Vegetarian diets Assignment Paper

Vegetarian diets
Vegetarian diets

Vegetarian diets

Vegetarian diets

Discuss the different types of vegetarian diets; Vegetarianism, Semi-vegetarian, Lacto-ovo vegetarian, Lacto vegetarian, and Pescetarian. What are the
benefits of consuming a vegetarian diet? What are some of the nutrients that are at risk of deficiency in vegetarian diets? How can individuals meet their
protein needs with a vegetarian or vegan diet? Please answer with at least 350 words for this

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Healthy Eating Programs for Preschool Primary and High School

Healthy Eating Programs for Preschool Primary and High School Order Instructions: Assessment #1 – Plan (Written Summary)Worth 40% submitted online.)

Healthy Eating Programs for Preschool Primary and High School
Healthy Eating Programs for Preschool Primary and High School

Provide an 1800 word rationale for your project which identifies its direction and philosophy and locates it in a broader social (or policy) context – explaining why your project is significant and should be supported and/or funded.
Details to include are:
1- Title
2- Your role and Organisation,
3- Project Scope including Summary, 4- Goal and Objectives,
5- Project Rationale and Time
6- Schedule (Gantt Chart).

A Reference List is required but is not part of the word count and please add in-text references.

Healthy Eating Programs for Preschool Primary and High School Sample Answer


 Project Title

Healthy Eating: It’s not just about eating apples! Developing programs for preschool children, primary and high school students on healthy eating.

Role and Organisation

Australia Food and Grocery Council’s main mandate is to develop specific nutritious programs for different age groups in the community. The focus of their programs is directed toward promoting healthy eating. The two organizations are concerned with developing and implementation of nutritious programs across various settings ranging from schools to elderly homes and hospitals. In this case, the healthy eating programs to be developed are to be implemented in schools (Department of Health and Aging, 2008). The organization is under the Department of Health and Ageing and its workforce is majorly composed of nutrition officers who are extensively experienced in matters of developing and implementing healthy diet programs that target children.

Healthy Eating Programs for Preschool Primary and High School Project Summary

In this project, there will be the development of a pilot program for various schools randomly sampled in a particular state in Australia. The criteria for selection of the schools to be included in the project are that they must have all the levels of schooling; preschool, primary school as well as high school. The aim of the program to be developed is to introduce a new diet method that nutritious to the children going to school. Prior to the beginning of the project, there will be elimination of all confounding variables with potential to influence the program. The confinement of the program will be strict to boarding schools to ensure a significant reduction of confounding variables’ interference. In addition, the focus of the new diet implementation will be on the incorporation of a balanced diet in all three meals during the day for three meals. All the participating children will have their weights taken and recorded prior to and after the program. This will be followed by a physical check-up on all children prior and after the study in order to ensure that the changes caused by the program are assessed. The grouping of all the children will be based on their ages. Another group of children not participating in the study will be taken as a control where the collection of data will be done in the children of the same age group.

Healthy Eating Programs for Preschool Primary and High School Project Goal

This project has a goal of developing a program that will promote healthy eating among school going children in order to improve their nutritional status.

Project Objectives

The specific objectives aimed to be achieved in this program include:

  1. To develop a diet program that promotes healthy eating among children in the school setting.
  2. Develop a program of a balanced diet in order to meet school children health needs.
  3. Develop a physical program aimed at effectively reducing issues related to overweight and obesity.
  4. Educate children on the use of available resources to implement a healthy and nutritious diet.
  5. Create awareness among the society on the imperativeness and significance of healthy and nutritious foods.
  6. Encourage school children to form health and physical clubs.

Project Rationale   

Patterns and trends of healthy eating habits at childhood and adolescent play a vital role in promoting optimal growth among school going children (Burns et al., 2013). Sahota (2014) noted that these patterns are fundamental in intellectual development among the children in addition to promoting their growth. Additionally, these patterns also determine the development of modern-day health problems such as anemia, dental caries, overweight, obesity, among other eating disorders (Slusser et al., 2011).  This may also be critical in influencing prevention or reduction of health problems that are long term including stroke, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases (Denney-Wilson et al., 2013; Wilson et al., 2011). As a result, developing healthy eating school programs can help school going children to achieve good health as well as their optimal educational potential (Wilson et al., 2011).

Healthy eating programs in schools play an important role in ensuring that healthy eating habits are promoted among school children. This is attributable to the fact that, dietary factors in these school-based programs are essential in ensuring that there is a substantial reduction of premature deaths caused by nutrition-related illness in countries such as Australia (Grube et al., 2013). In fact, the Department of Health and Aging advocates for schools to develop a nutrition health promotion for all students from pre-school and 12th grade. National Health and Medical Research Council abbreviated as NHMRC is in the forefront in encouraging all schools across Australia to introduce and teach healthy eating and nutrition matters in their educational system (Department of Health and Aging, 2008). The two organizations are fully aware of the imperative role in developing healthy eating among small children.

A number of healthy and nutrition programs that are school-based have a high potential of improving dietary habits and practices among young persons in childhood and adolescent phases of growth in order to deal with a wide range of health issues often affecting them. According to Just and Price (2013), some of the eating patterns that manifest an unhealthy trend among children include undernutrition, obesity, iron deficiency anemia, as well as being overweight. Wilson, Magarey and Masterson (2013) stated that undernutrition has the potential of causing a lasting negative influence on cognitive development of children as well as their respective school performance. In addition, undernourished children are believed to be likely of attaining lower scores or grades in school setting, especially when the test is related to languages (Bevans et al., 2011). Furthermore, school children who are hungry and undernourished have compromised immune system which makes them vulnerable to infections meaning that such children have a more likely to miss school and this can subsequently have a significant negative influence on their performance in class. In addition, a significant number of such children have a low concentration in class because of their low energy levels and also show increased levels of irritability (Denney-Wilson et al., 2013; Wilson et al., 2011).

As a result, most of such children miss school and fall behind curriculum compared to other children, especially those coming from poor backgrounds (Bevans et al., 2011). Some reports from the health department in Australia indicate that millions of children suffer from hunger over the course of years while in school (Department of Health and Aging, 2008). Dudley, Cotton, and Peralta (2015) conducted a study in some Australia schools on school children coming from schools located in low-income areas whereby health programs led to improved standardized scores as well as a reduction in school absence rates and tardiness among school children. The health program envisaged to be developed will ensure that children across various settings will grow well mentally as well as physically. In addition, children across varied settings have a high likelihood of suffering from mineral deficiency, especially iron deficiency which subsequently leads to anemia. This means that such a health program has the potential to prevent or eliminate some of the associated health deficiencies that are not easy to detect in general populations (Denney-Wilson et al., 2013; Wilson et al., 2011).

These kinds of health programs aim to address another major problem that affects the health and nutrition of children across pre-school, primary and high school levels. Overweight and obesity rates have also been noted to be increasing exponentially among school children across schools in Australia. For instance, it has been noted that the current prevalence rates have doubled among school children aged between 6-17 years over the past three decades (Tran et al., 2014). Such high obesity levels are associated with sedentary life as well as increased intake of junk foods and animals that have high cholesterol levels, which are directly related to cardiovascular diseases. As a result, increased physical activity and balanced diets have the potential to effectively address this health problem. Thus, these health programs are aimed at ensuring that such health issues are dealt with through increased awareness as well as appropriate physical activity methods (Tran et al., 2014).

Townsend, Murphy, and Moore (2011) stated that eating disorders in adolescents in most cases commonly begin at adolescence whose eating behaviors are influenced by moodiness, depression, low self-esteem, negative body image compared to other age groups.  As a result, the program will involve creation of awareness and motivation to avoid negative eating habits. Guidelines for use by nutritional management will also be developed in this program outlining the required food proportions of a balanced diet including carbohydrates, proteins, fats as well as other important components of a balanced diet including vitamins, fiber, water, and minerals. In addition, the health program should also encompass their oral hygiene for the purpose of preventing dental cavities commonly observed in children at the preschool level. This phenomenon is prevalent among school children at this stage because they lack oral hygiene awareness. Thus, the program will ensure that these children are educated on the importance of their oral hygiene and develop a guideline aimed at promoting oral hygiene by encouraging the brushing of teeth. Furthermore, the program will also incorporate teachers of such children and a chart demonstrating oral hygiene will also be developed.

Healthy Eating Programs for Preschool Primary and High School Conclusion

This healthy eating program which has been proposed in this project is aimed at providing all the fundamental elements of a balanced and nutritious diet. As a result, the healthy program is highly essential at ensuring that balanced diets are implemented in all schools across the three levels because of their potential to protect the school going children against diet-related diseases. In turn, the children will benefit from improved health and their optimal potential academically and physically. The effect of developing and implementing healthy eating programs in schools might have the greatest impact among small children in preschool and primary school, especially during the respective development and growth phases. Once full implementation of such programs has been achieved it is highly likely that the children will grow and develop healthily. In addition, more awareness of a healthy program will be created among the children.

The Gantt chart


Sep – Oct 2016 Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan – Feb 2017 Mar – Apr 2017 Apr – May 2017 Jun- Aug 2017 Sep- Oct 2017 Nov –Dec  2017 Jan – Feb 2018
1.Project proposal write-up
2.Proposal defence
3.Literature Review
4.Develop conceptual framework
6.Pretesting Instruments                  
7.Collection of the study data                  
8.Laboratory Experimentation                
9.Results Analysis and Experimentation                
10.Report Write Up and presentation
Healthy Eating Programs for Preschool Primary and High School Reference List

Bevans, KB, Sanchez, B, Teneralli, R & Forrest, CB 2011, ‘Children’s eating behavior: The importance of nutrition standards for foods in schools.’ Journal of School Health, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 424–429.

Bridal, E, Wilson, C, Mohr, P & Wittert, G 2014, ‘Nutritional consequences of a fast food eating occasion are associated with the choice of quick-service restaurant chain’, Nutrition & Dietetics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 184–192. doi:10.1111/1747-0080.12129.

Burns, C, Bentley, R, Thornton, L & Kavanagh, 2013, ‘Associations between the purchase of healthy and fast foods and restrictions to food access: A cross-sectional study in Melbourne, Australia’, Public Health Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 143-150.  doi:10.1017/S1368980013002796.

Cobiac, L, Record, S, Leppard, P, Syrette, J & Flight, I 2003, ‘Sugars in the Australian diet: results from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey’, Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 152–73.

Denney-Wilson, E, Harris, M, Laws, R & Robinson, 2013, ‘Child obesity prevention in primary health care: Investigating practice nurse roles, attitudes and current practices’, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 294-299. doi:10.1111/jpc.12164.

Department of Health and Aging 2008, Australian National: Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Available from:$File/childrens-nut-phys-survey.pdf [28 August 2016].

Dudley, DA, Cotton, WG & Peralta, LR 2015, ‘Teaching approaches and strategies that promote healthy eating in primary school children: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 28-32.

Grube, M, Bergmann, S, Herfurth-Majstorovic, K, Keitel, A, Klein, AM, Klitzing, KV & Wendt, V 2013, ‘Obese parents – Obese children?: Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0–3′, BMC Public Health, vol.10, no. 1, pp. 1471-2458. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1193.

Just, DR & Price, J 2013, ‘Using Incentives to Encourage Healthy Eating in Children’, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 855–872.

Pieper, JR & Whaley, SE 2011, ‘Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated with low-income households with young children’, Appetite, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 59–64.

Sahota, O 2014, ‘Understanding vitamin D deficiency’, Age and Ageing, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 589-591. doi:10.1093/ageing/afu104

Slusser, W, Prelip, M, Kinsler, J, Erausquin, JT, Thai, C & Neumann, C 2011, ‘Challenges to parent nutrition education: a qualitative study of parents of urban children attending low-income schools’, Public Health Nutrition, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1833–1841.

Townsend, N, Murphy, S & Moore, L 2011, ‘The more schools do to promote healthy eating, the healthier the dietary choices by students’,  Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 889–895.

Tran, BX, Ohinmaa, A, Kuhle, S, Johnson, JA & Veugelers, PJ 2014, ‘Life course impact of school-based promotion of healthy eating and active living to prevent childhood obesity’, PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1371-1380

Wilson, ED, Campbell, K, Hesketh, K & Silva Sanigorski, AD 2011, ‘Funding for child obesity prevention in Australia’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 184-192. doi:10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00665.x.

Wilson, A, Magarey, A & Masterson, N 2013, ‘Reliability of questionnaires to assess the healthy eating and activity environment of a child’s home and school’, Journal of Obesity, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1155-1165.

Nutrition Research Paper Available




The Science of Nutrition, Third Edition, Thompson JL, Manore MM, Vaughan LA, 2012, Pearson/Benjamin Cummings (2nd edition is acceptable.)
Part 1(this part is already done by me):
Keep a food record for 4 Days and enter data into the diet analysis program of your choice.Keep written 4-day food record with at least one weekend day. A 4
-day record of food intake will give you an average that is a more accurate reflection of nutrient status than a single day. Keep an accurate food record and include
the foods, the portion sizes, the time of daily meals and snacks are eaten and any other patterns you notice about your eating routine. It would be best
to make your entries at least once a day if not 2 or 3 times a day. Do Not try to improvise!
After you have established a profile you are ready to enter your 4-day food record. Select “Day 1” and enter the data, then “Day 2”, and enter then “Day 3”
etc. and enter. (The Super Tracker asks for dates.) Make sure you enter foods into specific days or dates. Also, be sure to organize them according to breakfast,
lunch etc. Enter your “helping size” by using the portion sizes available to you as you enter the foods (in Tbls, cups, ounces etc.) Enter the
real amount of food that you ate. Be precise to get the most accurate assessment. (Hint: Most students underestimate the amount of food they eat. Be
accurate.) Refresh your memory about portion sizes by reading Chapter 2 from your text book The Science of Food or visit for portion size
Part 2:
Use the “Reports” to analyze your dietary intake.
For this assignment you will use a combination of food AND nutrient analysis reports: From MyDietAnalysis you will need the “Actual Intake VS Recommended
Intake”(file:///C:/Users/Adina/Downloads/Actual_Intakes_-vs-_Recommended_Intakes_Report.html), “The Plate”(the USDA plate guideline), “Meal Assessment
Report”(file:///C:/Users/Adina/Downloads/Meal_Assessment_Report.html), “Calorie
Distribution”(file:///C:/Users/Adina/Downloads/Calorie_Assessment_Report.html) and “All Nutrients
Write a comprehensive assessment of your nutrient intake in narrative form. This section should take up at least 1-2 pages. Do NOT outline information from
the reports but rather comment on the content of the reports. Address the following topics:
Actual VS Recommended for macronutrients: Compares your intake levels to the “Recommended Intake ” (DRIs). You need to report on : calories, protein,
carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, fiber. You must include examples of the foods that contributed the most of these nutrients to your intake (check the
Nutrient Spreadsheet for these details.) If you choose weight loss address how much lower your caloric recommendation is for your profile.
Actual VS Recommended for micronutrients: Discuss any nutrient that was significantly greater or less than the recommendation according to the DRI’s (25 %
more or less). YOU NEED TO ADDRESS the following nutrients regardless: Vit. A, Vit. C, Vit. D, Vit. E, folate, iron, calcium, sodium and potassium. Refer to
the Nutrient Spreadsheet to determine what foods contribute to these levels. You MUST include examples of the foods that contribute to these nutrient levels.
If levels are low, what foods would increase them? If they are high, address what foods contributed to those levels? Explain any pattern you see.
AMDR (Calorie Distribution, % of calories from fat, carbohydrate and protein): Compare your macronutrient distribution with the AMDR for Carbohydrate,
Protein and Fat. Explain how well your intake falls into these categories. Be careful not to confuse the AMDR with the “Actual VS Recommended” percent
measures. They are different measures.
The Plate Diagram: How does your food intake compare to the USDA Plate guideline? Discuss the food groups in excess and short of the target number of
servings and again use examples from your own dietary intake.
Explain whether the “Plate” is predictable or not based on your nutrient status from the nutrient report. This is a little tricky but helps you understand
that the food pyramid is not always a reliable tool for assessing nutrient levels. Example 1: Your Vitamin C levels exceed the recommendations but your fruit
and vegetable intake were both considerably lower than the target. You notice in the All Nutrient’s Spreadsheet or the Food Details report that the green
peppers in your beef/pepper stir fry gave you all the vitamin C you need for one day. Example 2: If your fiber levels are low according to the nutrient
report you would expect your fruit and vegetable levels to be low in the Plate Report or Food Groups report. If your fruit level is high in this case it may
well be from the excessive amount of juice. You could find this out by using the All Nutrient’s Spreadsheet or the Food Details report.
Meal Assessment : Discuss any patterns you see in nutrient or food intake. What meal gives you the most calories/least calories? How about the most nutrient
density? Explain any other patterns that you noticed from your own notes about your food intake, i.e. did you eat more/less on the weekend day? Did you tend
to eat more regular meals on the weekdays…etc. Analyze why these patterns may exist. This part will depend on how well you took notes about your eating
habits. It will include an explanation about your style of eating (why you make your food choices…convenience, cost, cultural, taste preference,
nutritional, etc….)
Part 3: What will you do with this information?
Based on the above analysis of your food and nutrient intake AND based on what you have learned about nutrition and health, specifically address the changes
you would make to improve your nutrient and food intake. This section should take up close to a full page. Refer back to your assessment and explain how
current nutrient levels may impact your health if continued on a regular basis. Use your textbook and outline the types of health issues you might face if
you don’t make changes. Example: Saturated fat levels are 25% above the recommended. You would describe the health consequences you could face if you
continue to eat and excess of foods high in saturated fat. State the foods that contribute to these levels and what realistic dietary changes you can make to
decrease saturated fat in your diet.
If you choose to lose or gain weight in your profile, explain how your dietary changes will affect caloric intake, what physical activity you will add to
your daily routine, and how those 2 changes together will impact weight. Finally address how this assignment has helped you: Did you gain some practical
information that will be useful to you? What has been most eye-opening for you?
Include examples…include examples…include examples~! What foods you ate; what you will eat or will avoid to better meet your needs…BE SPECIFIC and realistic.
Students miss points only because they do not include real food examples (You need to say more than “ I will eat fruits and vegetables more often”…state
what kind and what nutrients they will provide.

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Order Instructions:

Dermatologic disorders can present due to an actual skin problem or as the result of a systemic problem that manifests in the skin. Depending on the type of disorder, the presentation might be unique, making a quick diagnosis possible. However, some disorders have similar presentations in terms of symptoms and appearance, making diagnosis more difficult. Skin color and tone can also contribute to difficulty in diagnosis, making it important to consider cultural variations during assessments. In this Discussion, you examine the following case study of skin disorders.

Case Study:
An adolescent presents to your office with a complaint of an itchy, red rash that first appeared on his lower legs 1 week ago after he returned from a camping trip. The rash has since spread to the upper legs, trunk, and groin. He denies fever or other systemic symptoms.

Review these two links – these resources were provided to us this week. lumen/MedEd/medicine/ dermatology/melton/atlas.htm stamford.htm

Write an explanation of the skin disorder in the case study. Include in your explanation the lesion type, lesion distribution, color, and any ancillary findings. Then, present a differential diagnosis and explain which is the most likely diagnosis for the patient and why. Finally, explain a treatment and management plan for the patient’s skin disorder, including appropriate dosages for any recommended treatments.

Use APA format for references and citations that are 5 years and newer.



Case Study:

An adolescent presents to your office with a complaint of an itchy, red rash that first appeared on his lower legs 1 week ago after he returned from a camping trip. The rash has since spread to the upper legs, trunk, and groin. He denies fever or other systemic symptoms.

The case study is of an adolescent who presented with a localized itchy red rash on the lower legs seven days following a camping trip. The patient reported the rash then spread from lower legs to other areas of the upper leg, trunk and groin. No fever or other problems reported.

The diagnosis for this patient is allergic contact dermatitis following the exposure history during the camping trip. Taking thorough history is needed to identify any prior episodes of skin irritations such as atopic dermatitis. Patients who have a history of atopic dermatitis have an increased risk of dermatitis (Taylor& Amado, 2013). The American Family Physician (2010) defines allergic contact dermatitis as” delayed hypersensitivity reaction in which a foreign substance comes into contact with the skin; skin changes occur with re-exposure”. In allergic contact dermatitis, the distribution of lesions is more localized on the area of intense exposure. As in this case, the rash begins on the lower legs before spreading to other regions. According to (American Academy of Dermatology, 2011) a rash can appear within hours or can take up to a week before appearing following an exposure.


The first step would be to identify and avoid the allergen if possible. Localized lesions respond well to medium to high potency steroids. For this case, a topical corticosteroid betamethasone valerate cream 0.1% would be applied twice daily until the lesions clear.  This will help to minimize the redness and the intense of the itching (WebMD, 2015) In addition, Dermnet (2011) provides for use of Prednisone 20 mg twice a day for seven to ten days followed by prednisone 20 mg in the morning for three days to help in relieving the pruritus. Use of wet compresses may be repeated severally throughout the day to ease the situation

Differential diagnosis

A patient presenting with an itchy red rash on the legs that seems to spread to other areas with no fever could be suffering from hives. WebMD (2015) points out that the rashes are itchy and may appear anywhere on the body. WebMD (2015) stresses that hives are caused by allergic reactions after an exposure to a trigger, however, they may not spread to other areas other than the stimulated part.


American Family Physician (2010). Diagnosis and Management of Contact Dermatitis
American Academy of Dermatology. (2011). Contact dermatitis. Retrieved from:—d/contact-dermatitis
James S. Taylor & Antoine Amado (2013). Contact Dermatitis and Related Conditions

WebMD (2005-2015) Skin problems and treatment health center. Retrieved from

WebMD (2005-2015) Drugs and Medications. Retrieved from

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Self evaluation questionnaires

Self evaluation questionnaires
Self evaluation questionnaires

Self evaluation questionnaires to determine the degree of change in eating behaviour of parents who have attended healthy eating education groups.

Order Instruction


Aim – To identify through the use of self-evaluation questionnaires, the degree of change in eating behaviour of parents who have attended healthy eating education groups. The parents have children aged between 0-5 years of age and live in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.

Research question

Whether parents (with children aged 0-5) living in the borough of Tower Hamlets have improved their dietary intake ( as assessed by using self evaluation questionnaires against population based health eating guidelines ) as a result of attending healthy eating sessions.

I will be focusing at the following points only, in my research :

1) Demographics

2)Consumption of fresh fruits

3)Consumption of fresh  vegetables

4)Fibre intake

5)Consumption of sugar or sugary foods

Expected Outcomes are

1.Reduction in sugar intake

2.Increase in the consumption of fresh fruits

3.Increase in the consumption of fresh vegetables

4.Increase in fibre intake

  1. Positive changes in eating behaviour after intervention

My research supervisor gave me the following instructions. Please follow them.

1) Use SPSS to analyse data

2) nicely present data on tables. Don’t make charts. We could use some histograms but the priority should be presenting data (frequency tables) on tables.

3)Use only percent from the frequency table.

4) For the result section, pre-post data that can be matched , present them on the table and use the McNemar’s Test to look at the significance (P value). Pre-post data that can’t be matched, present the data nicely on the table and interpret it.

5)Use plenty of other related studies and critically analyse your result looking at current healthy eating guidelines. If there are any new guidelines, reseach it. For example, a current guidance on free sugars.

6)Data has lots of limitations, explore them. For instance- it’s not validated and varified; we are just making assumptions on what people tell us through filling up their pre and post questionnaires.

[I went to Barts NHS London hospital where I entered the completed data set pre and post quesionnaires.  I entered questionnaires data from three years, 2014, 2013 and 2012 analysed them on spss).


Self evaluation questionnaires


There is a marked decline in nutritional knowledge as a prerequisite for healthy eating habits and lifestyle. Unhealthy lifestyle and behaviours have been attributed to the high incidents of nutrition-related diseases such as cancer and diabetes. As a result, several agencies have embarked on behaviour change interventions that focus on dietary habits and lifestyle. One such program is the Cook For Life session by Bartis hospital. This study sought to identify the degree of change in eating behaviour of parents who have attended the healthy eating sessions. The study involved 137 parents living in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Data from the Barts NHS London Hospital, which consisted of completed pre and post educational session questionnaires from three years, 2012, 2013, and 2014, was used. The self-admitted questionnaires against population-based eating guidelines by respondents who had attended a healthy eating educational programme were then analysed using the SPSS. The findings were then analysed and interpreted using frequency distribution tables and the respective percentages. In the past, most of the interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating habits have been school-based. The Cook For Life intervention program employed a totally different approach for reaching out to families, one that involved the parents as a starting point and an avenue to bring about the desired change for the whole family. This study has the potential to guide future research on the role and effectiveness of intervention programs on behaviour change in eating healthily.

Keywords: healthy eating habits, self-evaluation questionnaires, cook for life, behaviour change.

To Identify Through the Use of Self-Evaluation Questionnaires, the Degree of Change in Eating Behaviour of Parents Who Have Attended Healthy Eating


Families often have poor eating and dietary habits, making them vulnerable to the many risks presented by nutritional inadequacies. As a result, intervention programmes such as training and healthy living campaigns have a fundamental role in reversing these trends (Ruxton & Derbyshire, 2014, p. 33). Most importantly, parents should be educated and trained on consumption of fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, and fibre. One such initiative is one undertaken by Bartis NHS London hospital whose data was used as a source of secondary data for this study. Parents, as well as their children, require sufficient nutrients and energy to sustain the normal metabolic and physical functioning, and more importantly to support growth and development (Schuster et al., 2013, p. 80). For instance, children grow rapidly in their first year of their life, and this forms a stage in which they acquired substantial physical and mental skills, before settling into more steady growth (Winham et al., 2014, p. 99). Consequently, adolescents and young adults also require proper nutritional balance to cater for their body needs as they transform into adults with new emotional, mental, and physical capabilities (Park et al., 2013, p. 655). As such, nutrition inadequacies during these very early stages can have very negative impacts on short and long-term health and wellbeing.

While there is sufficient evidence on the ill impacts of the nutritional deficiencies in developing countries, where food insecurity is a major concern, there are just a few studies on the effects of poor diet and initiatives taken to address the situations in the developed world (Sperry et al., 2014, p. 218). One such study was done by the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of 19 to 64-year-olds in the UK over a period of 10 years and published in 2012. Each of the age groups failed to meet dietary targets especially for sugars and fibre. Intake of fruit and vegetables were particularly very low in adults at only two portions per day (Ostbye et al., 2012, p. 186).

On the basis of evidence from such findings concerning dietary intakes, it is necessary to develop health promotion initiatives for target groups. Godsey (2013, p. 430) postulates that such programs should include advice on reduction of the consumption of sugar, saturated fat, salt, and alcohol. Families should be advised and trained to instead develop new dietary habits such as intake of fibre-rich foods, important micronutrients, as well as fruits and vegetables (Tatlow-Golden et al., 2013, p. 164). Papaioannou et al. (2013, p. 645) note that an analysis of studies on the most successful dietary interventions undertaken across the world shows the most common interventions to be educational sessions, distribution of brochures and newsletters, and teacher training programs. A fruit and vegetable sense session conducted in Australia targeted at parents resulted in significant improvements in children intake of fruits and vegetables increasing servings by about 0.62 (Bean et al., 2014, p. 315).

This study sought to identify the degree of change in eating behaviour of parents who have attended healthy eating education groups. The analysed data focused on evaluating the health changes achieved by parents who were involved in a healthy eating session that was aimed at improving their dietary intake. The healthy eating sessions focused on educating the participants on reducing the sugar intakes, and increase in the consumption of fresh fruits, consumption of fresh vegetables, and fibre intake as well as the overall changes in the eating behaviour of the families of the participating parents after intervention. The use of secondary data from the hospital was found effective due to the nature of the information required for this study. The hospital provided credible data concerning dietary intervention that would not have been found elsewhere, and that was relevant for the purpose of the study (Chahal et al., 2014, p. 190). It also saved time and provided a cost efficient source of the required data.  Data acquired from the hospital offered an opportunity to compare the impact of the three different years of intervention as a basis for understanding how effective and successful such initiatives are in addressing the dietary problem.


The study involved 137 parents with children aged between 0-5 years of age and living in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Data from the Barts NHS London Hospital was used for the analysis. The data consisted of completed pre and post educational session questionnaires from three years, 2012, 2013, and 2014. The questionnaires, which were self-admitted against population-based eating guidelines by respondents who had attended a healthy eating educational programme, were then analysed using the SPSS to acquire a statistical outcome. The findings were then analysed and interpreted using frequency distribution tables and the respective percentages.


Descriptive statistics (frequencies and mean) were used for the analysis of the findings. Analyses are organized in demographics, sugar intakes, fruits and vegetables intakes, and fibre intakes. Respondents consisted of 137 parents who had participated in a Cook For Life program in 2011, 2012, and 2013. They comprised of adults of origins ranging from Bangladeshi, Chinese, Indian, Pakistan, other Asian backgrounds, Caribbean, Somalis, other Africans, other Blacks, British, and other White background.


Table 1: Ethnicity population representations of the study

Ethnicity Percent
Bangladeshi 28.5
Chinese 5.1
Indian 8.0
Pakistani 1.5
Other Asian background 13.1
Caribbean .7
Somali 7.3
Other African 3.6
Other black .7
British 13.9
Other white background 14.6
White and Black Caribbean .7
Not known 2.2
Total 100.0

The study population was representative in terms of racial characteristics as indicated in the table 1 above with respondents comprising of Europeans, African Americans, Africans, Asians, and Caribbean.

Table 2: Respondents treated for co-morbidities

Conditions Yes No
Treated for any heart conditions 0% 100%
Treated for stroke 0.7 % 99.3%
Treated for high-blood pressure 2.2% 97.8%
Treated for diabetes 4.4% 95.6%
Treated for high-blood cholesterol 1.5% 98.5%
Treated for bone and muscle problems 10.2 % 89.8%
Treated for asthma or other respiratory diseases 3.6 % 96.4%
Treated for overweight 6.6% 92.7%

Table 3: General health at present

Good for my age 29.9
Average for my age 42.3
Very good for my age 22.6
Poor for my age 2.9
Very poor for my age 2.2
Total 100.0

Table 4: Do you know how to improve your/your family eating habit?

Pre Post
Yes No Yes No
52.6 47.4 99.3 0.7

McNemar Test for table 4

Value df p-value
McNemar-Browker Test Not given Not given 0.000

(binominal distribution used)

Health statistics reveals that a cross-section of the respondents has been treated for nutritional related diseases such as diabetes, muscle and bone problems, and high-cholesterol problems. Diabetes, respiratory diseases, and high-blood pressure forms the largest proportions of the diseases treated in table 2. Most of the respondents feel that their current health is only average 42.3% compared with only 22.6% who believe that their health is very good for their age. The impact of the session is also evident on the great change demonstrated by the responses of the parents concerning whether they know how to improve the family’s eating habits pre at 52.6% and after 99.3% the programme.


Tables for Sugar

Table 5: Use of sugar in cooking pre and post course

Description Percent
Pre Post
Too little sugar 20.4 1.5
About the right amount of sugar 57.7 15.3
Too much sugar 13.1 81.0
Don’t know about sugar 8.8 2.2

McNemar Test of Table 5

value df P value
McNemar-Bowker 89.645 5 0.000

Table 6: Do you measure sugar before you add them? Pre and post

Description Percent
Pre Post
Yes 24.8 73
No 75.2 27

McNemar Test of Table 6

value df P value
McNemar-Bowker not given Not given 0.000

Table 7 (a): Teaspoons of sugar in tea/coffee pre-course before attending the course

Number of teaspoons  (n=137)


3 2.2
4 0.7
5 or more 2.2
none 38.0
1 36.5
2 20.4

Table 7 (b): Teaspoons of sugar in tea/coffee post course after attending the course

Number of teaspoons




none 40.9
1 53.3
2 5.8

Table 8 (a): Parents intake of confectionary, cakes and biscuits before attending course



Cakes and biscuits


Frequency Percent Percent
>once per day 7.3 10.9
Daily 8.8 17.5
5-6 times a week 5.1 8
3-4 times a week 13.1 13.9
1-2 times a week 29.2 32.8
Once per month 16.8 8.8
< once per month 4.4 2.2
Rarely or never 15.3 5.8

Table 8 (b): Parent’s intake of confectionary, cakes and biscuits after attending course



Cakes and biscuits


Frequency Percent Percent
More often 0.7 1.5
About the same 13.9 10.9
Less often 78.1 83.9
Don’t know 7.3 3.6

Table 9 (a): Child’s intake of confectionary, cakes and biscuits before attending course



Cakes and biscuits


Frequency Percent Percent
>once per day 2.9 2.9
Daily 8.0 19.0
5-6 times a week 3.6 5.1
3-4 times a week 13.9 14.6
1-2 times a week 27.7 36.5
Once per month 10.2 4.4
< once per month 2.9 1.5
Rarely or never 30.7 16.1

Table 9 (b): Child’s intake of confectionary, cakes, and biscuits after attending course



Cakes and biscuits


Frequency Percent Percent
More often 0 2.2
About the same 15.3 13.1
Less often 77.4 79.6
Don’t know 7.3 5.1

The impact of the change in eating habit is again evident from the statistics about the sugar intake levels before and after the programme. One of the aims of the study was to reduce sugar intake. The drop in sugar intake levels and change in eating habit in the use of sugar by measuring before use are significant as represented by the P-value of 0.00. The results also reveal that parents were able to significantly adjust the amount of sugar added into tea/coffee with a shift of those who used one teaspoon before the study rising from 36.5% to 53.3% and those who used two reducing from 20.4% to 5.8%. Consequently, the use of confectionary cakes, and biscuits on very regular basis for both parents and children improved greatly.

Fruits and Vegetables

Table 10: McNemar Test – Parents portions of fresh fruits a day before and after attending cook for life course

Value df p-value
McNemar-Browker Test 60.492 14 0.000

Table 11: McNemar Test – Parents portions of dried fruits a day before and after attending cook for life course

Value df p-value
McNemar-Browker Test 23.905 12 0.021

Table 12:  McNemar Test – Parents portions of vegetables a day before and after attending cook for life course

Value df p-value
McNemar-Browker Test 34.128 14 0.002

Table 13:  McNemar Test – Parents portions of fruit juice a day before and after attending cook for life course

Value df p-value
McNemar-Browker Test 15.043 13 0.305

Table 14: McNemar Test – Child portions of fresh fruits a day before and after attending cook for life course

Value df p-value
McNemar-Browker Test 41.010 13 0.000

Table 15:  McNemar Test – Childs portions of dried fruits a day before and after attending cook for life course

Value df p-value
McNemar-Browker Test 14.814 12 0.252

Table 16: McNemar Test – Childs portions of vegetables a day before and after attending cook for life course

Value df p-value
McNemar-Browker Test 29.870 13 0.005

Table 17:  McNemar Test – Childs portions of fruit juice a day before and after attending cook for life course

Value df p-value n
McNemar-Browker Test 12.986 15 0.603 137

Another main aim guiding the study was to analyse the degree of increase of the intake of fruits and vegetables for parents and their children after attending cook for life programme and compare that with statistics of habits before the session. The findings showed that the session had a great impact in the proportions of fruits and vegetables. The change in the parent’s portions of fresh fruits and vegetables intake a day is valid as indicated by a P-value of 0.000 and that of 0.002 respectively). For children, the change in the proportions of fresh fruits and vegetables intake a day is also significant (P-value of 0.000 and 0.005). However, there impact seems not to be significant in the uptake of fruit juice a day for both children and parents (P-value of 0.603 and 0.305 respectively).


Table 18 (a): Parents’ intake of fibre containing foods before attending Cook For Life

Wholemeal Bread


Brown Rice


Wholewheat Pasta


Frequency Percent Percent Percent
>once per day 5.8 0.7 0
Daily 42.3 8.0 1.5
5-6 times a week 5.8 0 1.5
3-4 times a week 13.1 0.7 4.4
1-2 times a week 10.2 9.5 27.7
Once per month 2.2 8.0 11.7
< once per month 2.2 5.8 6.6
Rarely or never 18.2 67.2 46.7


Table 18 (b): Parents’ intake of fibre containing foods after attending Cook For Life

Wholemeal Bread


Brown rice


Wholewheat Pasta


Frequency Percent Percent Percent
More often 46.0 32.1 31.4
About the same 38.0 33.6 37.2
Less often 8.0 16.1 14.6
Don’t know 8.0 18.2 16.8


Table 19 (a) : Child intake of fibre containing foods before attending Cook For Life

Wholemeal Bread


Brown Rice


Wholewheat Pasta


Frequency Percent Percent Percent
>once per day 6.6 2.2 1.5
Daily 30.7 4.4 0.7
5-6 times a week 8.8 0.7 4.4
3-4 times a week 16.1 4.4 9.5
1-2 times a week 9.5 6.6 20.4
Once per month 0.7 9.5 8.8
< once per month 2.2 4.4 6.6
Rarely or never 25.5 67.9 48.2


Table 19 (b): Child intake of fibre containing foods after attending Cook for Life

Wholemeal Bread


Brown rice


Wholewheat Pasta


Frequency Percent Percent Percent
More often 33.6 24.8 28.5
About the same 36.5 32.8 38.0
Less often 18.2 21.2 16.1
Don’t know 11.7 21.2 17.5


This study also sought to identify the impact of the dietary education after the sessions in increasing the intake of fibre containing foods as compared with the same before the programme. The findings demonstrate a contrasting trend from that of the other two categories; consumption of vegetables and fruits, and sugar intakes where significant change in behaviour was reported. In this case, the change in behaviour was considerately on the minimal. The number of parents who consumed about the same amount of whitemeal bread, brown rice, wholewheat pasta after the intervention remained substantially high with a percentage of 38%, 33.6%, 37.2% respectively. The same scenario was reported with the case of the children. The number of children who consumed about the same amount of whitemeal bread, brown rice, and wholewheat pasta remained high as demonstrated by the high percentages of 36.5%, 32.8%, and 38% respectively.


The main findings of the study showed a decrease in the amount of sugar consumption, increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, and little increase in fibre intake. Indeed, the drop in sugar intake levels and change in eating habit in the use of sugar exhibited a notable change. Again, parents were able to significantly adjust the amount of sugar added into tea/coffee while the use of confectionary cakes, and biscuits on very regular basis for both parents and children improved greatly. The findings also showed that the session had a great impact in the proportions of fruits and vegetables consumption among the parents and children. The change in the parent’s portions of fresh and dried fruits and fresh fruit juice intake a day was found to have increased significantly. Although, the change in the proportions of fresh fruits and vegetables intake a day for children had a positive outcome there was little impact on the intake of fruit juice. Concerning fibre intake, there was little change in habit in consumption of about the same amount of whitemeal bread, brown rice, wholewheat pasta after the intervention among the parents and children.

About 70 percent of adults have been found to engage in unhealthy behaviours including poor diet, smoking, and lack of exercise leading to obesity and overweight (Mazzeo et al., 2013, p. 176). The situation is worse for those in the lower socioeconomic groups contributing to the huge gap in the younger onset morbidity in the society (Frankel et al., 2014, p. 170). Behaviour influencing health interventions to address such issues include eating healthily, regular exercise, attending screening appointments, and harm avoidance (Johnson et al., 2013, p. 567). The eating healthily intervention program, Cook For Life, was found to be successful in changing habits concerning the levels of sugar consumption among the parents who participated in the study. The intervention was also effective in increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables although there was little change recorded in fibre intake among the participants. More importantly, respondents overwhelmingly reported being better placed now to take care of their family’s dietary needs than before the intervention. This implies the effectiveness of such a program.

Theoretical Background of Behaviour Change Interventions

Notably, Belansky (2013, p. 201) contends that understanding the factors that influence the way people behave would be a good starting point for such change initiatives. There are three major cognitive theories seeking to explain behaviour, including; the health belief model, the social cognitive theory, and the theory of reasoned action and planned behaviour (Lochrie et al., 2013, p. 165). Succinctly, the theory of reasoned action posits that an action is dependent on a person’s acting intention. The theory emphasizes that a person’s intention is determined by their attitude to behaviour and subjective norms (Peters et al., 2014, p. 131). This theory adds the idea of self-efficacy, the individual’s perceived control over skills, resources, and opportunities at their disposal to perform the behaviour.

As Eumark-Sztainer et al. (2010, p. 273) note, the social cognitive theory holds that behaviour is founded on environmental factors, personal factors, self-efficacy, and the attributes of the given behaviour itself. As such, successful behaviour change would require an individual to believe in their ability to perform the behaviour, should feel the projected positive outcome outweigh the negative (Swanson et al., 2013, p. 149). According to Cohen et al. (2014, p. 51) self-belief in successfully undertaking behaviour is necessary for determining a successful behaviour change. In the light of this standpoint, the parents in the study felt the need to change the way they handled their nutritional needs. They believed in the cause of the undertaking and the benefits of the outcome following behaviour change.

The health belief model proposes that beliefs are the basic cues to action and includes self-efficacy (Prelip et al., 2012, p. 310). The theory holds that the four major beliefs are concerned with the perceived sickness severity, an individual’s perceived susceptibility to it, as well as what they believes are the likely benefits and barriers to taking action. The likely cues for action could be media campaigns, life-changing events, sticky notes, or habitual cues. On the basis of this concept, it can be argued that that the educational session acted as one of the cues for action. The parents shared the belief that the dietary issue required their effort to address to avoid some likely negative impacts.

Basic Principles to the Success of the Intervention

Seeking to understand the perspective of individuals is the basic starting point in delivering and supporting behaviour change interventions. Some of the important factors influencing people’s behaviour are, respecting the messenger, individual’s weighing of the interventions and the disincentives of a behaviour or change, norms and behaviours surrounding an individual, individual effort and determination, importance, subconscious, emotional associations, ego, and commitments (Van Grieken et al., 2014, p. 1).

More importantly, behaviour change intervention should focus on generic competencies that cover: helping people to develop accurate knowledge about the short and long-term health consequences of their own behaviours on themselves and others. They should work with what is relevant to the individual and be capable of enhancing people’s self-efficacy (Loeb et al., 2012, p. 22). The programmes should raise awareness of the positive behaviour and role models in the individual’s social group and support moral and personal commitment to change (Garcia et al., 2014, p. 1013). Additionally, the initiatives should assist people to make changes while identifying realistic goals as well as developing supportive plans in specific contexts over time (Jaballas et al., 2011, p. 301). People carrying out the intervention programmes must not be coercive, patronizing, or coercive when trying to influence behaviour change among the participants (Morgan et al., 2014, p. 94). Instead, it would be more effective to adopt strategies that are used more regularly in motivational and coaching interviewing such as listening to understand, building rapport, building self-efficacy and supporting change, and assessing readiness of participants to change.

The results in this study concurred with the findings of an earlier study involving 3059 young women of ages 17 to 21 attending a virus trial of a population-based human papilloma virus in Finland. The study which focused on developing and evaluating the effectiveness of an individualized lifestyle counselling approach in improving dietary behaviour, preventing weight gain, and physical activity established positive correlation between nutritional intervention and behaviour change. The proportion of the girls physically inactive decreased from 34% to 23% following the initiative (Janicke et al., 2013, p. 191). The study also confirmed the argument that the success of lifestyle programs and interventions in helping people to achieve dietary change depended on the intensity of the intervention. In addition, it was also identified that self-reported behaviour is affected by the measurement process itself in that repeated assessment on health behaviours may have some motivating factor for participants to increase the intensity of behaviour change interventions (McGowan et al., 2013, p. 769). The findings in the two studies form a strong basis for future intervention through self-evaluation questionnaires to nutritional behaviour change.

In a study where four focus groups were conducted in 2012 at worksites during the lunch break showed positive correlation between the eating habits and practices of children and the role of parents in the same. A total of 21 randomly picked parents of primary school children were chosen (15 mothers and 6 fathers) (Morin et al., 2013, p. 46). These results concurred with the rationale of the Cook For Life campaign to use parents as a starting point for addressing nutritional inadequacies in families. Parents cited rules and regulations as some of the factors contributing to healthy dietary habits to their children. They reported that some of the rules involved limiting the consumption of soft drinks (Talvia et al., 2011, p. 2065). Some stated applying strict rules about when and how much their child is allowed to consume a soft drink. Other argued that it is important that parents the role of good models for their children eating behaviour by not consuming soft drinks, eating fruits, and drinking water at dinner (Turner et al., 2013, n.p). These findings demonstrate the important role that parent’s influence has on their children. By targeting the parents, then the whole family is likely to benefit from the intervention.

A recent report by Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition recommends the dietary reference value for total carbohydrates at a population average be maintained at about 50% of dietary energy. it also recommends that the dietary reference value for free sugars be set at a population average of approximately 5% of the dietary energy for all age-groups from 2 years upwards. Following the reductions in the intake of free sugars, then that energy should be replaced with starches found in cellular structures sugar-containing foods such as milk and milk products. In addition, the consumption of soft drinks should be minimized for both parents and adults (Draft Carbohydrates and Health Report, 2014).

Another study that had similar results is one of a pilot nutrition intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour change of female combat soldiers in Israeli army in 2013. The results of the intervention strongly indicate meaningful improvements in daily food consumption. Before the intervention programme, the subjects had very limited knowledge of the basic nutrition and few tools for making informed choices in their mess hall. The intervention was also found to improve attitude and knowledge significantly towards healthy eating (Wright et al., 2013, p. 730). However, in the Cook For Life intervention it was noted that the percentage of the parents and children who took about the same amount of whitemeal bread, brown rice, wholewheat pasta after the intervention remained substantially high. Some of the reasons to explain this little change could be the preference issues where most people see the white rice and the white bread as more appealing than brown rice and white bread. Another explanation could be that whitemeal bread, brown rice, wholewheat pasta are quite expensive and cooking becomes very time consuming. Although, most interventions are effective in increasing knowledge, the true challenge lies with impacting the decision-making process as well as changing eating behaviours.

A study evaluating the impacts of an intervention carried on 5-year olds to investigate child health behaviours by youth health care professionals found no significant outcomes on behaviour change. The study involved counselling for 637 parents of overweight children on lifestyle according to the invention protocol and follow-up questionnaires for a two-year follow-up (Ohly, et al., 2013, p. 9). The results reflected the findings of this study concerning the behaviour change in fruit juice intake where no significant change was reported for both parents and children. One of the likely explanations for this outcome can be based on the health belief model where barriers to achieving the behaviour change greatly affect the outcome. Some of the barriers could be that fresh fruit juice is not readily available or could be expensive. It could that parents are preferring to use fruits instead.

Study Limitations

The rather small sample size of 137 participants used for the study is not so representative, and it would not qualify for generalization of the entire population. The study was limited in capacity due to failure to evaluate other factors that might be crucial in determining behaviour change such as economic status and literacy levels. In addition, the study might have been limited by the subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment as used in the study. The validity of the study is, therefore, questionable since there was no clinical validity biomarker used making it prone to underestimates resulting from bias and imprecision of the actual change.


The findings of this and other studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of intervention programs such as Cook For Life in bringing about a great impact in terms of behaviour change among parents and children. However, the success of such interventions is dependent on a number of rationales on behaviour change. Educational sessions have the capacity to address nutritional deficiencies in families through behaviour change (Robertson, 2012, p. 230). The Cook For Life intervention was able to achieve the intended outcomes of reducing sugar consumption, increasing intake of fruits and vegetables, and fibre intake. Similar programs should be guided by the identified basics such as listening to understand, building rapport, building self-efficacy and supporting change, and assessing readiness of participants to change behaviour.


First and foremost, I would like to thank God for His goodness and faithfulness, divine strength, provision, and ever-present help all through my studies and also for the idea of this study.  Secondly, I would like to acknowledge several people for whom their support, encouragement, help and assistance made this work possible: my parents, instructor, as well as my lecturer (enter names).


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Sperry, S, Knox, B, Edwards, D, Friedman, A, Rodriguez, M, Kaly, P, Albers, M, & Shaffer-Hudkins, E 2014, ‘Cultivating Healthy Eating, Exercise, and Relaxation (CHEER): A Case Study of a Family-Centered and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Obese Adolescents at Risk for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease’, Clinical Case Studies, 13, 3, p. 218.

Swanson, M, Schoenberg, N, Davis, R, Wright, S, & Dollarhide, K 2013, ‘Research Brief: Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth’, Journal Of Nutrition Education And Behavior, 45, pp. 147-153.

Talvia, S, Räsänen, L, Lagström, H, Anglè, S, Hakanen, M, Aromaa, M, Sillanmäki, L, Saarinen, M, & Simell, O 2011, ‘Parental eating attitudes and indicators of healthy eating in a longitudinal randomized dietary intervention trial (the STRIP study)’, Public Health Nutrition, 14, 11, p. 2065.

Tatlow-Golden, M, Hennessy, E, Dean, M, & Hollywood, L 2013, ‘Research report: ‘Big, strong and healthy’. Young children’s identification of food and drink that contribute to healthy growth’, Appetite, 71, pp. 163-170.

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Diet Plan Coursework Assignment Available

Diet Plan
Diet Plan

Diet Plan

Analysing your diet
• To further develop computing and IT skills
• Understand and perform a 24 hour dietary analysis
• Assess the nutrient value of your diet in comparison the Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI)
• Further develop report writing skills (this report will be submitted as coursework)
Using Diet plan 6 and the instructions provided analyse a typical 24 hours food intake.
How much energy (kcal) does your diet provide? What percentage of the kcal comes from protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol. Find the amount in grams/mg that the following nutrients contribute to your diet: energy carbohydrate, fat, protein, alcohol, vitamin C and calcium? Compare your results to the RNI.

Writing up the report
The report should be written using the following guidelines:

  • Introduction
    Describe the reason for doing a dietary analysis and why it is important to get a balance of nutrients in the diet.
  • Methods
    In this instance simply state “See handout”
  • Results
    Draw up your own tables showing your intake compared to the RNI of the following nutrients:
    Energy (kcal), carbohydrate (g), protein (g), fat (g), alcohol (g), calcium (mg), vitamin C (mg).
    Also show how much each of the macronutrients contribute to your energy intake (%)
    Give your tables titles and write some explanatory text describing what they show.
    Do not put your Diet plan 6 printout here
  • Discussion
    Explain what your results show and what they mean. How do your results compare to the RNI? How can you improve your diet?
  • Conclusion
    Brief paragraph summarising your findings
  • References
    List the references you have used, in alphabetical order
  • Appendix
    You can put your Diet plan 6 print out here

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Family Food Menu Simulation Assignment

Family Food Menu Simulation
Family Food Menu Simulation

Family Food Menu Simulation

Overview: How easy is it for persons living in at 100% of the poverty threshold to make ends meet and to eat healthy meals? This activity will give you a chance to approximate this aspect of living in poverty. For many of you, this experience will be very different from your personal experiences, but for others, this may be an all-too-familiar experience. Either way, I hope it can give you a new perspective or appreciation of your life experiences so far. Please carefully read the instructions for each component of this assignment

. 1. Select a family profile below. Your profile provides the economic context for this assignment. Select one of the family profiles from below.

a. Family of four people, one female age 20-40, and 3 children (you choose the ages).

b. Family of four, one male and one female ages 20-50, two children (you choose the ages)

c. Family of four, two males or two females age 20-50, two children (you choose the ages)

2. Determine what it takes to live. Determine the poverty threshold for your new fictional family from the Census table for 2015:

That amount is your family’s annual income. Next, estimate how much money you will have for food after accounting for housing, auto/transportation, and child care needs (if applicable). Use the National Center for Children in Poverty website to get an estimate of your family’s expenses and what you might need to cut from your life given your circumstances.

3. Develop a nutritious menu for meals you would prepare for one week (Monday to Sunday). Include 3 meals daily (breakfast, lunch and dinner) that are adequate for a nutritious diet for your family. You can plan meals that include leftovers from previous meals. Format your menu in a table using Excel or Word. Include this table with your submission.

4. Determine how much it would cost to prepare your menu for the week. Using the menu you created, develop a shopping list of the food you will need for the week. You may assume that a few staples, such as salt, pepper, other condiments, flour, and sugar are already available in your kitchen. In your shopping list, include all other necessary food and beverage items. Next, go to a local grocery store and record the price for each item on your list. If you cannot make it to a local grocery store, go online and price the items needed for your list. Add up the cost of the items on your list. Format your shopping list in a table so that you can easily record the prices and quantity. Include this table with your submission.

5. Write an analysis of your results and experience. In a paper of about four pages, excluding title page and references, discuss the following issues:

1. Briefly describe your economic context. Provide enough detail to give me a sense of what your fictional family looks like, where they live, what their circumstances are. In other words, specify the demographics of your family (ages and gender of family members, where you live, your income at the poverty threshold); general expenses you have (e.g., child care, housing, transportation, etc.); whether your family receives any state assistance (e.g., EITC, SNAP, TANF, unemployment insurance, etc.), and how this contributes to the cash on hand you have to spend for food.

2. Discuss the following issues: How much did you have to spend to prepare your week’s menu? Considering your fictional family’s income, and assuming this was a typical weekly menu, what percentage of your income did you spend? Is this feasible given the other expenses you have identified already for this fictional family? If you think it is feasible, explain how you were able to make ends meet and feed the family nutritiously. If you think it is not feasible, then explain why you think this is so. What makes it not feasible?

3. Compare the experience: Discuss two ways in which the menu you developed for this project either (a) differed from or (b) was similar to your experiences growing up. Or, if you are fully supporting yourself now, you can compare the menu with your current living situation. Were there any factors or experiences in your childhood that prepared you for this experience? For example, were there skills or knowledge you possessed coming into this exercise that helped you? Explain.

4. Reflect on the experience: What has participating in this activity shown you about the realities of providing food on a limited budget? Note that I am the only person who will be reading these papers, so please feel free to share as openly as you feel comfortable. Any information you share will remain confidential.

Formatting specifications Your assignment should include the following:

1. The four page paper should be double spaced and follow all APA style and formatting conventions including a cover page, citations, and a reference page. Because it is an essay, you do not need an abstract. Please consult online APA resources for assistance.

2. Tables should be numbered and labeled and should follow your written work. Table 1 should include your menu for the week. Table 2 should include your shopping list and the actual prices you found for each item, including the grand total for the weekly menu.

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Anorexia Nervosa Case Study Analysis

Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa

Examine the Case study below and EVALUATE the Psychological, Social and Biological EXPLANATIONS for Anorexia Nervosa.

Please look at(Folens Second Edition Psychology A2 The complete Companion for AQA ‘A’ Mike Cardwell, Cara Flanagan) as one of your sources Case Study (A 12 Year old girl from a prominent upper class family was seen when her mother consulted the psychiatrist about an older sister who was obese. The mother felt that she wanted to punish the older daughter for being overweight but spoke in glowing terms about her younger daughter who in every way was an ideal child. Her teachers would refer to her as the ‘best balanced’ girl in school, and relied on her helpfulness and kindness when another child was having difficulty making friends. When she hit Puberty she began to put on weight, she became convinced that being fat was shameful and that in order to retain respect she would have to maintain her thinness. She began becoming obsessed with her weight, at first restricting her food intake by eating less at meal times and cutting out snacks between meals. However, as she began to lose pounds she would set herself new targets ignoring her feelings of hunger by focussing on each new target. She began to realize she didn’t have to be the ideal daughter and do what others expected of her, but she could be the Master of her own fate. Adapted from H. Bruch.(1971). Family transactions in eating disorders. comprehensive Psychiatry, 12(3),pp.38-248.) When using your sources please look at the above book please also talk about the standards used to make diagnosis’s such as DSM-5 and ICD-10

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