journal of Press/Politics 13., 7-12.
Pastor, J. (2009). Terrorism & Public Safety Policing: Implications of the Obama Presidency. New York, NY : Taylor & Francis.
Purpura, P. P. (2008). Terrorism and homeland security: an introduction with applications. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Wohlforth, C. (2010). Realism and Security Studies. New York: Routledge.
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Write 300 words about the law and journalism using the information attached to the order.
Law and Journalism
Law structures the manner in which people interact within a set of social norms. This way, law is a defining aspect for communities and it determines who belongs. Law is a very important societal aspect because it reflects the aspirational norms and rules of the community it regulates. It only maintains legitimate authority if it can play its role effectively. Journalism faces similar problems because its professional projects becomes increasingly blurred and aligned with business. Law has an upper authority on journalism because it regulates the amount of information that should be conveyed on media and dictates the scope of a journalist’s work (Breit, 2014).
According to the General Principles of the Press Council, news and comments should be presented in a manner that is fair and respects the privacy and sensibilities of people, although this does not mean that some matters which are on the public record or significantly in the public interest should be omitted. Privacy Principles require journalists to ensure when gathering news, they do not cause undue intrusions on the privacy of people and that public members caught up in newsworthy events should not be exploited (The Sydney Morning Herald, 2014).
The media faces numerous challenges, with the conventional business models thrown into turmoil by new media platforms. Although from the outsider perspective, there has been a minimal number of cases of journalists being persecuted for contempt of court, from the insider perspective there are many issues that deserve professional security and reflection. There are career consequences that arise from journalists being persecuted for contempt of court and having a criminal record. Breit (2011) notes that media publications have received massive criticism for the traumatizing of victims of crime, inserting pressure on proceedings, affecting the impartiality of jurors and undermining the confidence of the public in the judicial system.
Breit, R. (2011). Professional Communication: Legal and Ethical Issues, 2nd ed. Lexis Nexis, Butterworths: Australia.
Write 300 words about the professionalism of journalism using the information attached to the order.
The Professionalism of Journalism
Breit (2011) views a profession as an occupation which has assumed a dominant position in the marketplace and therefore it gains control on the determination and substance of its own work. Sometimes, a profession is defined in terms of the traits it reveals, such as applying specialized knowledge to certain kinds of work, exercising some levels of autonomy and governance, wielding power, portraying oneself as valuable to the society as a whole and to those using professional services, and adopting a formal education process through a tertiary or university level institution.
Although media production is not currently under a single professional body, it can also be regarded as structured in the same way as PR, journalism and law. Journalists are professionals because they relay information, opinions and ideas. They aim at searching, disclosing, recording, questioning, entertaining, suggesting and remembering. Journalists give a practical form of freedom of expression. While most journalists work in private enterprise, all of them have these public responsibilities. Thus, one thing that defines communication media practices as professions is the call to a higher, moral, ethical function. However, due to the fact that a lot of journalist material is supplied by PR firms, it is usually the case that journalists need to deflect criticism that their resources are less objective, leading to the competition between journalists and PR people. This detracts from professional legitimacy (Breit, 2011).
To promote a sense of professional practice in journalism, it would be important to shift the pre-training for communication media practices into universities, as has happened with nursing. The compulsory teaching of such courses as Media, Law, Ethics is another signal that professional standards are being taught. However, as Breit (2011) points out, communication media practices cannot be fully likened to engineering or medicine in regard to an objective set of methods.
Breit, R. (2011). Professional Communication: Legal and Ethical Issues, 2nd ed. Lexis Nexis, Butterworths: Australia.
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Write 300 words about the ethics of journalism using the information attached to the order.
The Ethics of Journalism
Ethics refers to a set of prescriptive virtues, values, principles and rules of character which inform and guide intrapersonal and interpersonal conduct, that is, the conduct of people toward each other and toward themselves. Aristotle viewed character as a quality that could help a person in making a persuasive argument. Before character, it is important to start with duty, which is one of the key defining features of ethics (Breit, 2011).
From a deontological perspective, good actions are determined by obligations and duties, regardless of consequences. Deontological theories consist of various approaches including social contract, rights theory, and traditional duty theory; the prima facie duties and the categorical imperative. Immanuel Kant emphasized the aspect of reason as a basis of morality, that focuses on rational decision-making in order to show what a person should do whether the action is universal, in respect for persons or in respect for the autonomy of others (Breit, 2011).
Utilitarianism is considered the most influential consequentialist theory of ethics. Jeremy Bentham suggested that an action, intention of principle must be judged by its overall immediate outcomes. From a consequentialist perspective, there has been a shift from the individual, not to a group, but to rather an elite, who is in a position of relative power. Before carrying out a certain action, a journalist asks himself such things as whether the intended action might cause harm, whether someone will be denied legal or moral rights, and whether everyone in the situation has been treated impartially.
The human aspects of journalism and public relations have a close connection to the ethic of care, which emphasizes the value of empathy for others and human relationships. Thus, when responding to an ethical problem, a care ethicist needs to determine whether the action was genuinely related to the needs of others. The focus in ethical decision making is on understanding others that is, acknowledging the needs of others and caring responsively, competently, and responsibly (Breit, 2011).
Breit, R. (2011). Professional Communication: Legal and Ethical Issues, 2nd ed. Lexis Nexis, Butterworths: Australia.
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Discuss how modern technology and social media may cause further contempt issues for journalists.
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Journalism and Contempt
We normally do not understand what contempt really is. Contempt, in legal terms, is the act of interfering with the advocated course of justice. In Australia, contempt is the deliberate attack on the status and dignity of the court systems (Phillip, 2010). Journalists in Australia are usually charged with contempt for the failure to reveal sources to their information at the court of law (Media Law Resource Center, 2013). I stand firm to argue that journalists should be charged in court with contempt. This is because it undermines the authority of the courts by endeavoring to influence participants in the proceedings, which can happen through publication or action such as physical threats to safety at extreme (Overbeck & Belmas, 2011). Failure to provide the requested information by the court is total disobedience. I would recommend that journalists should be charged with contempt if their publications tend to undermine public confidence in the administration of justice.
Several cases are evident showing certain journalists charged with contempt in Australia. Two Melbourne journalists, Gerald McManus and Michael Harvey, is one group charged with contempt in 2007 who apparently, had written an article for the Herald Sun Newspaper (Pracene, 2005). Subsequently, criminal charges were brought against Commonwealth Public Servant, who was alleged to be the source of information for the story. Both Gerald and McManus refused to give information as requested by the court, and were consequently fined $7000 each. Another case that confirms my stand on charging journalists with contempt is that of three Fairfax journalists in Supreme Court of New Wales (Riles, 2011). Justice Lucy McCallum ordered the journalist tool reveal identity of sources used to publish the story about a publication on defamation regarding a Chinese property developer, Helen Liu (Wijckmans, Tuytschaever & Vanderelst, 2006). The is a video in the you tube that show the article ‘Backpacker serial killings’ was fined $100000 for using the picture of Ivan Milat, who had been accused for slaying 7 hitchhikers as told by his brother Wally.
The next area I would like to discuss is use of Shield laws in Australia and its effectiveness. Shield laws are used in shielding journalists from revealing very sensitive data to the court that can lead to the prosecution of the source of the informant (Mandiberg, 2012). Shield laws can be said to be geared to protect the freedoms of the source of first-hand information. Shield laws, on the other hand, are used to relieve journalists from personal and professional harms. It is reported that period 2001-2002, two journalists in Australia committed suicide due to unknown reasons (Karmen, 2013). Experts in journalism argue that the cause of their death may be as a result of fear of prosecution as the article they had written was sensitive. The effectiveness of the Shield laws is to electrify the freedom of journalist to protect them from being blurred enjoying some services such as visa as it was done to McManus. This enables journalists protect and retain their reputations (Jones, 2010). The Journalists Privilege under the Shield laws provides that a judge will request information about the source of data after evaluating the likely damage to the informant and the ability of the news media to access sources of facts (Willingham, 2013). Another profound effectiveness of Shield laws is that it has enabled governments to be accountable. This is by protecting the journalist from corruption-full dockets of the government that reprimand the freedoms of these journalists (In Meyers, 2010). Accountability can also be felt by the ability of a country able to come down to the common problem and address it from the roots as portrayed by journalists (Zelezny, 2011). At most, transparency and democracy is reinstated to the overall system of justice because freedoms and rights are equivalently controlled and maintained.
The third and final issue I would like to address is how modern technology and social media may cause further contempt issues for journalists. With the emergence of new technology, we experience varied social media platforms where people of varied cultural settings expresses their views freely and confidently (Hunsicker, 2011). However, such information may trigger confusion and conflicts. Journalists have adopted a mechanism of getting information from these social media sites to write articles and publications. This is likely to cause more prosecution of journalists with contempt at courts (Elias, 2012). Most of social medial related information is usually fabricated, and if taken seriously, will lead to the prosecution of the journalist because it is very difficult to get the informant. This is provided by Shield law that argues that journalist must produce the source of the information if the court comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to have the source of data to make a sound judgment about the accused (Chadwick, 2013). Development of technology and social media will also see many journalists going to prison because of unintentional and intentional leak of vital information to wrong persons such as terrorist groups.
I would conclude by saying that journalists with contempt should be charge with if they refuse to provide information for proper operations of stated laws. Shield laws are there to protect both the journalist and the informants. In my views, improvement of technology and social media will increasingly place a heavy responsibility on professional journalists to maintain high standards of fact-checking, honesty and objectivity if considerations such as control are exhibited.
Chadwick, A. (2013). The hybrid media system: Politics and power. New York: New York University Press.
Elias, O. (2012). The development and effectiveness of international administrative law: On the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of the World Bank Administrative Tribunal. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Hunsicker, A. (2011). Behind the shield: Anti-riot operations guide. Boca Raton: Universal- Publishers
In Meyers, C. (2010). Journalism ethics: A philosophical approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jones, M. (2010). Bennett and Philp Lawyers, Client Update: Protecting Journalists’ confidential sources (shield laws).
Karmen, A. (2013). Crime victims: An introduction to victimology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Mandiberg, M. (2012). The social media reader. New York: New York University Press.
Media Law Resource Center. (2013). MLRC 50-state survey, 2013-14: Media privacy & related law. Annandale, N.S.W: Federation Press.
Overbeck, W., & Belmas, G. I. (2011). Major principles of media law. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth.
Pracene, U. C. (2005). Journalists, shield laws and the first amendment: Is the fourth estate under attack?. New York, NY: Nova Science Publ.Sawer, M., Abjorensen, N., & Larkin, P. (2009). Australia: The state of democracy. Annandale, N.S.W: Federation Press.
Rhetorically Analyzing Op-ed Newspaper 4 different Articles-( op-ed columnists (opinion and editorial columnists) from one of the major reputable newspapers at the bottom of the next page (from the Opinion/Editorial section—not News, Entertainment, or Sports articles, informational features, reviews of products, or blogs). For this assignment, elect an op-ed columnist from one of the major reputable newspapers (from the Opinion/Editorial section—not News, Entertainment, or Sports articles, informational features, reviews of products, or blogs). Print the articles, and put them in a three- ring binder. Each article must be from a different week beginning with this week— August 24-30—and ending the week of September 14-20. If you are accessing them online, ensure that you copy the URL and the date you downloaded the article. If you are cutting from a hard-copy newspaper, write the date of publication on the printed copy. For each article, compile an MLA citation (Works Cited page). Consult Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL) for correct formatting. Learn how to copy and paste online articles without getting all the peripheral junk. Look for a Print Option, which will copy only the column. You can cut and paste that copy onto a Word document that you can manipulate to fit the pages of your notebook paper. For each article, you must type a double-spaced commentary. Note the detailed requirements and model that are displayed on the next sheet: ? Mention the author’s full name and the article’s title in your opening sentence. Correctly punctuate the article’s title and the newspaper’s title. ? Have a clear thesis statement, following the format below: In ______________ (article’s title), ______________ (author’s name) shifts from _____________ (tone) to _____________ (tone) by using _______________ (rhetorical devices), _______________ (rhetorical devices), and __________________ (rhetorical devices), proving that _____________________________ (universal idea). ? In your body paragraphs, show how the author illustrates his/her universal idea through the use of the selected adjectives, tone/attitude words, strong verbs, and thorough rhetorical analyses. ? Each response must be a five-paragraph essay. Avoid the “kiss of death.”
NEWSPAPERS: The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Boston Globe, Chicago Sun-Times, Chicago Tribune, Miami Herald, Detroit Free Press, LA Times, Wall Street Journal, London Times
Different newspapers have op-ed articles on various topics especially on the current events happening in different locations. Op-ed articles incorporate different aspects and therefore they require authors to be versed with the current news. This paper analyses various op-ed articles by James Bovard from various newspapers on different topics. The op-ed articles cover duration from August to the last week of 14–20 September.
In the article, Bill Clinton’s Body-Snatching Legacy, Bovard explores on the decision of the then American president Bill Clinton to bomb Serbia in the year 1999. The author uses various styles and rhetoric devices to deliver his message to the readers. The article is mixed with opinions as well as evidence from different sources. The quotes of parties relating to the attack and the events after are well presented. The opening remarks applauds the then US president Clinton for his public recommended on his devotion in championing human rights. This however, is contrasted with what the European Union task force came up with. The group claims that the decision to bomb Serbia saw atrocities such as murder; sell of kidney, livers and other body parts increase. During this bombing, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) participated in unlawful abductions, killings illegal detentions, army disappearance, sexual violence, destruction of churches and religious sites among many others. The article as well incorporates past information in ensuring that the arguments raised are substantial and credible. For instance, events in the future such as the erection of Clinton statute in Serbia in 1999 and the other attacks such as Bush attack on Iraq and Obama attack on Libya helps to make the argument stronger
The author also uses figures and statistics that indicate indepth research. For instance, he states that in 2003, 70% of the Serbian people that lived in Kosovo in 1999 had already fled. Therefore, Albanian who made up 95% dominated Kosovo. The language and word choice is also good. The author uses simple English to deliver his message. The sentences are mixture of long and short something that makes the article clear and easy to read.
In the article, ‘How the Feds Distort Their ‘Food Insecurity’ Numbers’, Bovard presents an argument of how the federal government distorts the numbers relating to food insecurity. He uses various rhetoric devices with a harsh tone to present his opinions and fact.
He is very categorical and accurate in his arguments. He opens the article by quoting the date that the department of Agriculture released their annual results on the Household Food security in US survey that was done for the year 2013. The argument is strengthened by use of facts and statistics. For instance, he states that the survey indicated that 49 million Americans were food insecure a decrease from 14.5 when compared to the year 2012. Despise these statistics, politicians and pundits use the numbers in a wrongful manner to proof the national hunger crisis.
The democrats are known to have a history of using the surveys statistics in a wrongful way. The author as well uses quotes from prominent personalities such as Obama to develop his arguments. Sourcing information from various sources makes the article appear credible and reliable. Even after elapse of 40 years since declaration war on hunger by President Nixon, it is astounding that no accurate measures have been taken to remedy the situation as millions of Americans continue to lack food.
The article is very clear and professional. The author even though uses simple words and simple sentences, it is organized and easy to read and understand. The tone has remained strong; there is a sense of bitterness and carelessness among the leaders hence the reason why many people continue to suffer. The tones and the themes in the article therefore resonate.
In the article, FFF: FDR Farm Folly Lessons for ObamaCare, Bovard blames the political class for falling to take appropriate actions to ensure that the people lead better lives. He uses various rhetorical devices to get his message across. Bovard wants politicians to learn lessons from the ObamaCare and change their way of making decisions. Politicians need to recognize their relent and follies to ensure that they make good decisions.
The author incorporates history in making clarification on the current problems that the people are facing. For instance, he uses Franklin Roosevelt to exemplify how political classes double down on their follies. Farmers are always the most affected, politicians manipulate farm prices just to get the votes. Some of these decisions are reasonable as they disrupt agriculture which impacts on the lives of many people.
The author as well uses a number of authoritative sources of information such as USDA to defend his opinions and views. The language used is simple and the tone is moderate.
In the AmeriCorps at 20 is a wasteful flop: column James Bovard presents a clear argument about the failure of the program using different rhetorical devices such as quotations, questions and history to demonstrate the fact the program has failed.
The article opens with the recent welcome of the AmeriCorps recruits in White House for the 20th anniversary. The program was started in 1994 by the former US president Bill Clinton with the aim of serving the nation. However, over the years, the program has not achieved any substantial achievement. The organization has 75,000 members who continue to receive salary and education benefits for various tasks such as social, education among other projects without any impact on the society. Other government institutions duplicate some of the roles played by the organization.
The author incorporates quotes and information from different sources making the article credible and comprehensive. For instance, in 2003, there was a complaint from the Office of Management and Budget that the organisation gave more emphasis on the time an individual serves as opposed to the impact the entity has on the community.
Media Industries- An analysis of the escalating conglomeration and convergence of media
Escalating media conglomeration and convergence has caused some debate amongst media scholars, analysts and commentators as to the overall effects. Considering both sides of the argument, when it comes to media industries and their products, but also employees and consumers, has increased conglomeration and convergence overall been positive or negative? Ensure you use detailed examples and scholarly research to strengthen your discussion.
2000 word essay on the above question. To be written at undergraduate level. Please reflect on many sources and examples. Please write according to the rubric as attached.
Escalating conglomeration and convergence of media
Media Industries- An analysis of the escalating conglomeration and convergence of media
The traditional meaning of the word media or media outlet was the collection of individual news organizations who engage in the business of information transmission either through print or broadcast means (Croteau et al, 2012). These therefore included radio broadcasting houses, Newspaper companies and television broadcasters. For a long time these organizations operated as independent companies that specialized in one of the media forms or at times two or three forms of media. In the last two decades however, two terms have gained increasing popularity in the description of the operations of this industry (Flew, 2011). These are ‘Media Convergence’ and ‘Media Conglomeration.’
The term conglomeration refers to the coming together of two or more business entities with the aim of formulating a business organization whose capacity is greater than that of the individual players. The term media conglomerate refers to a business entity that is comprised of a large number of media companies. Other terms that are used interchangeably with media conglomerates are media institutions or media groups (Bryant el al, ). These entities are usually owned by a mother company which then takes charge of the television broadcasters, print companies, radio broadcasters, magazines, online news agencies and even movie companies. A defining characteristic of media conglomerates is their continuous effort to keep growing as they continue to absorb smaller media companies. This growth is driven by the urge to increase the control that the conglomerate has over the national or international media industry (Biagi, 2011).
Media convergence on the other hand refers to the coming together of different forms of media together through electronic means (Dwyer, 2010). This means that the different forms of media form a network that is supported by the existent Information Technology Infrastructure. It therefore involves a lot of computerization of the content that is being communicated by the media entities that take part in the process of convergence. With today’s technology, the internet forms the backbone of the different ways that media convergence is manifested. When this happens, the media companies involved form a system which allows them to coexist on a relatively level platform (Varnelis, 2012). It allows journalists and other generators of content to have their material presented in different forms rather than the past when one’s trade in the media industry was restricted to one area. This is the gradual transformation of the media industry into a ‘One Stop Shop’ operation.
Two key differences therefore emerge with regard to media conglomeration and media convergence. The first of these differences is the fact that media conglomeration is formal whereas media convergence is more of an informal process. The second difference that emerges is in the area which power is concentrated. With media conglomeration, the process gradually increases the power of the company which owns the media organizations. In Media Convergence however, the more the process takes place, the greater the power of the consumer due to the variety of options which are presented (Curran et al, 2013).
The purpose of this exercise is to analyze media convergence and media conglomeration with the view of establishing if these phenomena are indeed positive or negative in light of the impact they have on the media industry’s products, those employed inside it and also the consumers. The final conclusion of this matter will therefore be the result of the careful consideration of how the mentioned parties are affected by these forces. Each of these will be analyzed independently with the aim of highlighting the positive and negative impact that media conglomeration and media convergence have had on them.
Employees in the Media Industry
This is the population of individuals who make a living by working in the different sectors of the media industry. They include journalists, news anchors, columnists, cameramen, radio personalities, entertainers and also the different editors and directors. As the dynamics in the media industry continue to shift, they are the ones who feel these effects first hand given that they are the industry’s human resource.
As smaller media organizations get swallowed up into larger media conglomerates, those who have been employed in the industry are exposed to advantages and challenges unique to them. One of the advantages that employees get as a result of media conglomeration is improved remunerations due to higher salaries which are made possible by the greater pool of resources controlled by the conglomerates (Curran et al, 2013).
Another advantage realized by employees in the media industry as a result of conglomeration is increased flexibility due to the fact that they are no-longer restricted to localized versions. This is because of the fact that the conglomerates tend to serve a much larger audience meaning that broader topics can be addressed. There is also increased work flexibility given the fact that conglomerates are significantly larger than independent media organizations. The flexibility gives the employees a chance to work in areas that they either have a deep interest in, skills or even passion and the result of this is greater job satisfaction.
For the employees whose jobs expose them to the public, a greater audience means that their clout increases and this grants them a chance to curve out a niche for themselves in the media industry. This primarily refers to the entertainers and journalists on broadcast media. As a result of their unique audience, they get to develop themselves into brands such as Richard Quest and Christiane Anampour of CNN who have become authorities in the areas of business reporting and conflict reporting respectively.
Conglomeration also exposes employees in the media industry to a number of challenges, the first one being an increased risk of them losing their jobs. The risk of job losses is based on the fact that conglomerates tend to focus on the market share they are gaining even if it is at the expense of the employees of the partner media organizations (Winseck, 2012). The main reason why they are exposed to this risk is the fact that having them within the conglomerate amounts to an increase in redundancy, especially for those who are employed on account of their technical skills (Bird, 2011).
Another challenge posed by media conglomeration is that it leads to a reduction in the collective bargaining rights that these employees have since their say becomes much smaller owing to the absorption of their employers into these conglomerates (Gião et al, 2010). What this then means for them is that they have a very limited say with respect to their roles as they now have to cater to the needs of the conglomerate rather than their local audiences.
Media convergence serves as an advantage to the employees who work in the media industry because of the fact that their products get to have a much wider audience given the universality of internet which forms the backbone of media convergence (Kellner, 2011).
Employees also get to better refine their materials for two main reasons. The first reason is that electronic platforms allow for immediate feedback from the consumers. The second reason is that he level platform for the different forms of media leads to increased competition (Walther et al, 2010).
A challenge that results from media convergence for the employees in the media industry is that intellectual property is often abused and replicated often to the loss of the creators and this results in decreased revenue (Pavlik and McIntosh, 2011).
Another challenge of media convergence is the reduction of relevance of some forms of media such as print thus leading to job cuts due to reduced demand. Media convergence further threatens the livelihoods of many employees in the media industry as a result of the emergence of players who have taken over traditional income streams such as advertising which the internet as largely taken from traditional media such as print and broadcast (Hirst, 2011).
The impact of Convergence and Conglomeration on Content
Content refers to the materials that media companies prepare and present their consumers with through a variety of ways such as print, online, radio transmissions and also television broadcasts. It therefore includes news items, television programs, political commentaries, sports and also entertainment which is presented audio visually, on radio, in publications and also on the internet. In the case of media convergence, this material is accessible from a single point, usually through an internet-enabled device.
One of the positive impacts that conglomeration has on the content is that it ensures that the content generated has a much wider audience in the media conglomerate scenario. This is because of the financial backing as well as reach that was previously controlled by media organizations that have now been absorbed into the conglomerates.
Another positive impact that conglomerates have on content is the improvement in the quality of different media products (Kawashima, 2011). A reason for this improvement in quality is the fact that these conglomerates serve a much wider and more diverse audience and this means that materials have to be subjected to stricter scrutiny before they are declared fit for distribution. Another reason why quality improves for the content is the fact that these conglomerates tend to have a wide pool of expertise thus leading to a constant supply of individuals who then contribute to ensuring the content available is top notch.
A challenge that results from media conglomeration is the fact that the overall quality of content will go down due to intense replication of themes and concepts in a bid to ensure that maximum exploitation has been carried out on a successful idea. Another challenge that will affect content is the lack of locally relevant material in the wake of homogenization of media products to fit the demands of a market spread across a vast area. This then makes many localized issues go under-exposed or reported.
Media convergence makes content much more interactive and gives it a chance to be accessed in a wide range of formats depending on the consumer’s preference. This grants content in the media industry a new lease of life due to increased interactiveness. The reach of content is further widened by the fact that consumers can share what they have read, watched or listened to thus increasing market reach (Meikle, G., & Young, S. (2012).).
A downside of convergence however is the fact that it facilitates the duplication of content by third parties and this eats into revenues that would have been generated had the end consumers all paid for or purchased this content.
The impact of conglomeration and convergence on consumers
A benefit that consumers realize as a result of media conglomeration is the access that they get to content that would otherwise have been restricted had the media organization been based within the country. This is especially true of many South American and Asian countries where dictatorial governments have a tight control over the freedoms of the media industry (Sallai, 2012).
Conglomeration appears to offer limited benefits to the consumers since it is mainly designed with the aim of making profits and this means that consumers of the media industry are exposed to higher prices due to the emergence of monopolies that control market prices for the wide range of media products (Croteau et al, 2014).
Another challenge faced by consumers as a result of media conglomeration is the limiting of content. While it would be expected that conglomerates have a higher capacity to deliver content, it is important to note that they operate across many markets and this means that their ability to cater to specific audiences becomes limited given the existence of different cultures and value systems (Hadland et al, 2012).
Media convergence on the other hand is highly beneficial to the consumers since it allows them to choose the media products they want to consume and the format in which they want them. An example of this is the subscription that a consumer can make to a news organization’s social media profile so as to receive regular sport updates (Christopherson, 2007). This also allows the consumers to save on media costs by only paying for what they consume (Straubhaar et al, 2010).
Based on the above analysis of the positive and negative impacts of media conglomeration and convergence, it is safe to state that the negatives ultimately outweigh the positives in as far as the employees, consumers and content is concerned. This therefore means that the increasing rate of convergence and conglomeration in the media industry is largely negative (Schatz, 2013).
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