Victims of Boston Bombing and Las Vegas Shooting

Victims of Boston Bombing and Las Vegas Shooting
Victims of Boston Bombing and Las Vegas Shooting

Victims of Boston Bombing and Las Vegas Shooting

Topic: Victims of Boston Bombing and Las Vegas Shooting

CRITICAL MEDIA ANALYSIS: This assignment requires students to select an issue of relevance to the course material, and to critically review a minimum of five mainstream media articles (print or on-line) reflecting different perspectives or interpretations of the issue. Students should apply the concepts and readings discussed and assigned in class and critically analyze how the media could improve the information or perspectives presented.

The paper should begin with an overview of the issue, but please note that there is an important distinction between an article summary and a critical analysis ñ simply submitting an article summary does not meet the assignment requirements. Assignments that are simply summaries will not pass the assignment. The report should be approximately 8-10 pages double spaced in length. This paper is an academic submission and must therefore be properly referenced using APA style. Copies of the source articles that are you critically analyzing should be included in the submission. This assignment is worth 100 points.


Each CRITICAL MEDIA ANALYSIS must be typed, using Times New Roman 12-point font, and must be at least 8-10 pages, double-spaced. Your Critical Media Analysis must be analytical in nature. A simple summary will not be acceptable for this analysis.

First, choose an issue and describe it. Include a discussion of the specific aspects of the issue you have chosen that had the most profound or significant impact on you. Discuss the research/material presented in class about your issue. How, specifically, are you impacted by this issue? What made this issue particularly interesting or enlightening to you? For example, what is the significance of this issue to your life? Will an enhanced understanding help you in your work, in your research, in your personal life, or in your studies as a criminal justice student?

The next step, after identifying this is to relate the issue to outside media sources and course content. What does the media suggest about this issue? If applicable, does the media representation conflict with your understanding of this issue? When discussing your articles make sure to include a discussion of the following:

  1. Who is the author?
  2. What is the purpose of the message? How does the media present a point-of-view about the issue?
  3. Can the point-of-view be tested or measured?
  4. What information or points-of-view may be missing from this message?

Finally, can you add to the reading, or provide materials that may enhance your fellow class members’ understanding of the issue?

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Film and media studies Essay Assignment Available

Film and media studies
                     Film and media studies

Film and media studies

Question:In their discussions of early cinema, Musser and especially Gunning emphasize the nature of the early spectator’s relationship to the technology of cinema, a relationship they describe as involving both a basic understanding of the technology as well as as, in Gunning’s words, attraction or astonishment Using 2 or 3 examples of films produced before 1907 (1 example can come from our class screening), discuss Musser and Gunning’s understanding of early cinema’s appeal to the spectator. Do your chosen films support Gunning’s theory of “cinema of attractions”? If so, how? If not, how might you modify or alter Gunningís argument?You may want to think about the way technology and media broadly defined, as well as entertainment, are figured or presented in your chosen films. What about spectators? Do the films show spectators of a performance, an event, etc? How are these spectators represented? These are just two ideas to help you get started. A successful paper would include both a summary and analysis of Gunning’s argument in relation to your chosen cinematic examples; in other words, a discussion of the text integrated with your analysis of the films. At least 30% of your paper should deal with the analysis of your chosen films, which is to say, how they relate to Gunning’s argument. While you will have to summarize the action/conceit of the films and briefly describe them, pure description or visual analysis of the film does not count as fulfilling this prompt.Logistics: You will select your films (2 or 3; 1 can be from class/screening, as long as it is from before 1907) on Please note that, if you do not access Kanopy on-campus/via UCI network, you will need to install a VPN server on your computer (see below).Make sure to test Kanopy and to start researching/looking for films early. Technological failures/problems accessing Kanopy will not garner a deadline extension. if you are watching the film from off-campus, you will need to install a proxy VPN server on your computer. You can find directions on how to do this here: How to find films on Kanopy:

  1. Search for George MÈliËs, Lumiere, Edwin Porter, D.W. Griffith, Keystone film company/Mack Sennett, Pathe Freres. Make sure to double check year of production. Some anthologies include films from both before and after 1907.2. Go to Subjects > Film & Popular > Early Film; at the bottom of the page, select the correct year of production. You will need to double check the year of production, as you would select 1900-1909 as your decade, so some films might be after 1907.Paper Requirements:?750 to 1000-word essay?Discusses Gunning ìAn Aesthetic of Astonishment (discussion of Musser a bonus, but not required)?Discusses 2 or 3 filmic examples from before 1907o One filmic example can be from class; ?Paper should be clearly structured and lucidly written, providing a critical analysis of the texts and films discussed. It should integrate and synthesize its sources to provide a conceptual discussion of the question at hand. Providing a well-evidenced, original argument is a bonus.?Remember to look back at the essay question as you write your essay to make sure that you are not getting side tracked Argument, Writing, and Style:?Does my essay have a clear introduction and strong conclusion, ca. 1 paragraph each??In my essayís last paragraph, am I still writing about the same subject with which I began? What about on the last page??You should not be writing the same thing over and over again, but you shouldstill be engaging with the topic you laid out in your introduction. ?If I am using broad or crucial terms (e.g., ìdemystification,î ìhigh art,î etc.), is it clear what I mean by them??Use of quotations: use your own words whenever possible. Do not rely on quotes to make your argument for you. You should have no more than 5 lines total of quotations all together.?Have I minimized or eliminated value judgment words, such as ìinteresting,î ìbeautiful,î ìintriguing,î ìgoodî etc.??Are there any words that are frequently repeated? Whenever possible, diversify your vocabulary choices and make your prose as precise as possible.?Have I eliminated run-on sentences? (if it is longer than 2 lines, it is pretty much guaranteed to be a run-on)?Have I spellchecked and proofread my essay??Do not use the words reading to refer to the texts you are citing. Use text,article,book,or essay instead.Format:

?12pt, Times New Roman, 1 inch margins all around, double-spaced?Please provide word count at top of first page?Use the full name óf first and last ór the first time you mention an author, photographer, director, etc. Use only second name (never first! Not even if you happen to be close friends!) in subsequent mentions.?Provide full film information the first time you cite the film: Title (director/production company, year). In subsequent mentions, use film title only.?Parenthetical (Gunning, 21) or Chicago-style citations are fine?Titles of books, artworks, and films are italicized (e.g. Sergei Eisensteinís Battleship Potemkin; Kimbeiís Girl in A Heavy Storm), while titles of essays are in parentheses?If discussing specific scenes from the film, attach screenshots, numbered [e.g., Fig. 1; Fig. 2, etc]Submitting the paper:Via Turnitin by midnight on Monday, February 4: For Sarahís sections:Class/section ID: 20102221Enrollment key: PickfordFor Shawnís sectionsClass/section ID: 20102230 Enrollment key:GarboFor Tavleenís sections:Class/section ID: 20102238Enrollment key: ChaplinAcademic HonestyAny incident of academic dishonesty will result in a failing grade for the course. Plagiarism includes using portions of a previously published work in a paper without citing the source, submitting a paper written for another course, submitting a paper written by someone else, and using the ideas of someone else without attribution. If you have any questions about the proper citation of sources please discuss them with the instructor.

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A News Story from the New York Times Current Event

A News Story from the New York Times Current Event A news story from The New York Times that discusses religion.

A News Story from the New York Times Current Event
A News Story from the New York Times Current Event

Summarize and respond to the article explaining why it is relevant to the class. The class is (rel 100) religions of the world

SELMA, Ala. — As a new generation struggles over race and power in America, President Obama and a host of political figures from both parties came here on Saturday, to the site of one of the most searing days of the civil rights era, to reflect on how far the country has come and how far it still has to go.

Using the tablets for children Paper Out

Using the tablets for children
Using the tablets for children

Using the tablets for children

Using the tablets for children

The main 3 main purposes and questions I would like to be answered by the end of my research and as I discussed with the professor the other day are:
1/how does the tablets affect children physically and mentally? !
2/how to monitor and control your children tablet usage without prevent them of using it ?!
3/what are the recommendations on children protection of using tablets ?!
Research Project Exercise
1. Write your Purpose Statement using the model template we discussed in class.
One of my main purposes is to discover and indicate that beside the advantages of using tablet for children, there are many negative impacts that outweigh
the pros.
Moreover, the parents have to be so careful of using it too much.
could add more purposes please as you a very good writer.
2. List three main points for the rationale of the study
The 3 main list that I was thinking about are:
1/ tablets have negative impacts as they have positive impacts and we might need to be more aware of the negative impacts
2/we have to cope up with technology but in moderation
3/children our God’s bless we have to care about them and care about their physicaly and mentality growing.
Please I know that you are a very good writer and know more about what is good and what is better.
Please do your best and add the best things please.
3. Write a brief description of the primary research methods that will be used in the study.
I have chosen a Quantitive method (questionnaire) for this research.
4. Who will be the study group and how will you be able to get them to participate?
questionnaire that will be distributed to the parents. I’ll distribute the questionnaire to my sisters as they are mothers of different age of children andy
they use tablets. And some other friends here in Ireland and some of my classmates I’ll give some to the professor to distribute them as well as we agreed
5. List the expected goals and outcomes of the study.
6. Convert the Purpose Statement into three separate research questions.
1/how does the tablets affect children physically and mentally?
2/How to monitor and control your children tablet usage without prevent them of using it ?
3/What are the recommendations on children protection of using tablets !
7. For each separate research question summarise one (three in total) relevant study from an article, journals and websites
Please, if you have questions don’t hesitate to ask me to avoid revision!

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Why Study the Media?;Research Paper Out

Why Study the Media?
Why Study the Media?

Why Study the Media?

Why Study the Media?

(1) Kim, Youna (2018) Media Consumption and Everyday Life in Asia. Introduction chapter.
OR Kim, Youna (2016) "Female Individualization?: Transnational Mobility and Media Consumption of Asian Women", Media, Culture & Society (e-
journal available at the AUP library) Vol. 32(1): 25-43
(2) Silverstone, Roger (1999) Why Study the Media? One chapter on "Dimensions of Experience" (7. Play, 8. Performance, or 9. Consumption).
(3) Bonini, Tiziano and Perrotta, Marta (2017) "On and Off the Air: Radio-listening Experiences in the San Vittore Prison", Media, Culture &
Society (e-journal available at the AUP library) Vol. 29(2): 179-193.
Choose one of the books or journals above
Write a review essay:
(1) What are the main arguments of the article? (300 words)
(2) What do you think about the article, its strength (150 words) and weakness (150 words)?
It has to be (1) Clarity of expression, (2) Imaginativeness, (3) Critical appraisal, (4) Depth of interpretation.

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Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?

Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?
Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?
Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?

Media allowed to airbrush ads of people in magazines?

‘In this discussion you will respond to the following question: Should the media be allowed to airbrush ads of both females and males in popular

magazines? Support your opinions with evidence. Use MLA citations and respond to two peers.’
Could you please a total of one page including responding to two peers that I will copy and paste bellow. So, three different sections.
And please use MLA because all the previous assignments the I ordered were in APA not MLA, although I chose MLA!
One of my fellow wrote:
"I feel like airbrushing and photoshopping models and famous people is very popular topic right now. Why is it so popular? I try to ignore all of this
stuff because it seems sort of superficial, but since we have to talk about it here, I will address it. First of all, I don’t understand why models are
airbrushed in the first place because they are already beautiful and skinny. What more could you do to make them look better? If magazines and the media wnat
perfect looking people, then why do models have to be perfect if all they have to do is airbrush the photo? This is entire business of "perfection"
seems like BS. I feel like the rich and powerful created it to make the poor and normal looking people down about themselves. Those in charge and the
inventors of photoshop and airbrushing, especially those who are making money from all of this don’t care about the reprecussions or how its destroying the
way people feel about themsevles. They are just doing it for money. So to answer the question, no I do not think the media should be allowed to airbrush ads
in magazines. No more lying should be allowed."
A second one said:
"I do not think the media should be allowed to do anything that consitutes as lying. What I don’t understand is in advertisements and magazines, the
people being photographed are already very beautiful and good looking people. Why are these magazines going out of their way to make them look
"better" when they are already better looking than most people? It seems, to me, to be a complete waste of time and money. Why are all these
magazines trying to create a person that isn’t real? It would make more sense if they were just drawing pictures or cartoons of unrealistic looking people,
but they aren’t. What confused me even more is that these models starve themsevles to meet a certain idea of what the magazines want and yet they are already
so skinny and good looking. Why aren’t there laws to stop the magazines from lying to the public? If people are so outraged, why do they continue to buy the
magazines and support the magazine companies? It all seems so strange and backwards to me. There is all this outrage, yet nothing is being done to stop it.
There needs to be no more purchasing of magazines until this comes to an end."

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International Media Essay Paper Available

International Media
International Media

International Media

Order Instructions:

To assess the students understanding of key concepts and their ability to apply critical analysis and writing skills to the development of a coherent theoretical argument. Choose one (1) of the following essay topics and write a 2500 word essay:

1. An analysis of the evolution of international communication ‘reveals a dominance and dependency syndrome – the domination of a few countries by virtue of their control of both the software and hardware of global communication and the dependence of many nations upon them’ (Thussu 2000:6). Does this statement confirm the Marxist dictum that whoever controls the means of production controls the ideas that circulate, in this case, internationally?

2. Are local cultures becoming homogenised by international media? Evaluate the evidence used to support claims of homogenisation. Discuss alternative views of the future impact of international media on culture (eg. contraflow, hybridisation, diversification, fragmentation, multiplicity, etc) using examples as evidence.

3. Many advances in communication technologies have greatly enhanced international communication. This not only occurs at the government to government level but has also enhanced business to business and people to people interactions at a global level unimaginable a century ago. As the 21st Century develops the communication networks that helped represent the world to itself, and let it be observed as a single blue planet, have also created a medium for revolutionaries and terrorists to go about their covert and explosive business – a business that lives and breathes through digital communication technology use, such as social media and the mobile phone networks, and the oxygen of media exposure, be it through Al Jazeera, CNN or the BBC. Discuss.

4. Some have argued that the new global communication infrastructure has the potential to deliver digital democracy which would privilege public good and creativity while others argue that commodified information and communication, colonized by a few multimedia mega-corporations and their localized clones, is what is actually occurring. Which of these positions is true?

The essay is to be uploaded through Turnitin and will be marked electronically. You are not required to submit a cover sheet.

If you want feedback on your essay, you must also include (immediately before the essay) a fully completed Essay Self-Evaluation/Feedback Sheet (available on Blackboard).

The assessment will be based on content, structure, style and format. Particular emphasis will be placed on:

a) the extent and quality of research evident in the essay
b) the identification of key issues
c) the originality, depth and quality of thought in analysing the topic
d) the quality of expression, argument and presentation in the essay

Please note that your reference list for this essay must contain, at the bare minimum, at least eight (8) monographs (i.e. books) and at least four (4) journal articles.

Course learning objectives of this assessment (1, 3, 4)

1. Examine the historic, geographic, economic and political context of international media.
2. Compare the role and function of the media in Australia with those in various other nations.
3. Examine the socio-cultural influence of international media.
4. Explore practical implications of international media in relation to new technology and global issues.

Essays or written assessments meet the course objectives of knowledge acquisition and demonstrated assimilation of data, upon reflection and analysis, to produce articulate and concise documents, which convey evidence-based understanding of the concepts and topics.


International Media

The advancement of technology which has seen the development and advancement of communication media has created great effects to the world. Technology has globalized the world with the creation of media platforms where information can be shared instantly and reach a very wide and varied audience. The use of the internet has globalized the world and enhanced communication among governments and businesses all over the world. Effective and enhanced media and communication has served the business world very diligently and companies all over the world value the power of the internet since it has enabled them communicate effectively to their clients and business partners all over the world. The 21st Century brought about the dot-com era in technology which impacted very positively to the way the world communicates. Organizations have been able to revolutionize communication since then and have benefited since they can be able to communicate more effectively and efficiently both internally and externally (Karacasulu, 2006).

Technology advancement has also changed the way the government communicates to the world and also to its people. Digital communication technology which includes the use of platforms such as social media has enabled governments to improve show services are offered to its citizens. Most of government agencies currently use media platforms to offer information about their operation and services to their target groups of the society. Most of the services including those offered by the immigration departments, revenue collection authorities and media licensing boards are now available online which is very different from how services where offered before the 21st century (Bilgen, 2012). Organizations too have not been left behind in the integration of technology in their activities. Most international companies currently carry out most of their operations ranging from board meetings, recruitments, internal communications and marketing of their products over internet-enabled digital platforms. This has been of great positive impact to the organizations and enabled them to reach a wide range of clients all over the world and save the organizations millions through enhanced and effective communication (Korstanje, 2013).

The advancement of communication and media all over the world has seen the world become a globalized place and information can now be passed from one point or individual to a wide range of recipients within a very short time. Media platforms such social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram among others have developed from the effects of technology advancement and have taken the world by storm (Hess & Kalb, 2008). These social media platforms are able to attract a very wide range of audience which makes them very important to the world of communication and international integration. Mobile networks have also evolved which have made telephone conversations very easy across boundaries all over the world. Mobile communication is currently seamless and different providers have made it possible the integration of their users and enhanced communication between the users a very easy and cheap task to accomplish. Media houses and television stations have not been left behind the internet revolution and they have also offered their news over these social media platforms and over other internet platforms which ensures that the information reaches people all over the world.

In the 21st century international media has seen great developments and the establishment of platforms which have changed how the world communicates. Media platforms such as the mobile networks, social media and international televisions have made information available to all parts of the world. This has impacted intergovernmental relations and communication since information can be easily posted and reaches a wider range of readers. Apart from benefiting international organizations and also small businesses and government agencies, the advancement of technology has also attracted revolutionary groups and terrorist groups that have been using these platforms to advance their activities. It is worth noting that there appears to be a symbiotic relationship between the media and the terrorist groups. The media world are interested in getting information for their readers and viewers all over the world about terrorism and at the same time the terrorists are interested in attracting the greatest attention from the world (Hess & Kalb, 2008).

Terrorism has turned out to be an explosive business that lives and breathes through digital communication technology including social media and mobile phone networks that are now available seamlessly all over the world. Terrorist groups all over the world are more interested in the media coverage and exposure through international media channels including CNN, BBC and Al Jazeera. This situation creates what many researchers have come up to point out as a symbiotic relationship between the international media and terrorism groups and their proponents (Lewis, 2010). The past two decades have seen the rise of terrorism and springing up of many revolutionary and terrorist groups all over the world. Be it in America, Australia, Europe, Middle East, Africa, every part of the world has witnessed a rise in terrorist attacks and these groups have taken the media for their hostage and promotion. From the details of recent terrorist attacks it can be noted that the architects of the attacks are interested in using the media for their own benefits in their operational efficiency, gather information on potential areas, carry out recruitment and carry out fundraising for their missions. The terrorist groups are using the media to develop their networks through creating propagandas and the increased coverage benefits them in their recruitment exercises and glorification of their actions (Baran, 2008).

The architects of terrorism have targeted the media to benefit them in their drive through the attention they gain, recognition all over the world or by a wider range of viewers and readers of information over the available media platforms. The terrorism groups feel that they gain respect in the world and sell their ideologies in the world thus at the same time gaining a wider range of supporters and members. It has been argued that through the coverage of the terrorists’ attacks, the media benefits too. Through the coverage the events of the terrorists’ attacks, the media is able to draw the attention of the world viewers and therefore benefits from information sales and huge follower audiences thus creating profits that are important for their running. In the event of a terrorist attack for instance the 9/11 attack in New York in 2001 and the Sydney attack of 2015, the eagerness of the public to get the information about the attacks drive the media to cover the events which also benefits the terrorists (Altheide, 2009). Researchers have for the last decade carried out studies to understand the symbiotic relationship between the media and terrorism and how the advancement of the world’s media platforms has benefited the uprising of terrorism groups in the world.

The socio-economic impact of international media advancement is notable in all sectors of the world business and all government agencies. The media has been seen to have been taken hostage by the terrorism groups that have emerged in the different parts of the world. Terrorism has grown steadily at the same rate which social media platforms and other media platforms have developed. This is due to the fact that these groups are organized in social media and these platforms are used to entice their backers to join them and organize attacks to their targets. It has been argued in many circles of the world business that, if the media coverage was not available in the points of terrorist attacks, the attacks would not have such impacts since the impact would only be confined to the victims of such attacks (Altheide, 2009). This is to say that the main goal of the terrorists is to ensure that they attract as much attention as possible as they are not only interested in the victims of the attacks but also the attention of world media and international governments. This is the reason why the attackers plan carefully the points to attack, carry put detailed researches about their potential victims and weigh on the attention that carrying out the attacks will draw (Papacharissi & Oliveira., 2008).

The international media has made terrorist groups’ leaders look like world leaders who ought to be listened to due to the advanced coverage of their actions including recruitment activities and trainings together with the coverage of the attacks. Terrorist groups use the media platforms such as the social media and television media to ensure that they publicize their political causes and ideologies and reach their proponents and opponents and gain mileage and support from the world’s governments to drive forward their agendas. Terrorist groups are currently organized and seem to have their ideologies and political views and in most cases seem to be fighting against established governments. They have used the media to create a link between their operations and those of the entities and governments that they fight against and create confusion of which side is doing the right thing to the public. Based on these advancements and publication of their actions and ideologies to the world media terrorists are able to carry out their attacks since they know that they will draw the attention of the government existent in the area of attack and draw more attention to the world media (ADL, 2014).

Social media is currently playing a very vital role to advance the activities of the terrorist groups all over the world. Social media and development of mobile networks has made it possible for terrorists to share their messages to a very large audience. They are able to communicate to the world via their websites where they post their activities and drive their operations. This way and with the use of the internet, the terrorists can have the messages they need to bring forth to the world audience and post them online and have a global reach. Terrorists are currently using the social media to pass out information about their activities and be able to attract interested individuals all over the world to join them. With the use of the social media, terrorists are able to have a worldwide reach and attention and sell out their ideologies and agendas to the world audience at very little expense. Internet advancement and the technological development have provided a perfect tool for the terrorists to use to advance their goals and reach a wider section of world’s audience (Wohlforth, 2010).

In the event of advanced technology and media platforms such as the social media terrorism has evolved and the groups are targeting people to join them from all over the world. For instance the Islamic State terrorist group currently operating in the Iraq and Syrian crisis has been using the social media to expand its influence and carry out recruitments for members from different nationalities all over the world (ADL, 2014). The Islamic State is building on technological platforms that were previously used by Al Qaeda in Iraq and Al Shabaab in Middle East and North East Africa. These terrorist groups have in past used social media platforms to drive their operations and carry out recruitments in their areas. The IS has been using media platforms to recruit western followers to the group and has also been targeting its western supporters to take part in the recruitment. IS’s propaganda on the media platforms has made the terrorist group be able to attract as many as 15,000 foreigners who are fighting in its support in the Syrian crisis. The propagandas of the terrorist group have been able to draw so much attention due to the integration of social media platforms in their activities. The group posts online propaganda videos featuring Westerners such as two Americans featured in 2013 and 2014 who have helped it gain worldwide attention.

The rate at which terrorists have been using the media platforms without fear has raised eyebrows all over the world. The sophisticated use of social media by these groups to drive their goals and reach a wider audience has been a concern with the current advancement in technology (Purpura, 2008). The terrorist groups are currently maintaining accounts in social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter where they disseminate their messages. In the earlier versions of media advancements, terrorist groups relied on extremist forums where information was passed to world through videos and magazines available on their websites and other media placements. This was a slower process according to the audience that could reach the information posted which has been enhanced by the current social media platforms where the terrorist groups are able to share their propaganda swiftly to the world audience and allow supporters to take part their processes. The Islamic State terrorist group has also been able to use social media to launch campaigns against the western countries and United States and also released videos beheading American citizens to try and gain more attention to the world’s super powers and governments (Abrahms, 2010).

Media coverage on terrorism has become one of the booming businesses for the media industry. This is due to the fact that terrorism reports attract a wider audience and bring in profits to the media organizations due to the higher rating of viewing. Some aspects of terrorism such as the fighting involved, shocking stories and experiences, and the heroes that are made in such attacks make the coverage of terrorism very captivating to the media organizations. With the increased coverage of terrorism in the world currently, the aspect of giving the right information and truthful information to the world has become very critical. This is due to the fact that due to the audience that is drawn by terrorism all over the world, social media and other platforms are used to pass false information to the world (Howie, 2012).

The concern of the media currently is how to cover terrorism and the information that gets to the public audience. Since the terrorist groups have made use of the social media and media stations to drive their agendas, it is important for the media to understand its role in the world. This is to say, despite the pull and thrill to report the terrorists attacks and activities of the terrorists, the media should understand that this information helps sell the terrorists groups and gain greater audience (Pastor, 2009). Media coverage of terrorists’ activities has faced biased reporting whereby factions of terrorist groups and rebels are now reporting based on their beliefs and ideologies. This has also happened to the reporters in areas of crises such as in Iraq and Syria who are affiliated to one of the factions fighting thereby reporting in support of the groups they support. This is done in that manner to gain the attention of the world without the knowledge that in most cases worsens the situation since the information given to the world does not depict the true situation. Social media platforms should also be monitored to ensure that the terrorist groups do not use them to drive their activities of causing fear and terror to the world and in their praising of their activities that helps in their recruitment activities and gaining support all over the world. International media has evolved greatly and it drives many activities in the world and the use of media by terrorist movements shows that media should be well governed (Korstanje, 2013).


Abrahms, M. (2010). What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counterterrorism Strategy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

ADL. ( 2014, August 21). Hashtag Terror: How ISIS Manipulates Social Media . Retrieved May 14, 2015, from Anti-Defamation League:

Altheide, D. (2009). Terror Post 9/11 and the Media. New York: Peter Lang.

Baran, J. (2008). Terrorism and the Mass Media after Al Qaeda: A Change of Course? The Peace and Conflict Review 3, 1-5.

Bilgen, A. (2012, July 22). Terrorism and the Media: A Dangerous Symbiosis. Retrieved May 14, 2015, from E-International Relations:

Hess, S., & Kalb, M. (2008). The Media and the War on Terrorism. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Howie, L. (2012). Witnesses to Terror: Understanding the Meanings and Consequences of Terrorism. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Karacasulu, N. (2006). Security and Globalization in the Context of International Terrorism. Review of International Law and Politcs , 1-17.

Korstanje, M. (2013). Preemption and Terrorism. When the Future Governs. Cultura, 167-184.

Lewis, J. (2010). Language Wars: The Role of Media and Culture in Global Terror and Political Violence. London: Pluto Press.

Papacharissi, Z., & Oliveira., M. d. (2008). News Frames Terrorism: A Comparative Analysis of Frames Employed in Terrorism Coverage in U.S. and U.K. Newspapers. The International Journal of Press/Politics 13., 7-12.

Pastor, J. (2009). Terrorism & Public Safety Policing: Implications of the Obama Presidency. New York, NY : Taylor & Francis.

Purpura, P. P. (2008). Terrorism and homeland security: an introduction with applications. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Wohlforth, C. (2010). Realism and Security Studies. New York: Routledge.

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Role and power of the mass media on politics

Role and power of the mass media on politics and political behaviour
Role and power of the mass media on politics and political behaviour

Assess the role and power of the mass media on politics and political behaviour

– Appropriate academic resources
– Evidence of critical thinking
– Responses to all parts of the title
– Minimum of 3 sources are required
– Minimum of 5 references are required

Use at least three (3) quality references Note: Wikipedia and other related websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

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Escalating conglomeration and convergence of media

Escalating conglomeration and convergence of media
Escalating conglomeration and convergence of media

Media Industries- An analysis of the escalating conglomeration and convergence of media

Order Instructions:

Escalating media conglomeration and convergence has caused some debate amongst media scholars, analysts and commentators as to the overall effects. Considering both sides of the argument, when it comes to media industries and their products, but also employees and consumers, has increased conglomeration and convergence overall been positive or negative? Ensure you use detailed examples and scholarly research to strengthen your discussion.

2000 word essay on the above question. To be written at undergraduate level. Please reflect on many sources and examples. Please write according to the rubric as attached.


Escalating conglomeration and convergence of media

Media Industries- An analysis of the escalating conglomeration and convergence of media


The traditional meaning of the word media or media outlet was the collection of individual news organizations who engage in the business of information transmission either through print or broadcast means (Croteau et al, 2012). These therefore included radio broadcasting houses, Newspaper companies and television broadcasters. For a long time these organizations operated as independent companies that specialized in one of the media forms or at times two or three forms of media. In the last two decades however, two terms have gained increasing popularity in the description of the operations of this industry (Flew, 2011). These are ‘Media Convergence’ and ‘Media Conglomeration.’

The term conglomeration refers to the coming together of two or more business entities with the aim of formulating a business organization whose capacity is greater than that of the individual players. The term media conglomerate refers to a business entity that is comprised of a large number of media companies. Other terms that are used interchangeably with media conglomerates are media institutions or media groups  (Bryant el al, ). These entities are usually owned by a mother company which then takes charge of the television broadcasters, print companies, radio broadcasters, magazines, online news agencies and even movie companies. A defining characteristic of media conglomerates is their continuous effort to keep growing as they continue to absorb smaller media companies. This growth is driven by the urge to increase the control that the conglomerate has over the national or international media industry (Biagi, 2011).

Media convergence on the other hand refers to the coming together of different forms of media together through electronic means (Dwyer, 2010). This means that the different forms of media form a network that is supported by the existent Information Technology Infrastructure. It therefore involves a lot of computerization of the content that is being communicated by the media entities that take part in the process of convergence. With today’s technology, the internet forms the backbone of the different ways that media convergence is manifested. When this happens, the media companies involved form a system which allows them to coexist on a relatively level platform (Varnelis, 2012). It allows journalists and other generators of content to have their material presented in different forms rather than the past when one’s trade in the media industry was restricted to one area. This is the gradual transformation of the media industry into a ‘One Stop Shop’ operation.

Two key differences therefore emerge with regard to media conglomeration and media convergence. The first of these differences is the fact that media conglomeration is formal whereas media convergence is more of an informal process. The second difference that emerges is in the area which power is concentrated. With media conglomeration, the process gradually increases the power of the company which owns the media organizations. In Media Convergence however, the more the process takes place, the greater the power of the consumer due to the variety of options which are presented (Curran et al, 2013).

The purpose of this exercise is to analyze media convergence and media conglomeration with the view of establishing if these phenomena are indeed positive or negative in light of the impact they have on the media industry’s products, those employed inside it and also the consumers. The final conclusion of this matter will therefore be the result of the careful consideration of how the mentioned parties are affected by these forces. Each of these will be analyzed independently with the aim of highlighting the positive and negative impact that media conglomeration and media convergence have had on them.

Employees in the Media Industry

This is the population of individuals who make a living by working in the different sectors of the media industry. They include journalists, news anchors, columnists, cameramen, radio personalities, entertainers and also the different editors and directors. As the dynamics in the media industry continue to shift, they are the ones who feel these effects first hand given that they are the industry’s human resource.


As smaller media organizations get swallowed up into larger media conglomerates, those who have been employed in the industry are exposed to advantages and challenges unique to them. One of the advantages that employees get as a result of media conglomeration is improved remunerations due to higher salaries which are made possible by the greater pool of resources controlled by the conglomerates (Curran et al, 2013).

Another advantage realized by employees in the media industry as a result of conglomeration is increased flexibility due to the fact that they are no-longer restricted to localized versions. This is because of the fact that the conglomerates tend to serve a much larger audience meaning that broader topics can be addressed. There is also increased work flexibility given the fact that conglomerates are significantly larger than independent media organizations. The flexibility gives the employees a chance to work in areas that they either have a deep interest in, skills or even passion and the result of this is greater job satisfaction.

For the employees whose jobs expose them to the public, a greater audience means that their clout increases and this grants them a chance to curve out a niche for themselves in the media industry. This primarily refers to the entertainers and journalists on broadcast media. As a result of their unique audience, they get to develop themselves into brands such as Richard Quest and Christiane Anampour of CNN who have become authorities in the areas of business reporting and conflict reporting respectively.

Conglomeration also exposes employees in the media industry to a number of challenges, the first one being an increased risk of them losing their jobs. The risk of job losses is based on the fact that conglomerates tend to focus on the market share they are gaining even if it is at the expense of the employees of the partner media organizations (Winseck, 2012). The main reason why they are exposed to this risk is the fact that having them within the conglomerate amounts to an increase in redundancy, especially for those who are employed on account of their technical skills (Bird, 2011).

Another challenge posed by media conglomeration is that it leads to a reduction in the collective bargaining rights that these employees have since their say becomes much smaller owing to the absorption of their employers into these conglomerates (Gião et al, 2010). What this then means for them is that they have a very limited say with respect to their roles as they now have to cater to the needs of the conglomerate rather than their local audiences.

Media Convergence

Media convergence serves as an advantage to the employees who work in the media industry because of the fact that their products get to have a much wider audience given the universality of internet which forms the backbone of media convergence (Kellner, 2011).

Employees also get to better refine their materials for two main reasons. The first reason is that electronic platforms allow for immediate feedback from the consumers. The second reason is that he level platform for the different forms of media leads to increased competition (Walther et al, 2010).

A challenge that results from media convergence for the employees in the media industry is that intellectual property is often abused and replicated often to the loss of the creators and this results in decreased revenue (Pavlik and McIntosh, 2011).

Another challenge of media convergence is the reduction of relevance of some forms of media such as print thus leading to job cuts due to reduced demand. Media convergence further threatens the livelihoods of many employees in the media industry as a result of the emergence of players who have taken over traditional income streams such as advertising which the internet as largely taken from traditional media such as print and broadcast (Hirst, 2011).

The impact of Convergence and Conglomeration on Content

Content refers to the materials that media companies prepare and present their consumers with through a variety of ways such as print, online, radio transmissions and also television broadcasts. It therefore includes news items, television programs, political commentaries, sports and also entertainment which is presented audio visually, on radio, in publications and also on the internet. In the case of media convergence, this material is accessible from a single point, usually through an internet-enabled device.


One of the positive impacts that conglomeration has on the content is that it ensures that the content generated has a much wider audience in the media conglomerate scenario. This is because of the financial backing as well as reach that was previously controlled by media organizations that have now been absorbed into the conglomerates.

Another positive impact that conglomerates have on content is the improvement in the quality of different media products (Kawashima, 2011). A reason for this improvement in quality is the fact that these conglomerates serve a much wider and more diverse audience and this means that materials have to be subjected to stricter scrutiny before they are declared fit for distribution. Another reason why quality improves for the content is the fact that these conglomerates tend to have a wide pool of expertise thus leading to a constant supply of individuals who then contribute to ensuring the content available is top notch.

A challenge that results from media conglomeration is the fact that the overall quality of content will go down due to intense replication of themes and concepts in a bid to ensure that maximum exploitation has been carried out on a successful idea. Another challenge that will affect content is the lack of locally relevant material in the wake of homogenization of media products to fit the demands of a market spread across a vast area. This then makes many localized issues go under-exposed or reported.

Media convergence makes content much more interactive and gives it a chance to be accessed in a wide range of formats depending on the consumer’s preference. This grants content in the media industry a new lease of life due to increased interactiveness. The reach of content is further widened by the fact that consumers can share what they have read, watched or listened to thus increasing market reach (Meikle, G., & Young, S. (2012).).

A downside of convergence however is the fact that it facilitates the duplication of content by third parties and this eats into revenues that would have been generated had the end consumers all paid for or purchased this content.

The impact of conglomeration and convergence on consumers

A benefit that consumers realize as a result of media conglomeration is the access that they get to content that would otherwise have been restricted had the media organization been based within the country. This is especially true of many South American and Asian countries where dictatorial governments have a tight control over the freedoms of the media industry (Sallai, 2012).

Conglomeration appears to offer limited benefits to the consumers since it is mainly designed with the aim of making profits and this means that consumers of the media industry are exposed to higher prices due to the emergence of monopolies that control market prices for the wide range of media products (Croteau et al, 2014).

Another challenge faced by consumers as a result of media conglomeration is the limiting of content. While it would be expected that conglomerates have a higher capacity to deliver content, it is important to note that they operate across many markets and this means that their ability to cater to specific audiences becomes limited given the existence of different cultures and value systems (Hadland et al, 2012).

Media convergence on the other hand is highly beneficial to the consumers since it allows them to choose the media products they want to consume and the format in which they want them. An example of this is the subscription that a consumer can make to a news organization’s social media profile so as to receive regular sport updates (Christopherson, 2007). This also allows the consumers to save on media costs by only paying for what they consume (Straubhaar et al, 2010).


Based on the above analysis of the positive and negative impacts of media conglomeration and convergence, it is safe to state that the negatives ultimately outweigh the positives in as far as the employees, consumers and content is concerned. This therefore means that the increasing rate of convergence and conglomeration in the media industry is largely negative (Schatz, 2013).


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