Diffusion of Innovation Research Assignment

Diffusion of Innovation
Diffusion of Innovation

Diffusion of Innovation

Diffusion of Innovation and Diffusion of Innovation Models

Order Instructions:

Can Technology + Behavior Be Diffused?

post a brief description of a population segment (by race, ethnicity, economic status, geographical location, etc.). Then, explain the relationship between health inequality/inequities and common biological or behavioral risk factors that have been linked to a particular disease in that population segment. Finally, describe the relationship between health inequality/inequities and life expectancy for that population.


Diffusion of Innovation

The diffusion of innovation concept attempts to explain the extent to which innovations are adopted in a population. Innovation is explained as an idea or behavior perceived as new by its audience. Diffusion of innovation provides some valuable understanding of social change. It explains the qualities that make an innovation spread, how essential is peer to peer conversations and peer networks and in understanding the demands for other different users. Behavioral and technological factors influences innovation diffusion and it spreads through social networks. Certain innovation spread more quickly due to its relative advantage, its compatibility with the existing value and practices, how simple it is and to use and the observable outcomes ( Bird, Conrad, Fremont, & Timmermans, 2010).

Evidences suggest that the differences in racial/ethnicity in death rate are linked to socioeconomic resources because of the data available. Most of the evidences are found on the health experience of the blacks and white in understanding racial or ethnic inequalities.

The potential power of the socioeconomic status image in realizing health inequalities including racial or ethnic disparities is apparent in the fact that socioeconomic differences in health results have been widely documented for most health conditions in most countries.

The individuals who suffer from the diseases such as physical impairedness and experience higher mortality rate are those who are poor and with less education (Bird, Conrad, Fremont, & Timmermans, 2010). In the United States, those who are better off have fewer health problems and some of their health conditions are sensitive to socioeconomic status. The differences in racial and socioeconomic are greater in some proportions of health. For instance, the death rates from heart diseases are higher in black men than in white men, but they do not disagree in the wide spread of the reported heart disease (Gee, Walsemann, & Brondolo, 2012).

The relationship between the socioeconomic status and health changes by age because of the differential relationships between the disease and socioeconomic status. The mortality rate in young adults is majorly prevailed by AIDS and violent deaths that are related to socioeconomic status. Deaths from of heart disease and cancer are prevalent in the middle adult ages (Killewo,  Heggenhougen, & Quah, 2010). Early deaths from these causes may be among those with either high vulnerability or lifelong insult. The causes of death and many causes of disability that dominate old age have a long period of development. The mortality rate is not the same as the racial/ethnic differences in disability (Gee, Walsemann, & Brondolo, 2012).

Some factors of health are completely beyond the human ability to determine and, therefore, make it difficult to work towards complete equality in health. Equity implies some aspects of social unfairness. Therefore, in case a population more youthful than the other dies due to inherited differences, which is a non- controllable factor, it may be conclude that it is a health difference. On the other hand, the situation would be classed as health inequity if the life expectancy of the population is lower due to lack of access to proper medications. These unfairness cases may include the differences in the existence of diseases, and access to an hospital or health results between the populations, which has a different race, ethnicity or socioeconomic status.


Bird, C. E., Conrad, P., Fremont, A. M., & Timmermans, S. (2010). Handbook of Medical Sociology, Sixth Edition. Vanderbilt University Press.

Gee, G. C., Walsemann, K. M., & Brondolo, E. (2012). A Life Course Perspective on How Racism May Be Related to Health Inequities. American Journal of Public Health102(5), 967-974.

Killewo, J. Z. J., Heggenhougen, K., & Quah, S. R. (2010). Epidemiology and demography in public health. San Diego, CA: Academic Press/Elsevier.

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Porters Five Forces and Strategic Choices

Porters Five Forces and Strategic Choices Order Instructions: I will upload previously completed work such as SWOT, Pest, Porter’s Five Forces, and Resource Based View-Analyses needed to complete this assignment.

Porters Five Forces and Strategic Choices
Porters Five Forces and Strategic Choices

Here are the particulars:
• Step 1: Create a 5×5 table with the four strategies listed across the top and the four SWOT variables at left as follows:?
• • Low-cost • Differentiation • Focus • Preemptive
• Strengths • • • •
• Weaknesses • • • •
• Opportunities • • • •
• Threats • • • •
• Step 2: Using your work in Modules 2 and 3 as it relates to the Kraft Foods Group, select one element from any of the analytical models we studied that contributes to each of the four SWOT variables. For example, for Weaknesses, you may want to choose an element from Porter’s Value Chain (say, operations), while for Opportunities you may want to select something from the PEST analysis (say, sociocultural factors). Select one for Strengths and Threats as well.
• Step 3: Enter the elements you have chosen with the corresponding SWOT variable. Below, “strong competitive rivalry” has been chosen for Threats. Note that other choices could have been high barriers to entry, high bargaining power of suppliers or customers, high substitutability (from Five Forces analysis), or a specific political, economic, social, or technological factor (from PEST). Complete this process for all four SWOT variables. ?
• • Low-cost • Differentiation • Focus • Preemptive
• Strengths • • • •
• Weaknesses • • • •
• Opportunities • • • •
• Threats: Strong competitive rivalry • • • •
• Step 4: This is potentially the most challenging part. Indicate the impact each strategy might have on each SWOT factor you have chosen by offering a business action that will address the SWOT. For example, follow the threat “strong competitive rivalry” across all four generic strategies. How would a low-cost strategy address an industry environment characterized by intense rivalry? What about a differentiation strategy? Focus? Preemptive? In other words, you are considering the same industry threat, but addressing it differently depending on the chosen strategy. See the example below:?
• • Low-cost • Differentiation • Focus • Preemptive
• Strengths • • • •
• Weaknesses • • • •
• Opportunities • • • •
• Threats: Strong competitive rivalry • Undercut rivals on price through operational economies • Brand loyalty attracts repeat customers • Find an underserved market segment that rivals are unwilling to serve • Beat rivals out of the gate, establish the dominant position
Thus, the strategic action you choose to fill in a given blank should do two things: 1) offer a tactic for taking advantage of strength or opportunity or for managing a threat or weakness, and 2) follow the basic thrust of the strategy in that column.

Porters Five Forces and Strategic Choices Sample Answer

Strategic Choices

Every business is established with the aim of making profits. It is, therefore, important that businesses adopt various strategies that will ensure that they remain competitive and achieve their goals and objectives. This paper provides an analysis of the strategies that Kraft Foods incorporates and should adapt to ensure that it remains competitive in its operations. The discussion incorporates various strategies it has embraced including SWOT analysis, PEST, Porters value chain, and Resource-Based View Analysis for Kraft Foods Group.

Porter’s generic strategies, which include low cost, differentiation, focus, and preemptive are adopted by companies to ensure that they remain competitive and achieve their targets and objectives (Porter, 1985). A company may decide to focus on costs by offering its products and services at low costs (Porter, 1985).  Many customers that are moved by low products will definitely opt to buy from such companies. Differentiation strategy is, on the other hand, meant for customers that do not price sensitive. The company, therefore, ensures that the products are of high quality and meet the tastes and preferences of the customers (Porter, 1985). Companies that adopt focus strategy aim at a given segment of the audience, while those that use preemptive strategies focus on winning over customers in a given target market by projecting themselves as the best.

A SWOT analysis is an acronym representing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats on a company (Porter, 1985).  A company puts more focus on its strength, tries to overcome its weaknesses and takes advantage of the opportunities as it puts in place measures to counter its threats.

  Low cost Differentiation Focus Preemptive
Strength: Operations   Expansion of its  manufacturing plants to reduce costs of  distribution to  sell at  competitive prices  Establish efficient  production plants   that provide quality products   Set  its manufacturing plants and distribution channels  in areas  that they have ready markets   Invest in innovation to remain at the top of its rivals.
Weaknesses: Higher bargaining power of the  buyers Diverse its target  markets  to ensure that it maintains its profits  Ensure that it provides  healthy products   and  reduce its advertisement costs   Take advantage of the underserved  markets and offer their products at a competitive price  Ensure that the customers are fully satisfied to  reduce recalls and to  build a good image
Opportunities: Socio-cultural factors  Provide health food at competitive prices  Deal with high quality and healthy food   to attract more customers Take advantage by focusing on the new upcoming customers that  require health foods Establish a dominant position by expanding in  other markets
Threats: Higher competition rivals  Win  over competitors  on price  through operational economies  Brand loyalty helps to attract repeat customers   Find and take advantage of  the underserved markets that rivals are unwilling to operate  Win over the rivals through  establishing a dominant position


From this analysis, Kraft Food Group is faced with threats of higher competition rivals.  The company is operating in a market that has other competitors that are dealing in similar products. Some of the competitors include companies such as Pepsi and Coca-Cola. These companies are all targeting similar companies. It, therefore, becomes important for the Kraft Food Group to find out ways through which it can remain competitive. The company has a choice of adapting to various generic strategies. It has an option of reducing its prices to win over its competitors that are offering higher prices. This strategy will enable the company to sell more of its products hence enabling it to accrue profits. Though the large or huge products that will be sold will earn low profits, it will, in the long run, enable the company to make higher profits.  The profit margin for a unit of its product will reduce but by selling them in huge quantities, the company will be able to make higher profits.  Another strategy is differentiation whereby it will seek to create brand loyalty that will attract customers to repurchase its products. Even though customers are exposed to more products options, they will still remain loyal to the company if it establishes a brand loyalty through such initiatives such as promotions. The other strategy is to focus on the areas that are underserved by competitors and take the opportunity. This will help the company to expand its markets as well as its profit margins.  The last strategy is preemptive. The company is able to win over its competitors or rivals through establishing a dominant position in the market. It should package itself as the best company that is meeting the customer needs to be able to win over its competitors or rivals through establishing a dominant position in the market. It should package itself as the best company that is meeting the customer requirements.

Kraft Food Group is has a number of opportunities that it should not relent to take advantage of. Some of these opportunities include the growing demand for health and wellness products and services, rising immigration population, and a growing buying power as well as a growing foodservice market.  The company can as well select the appropriate generic strategies to take advantage of these opportunities.  These opportunities relate to socio-cultural factors as the people or consumers change their eating habits.  The company can adopt a low costs strategy by providing health food services at a competitive price. Because, of the high demand of these health products, the company stands a chance of remaining competitive by offering products at these competitive prices.  The company can also adopt a differentiation strategy by dealing with high-quality products that will enable it to attract more customers that will be able to meet the prices of the food products. Focus strategy is also another option whereby the company should focus on expanding to other areas in high-quality products that will enable them to attract more customers that will be able to meet the prices the food products are sold. Focus strategy is also another option whereby the company should focus on expanding to other areas to take advantage of the new immigrating customers that are in need of healthy food. The last strategy is preemptive whereby the company should endeavor to establish a dominant position through its market expansion.

On the other hand, Kraft Food Group has a number of weaknesses such as reliance on large retail customers and high rates of product recalls. These are weaknesses that the company needs to find ways of overcoming to ensure that it achieves a higher profit margin. They are contributed by the higher bargaining powers of the buyers.  The company can adopt a low-cost strategy by diversifying its target markets to maintain its profitability. The company will be able to offer low prices to its customers hence making it possible to maintain its profitability.  If it adopts a differentiation strategy, it requires to provide quality products to avoid recalls as well it will reduce promotions and advertisement costs as customers will be always satisfied with the products.  It can as well adopt focus strategy whereby it will take advantage of the underserved areas making it have higher bargaining power hence accrue higher profits.  A preemptive strategy is another option that the company can adopt. This will ensure that customers are satisfied hence reduce recalls; the brand image of the company will improve making it remain the preferred company.

The company’s strengths are in its operations. It has diversified products, strong manufacturing, and distribution capabilities, as well as cash reserves. The company, therefore, requires to adapt to appropriate strategies to maintains its strengths.  The company can adopt low costs strategy by expanding its manufacturing plants to reduce costs of distributions to sell its products at competitive prices. It can as well adapt to differentiation strategy by establishing efficient production plants to provide quality products that meet the needs of the customers. If it adopts the focus strategy, it needs to set its plants and distribution channels in specific locations that it has ready markets. Adopting the preemptive strategy will see the company invest in innovations to ensure it remains at the top.

In conclusion, Kraft Foods Group has various options in terms of strategies to ensure that it remains competitive. It has the discretion of analyzing the best out of these four against its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats before selecting the best option.

Porters Five Forces and Strategic Choices Reference

Porter, M. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York. Simon and Schuster.

Government Overstepped Biblical Principles in Economy

Government Overstepped Biblical Principles in Economy Order Instructions:

Government Overstepped Biblical Principles in Economy
Government Overstepped Biblical Principles in Economy

For this assignment, you will write a 2–3-page paper (double-spaced, 1-inch margins) providing at least 1 example of how the government has overstepped biblical principles in some form of economic policy.

Options include the following topics:
• A specific piece of legislation relating to business regulation or taxation.
• The “party platform” of either the Republican Party or the Democratic Party (or both).
• The role of the Federal Reserve.
• The budget process.

You must include at least 2 sources in your essay, cited in current APA formatting.

Government Overstepped Biblical Principles in Economy Sample Answer


Taxes in the US are levied depending on the state one is living or working in. The federal and, local governments impose taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, gifts as well as estates. TThe taxation system in the US is one of the most progressive globally.

Lately, there have been calls by the Democrats to introduce legislation that will allow a 5% tax deduction on all the millionaires and the super-rich Americans. (Pear, 2011) The democratic position has received some backing from some Republicans including the Tea party. The proposed surtax on all incomes above $1 million per annum would subsidize the measures taken by the government towards job creation. Most of the Republicans are expected to oppose the proposals as there has always been a confrontation between the Democrats and the Republicans on how much the affluent and well off Americans should pay to assist others to cope with the constantly struggling American economy. The proposals that had been backed by Harry Reid, the Democratic senator from Nevada and also the majority leader is expected to face a spirited challenge from the Republicans who are against any form of tax increases. (Pear, 2011)  Mr. Reid has asserted that the surtax would increase the average collection of taxes by $445 billion dollars in the next ten years. Funding job creation would spur more economic growth and it will also jump-start the stagnant economy.

However, the majority of the Republicans who are opposed to the tax increments cite the hard economic conditions that the country is facing and also that most of the millionaires are actually small businessmen who are still struggling to grow their businesses. Taxing them would be tantamount to discouraging them from investing in their businesses for future expansion which would have contributed positively to their goal of job creation. (Sullivan and Sheffrin, 2003)  The proposals are have generated heated debates on the presidents motive of supporting the creation of the job market at the expense of the rich Americans some who have struggled and sacrificed a lot for their families to live well. They claim that the proposals would discourage more investment in the country is currently the $1 million per annum cannot guarantee a comfortable home throughout the year plus additional vacations that are generally associated with such kind of wealth.

Most governments tax the rich to benefit the poor and also support the welfare systems. It’s written in the Bible that whoever does not work should not eat. Most people who are on welfare are actually jobless and they depend on the state for their upkeep. The government through the welfare system feeds millions of Americans majority of whom have no other dependents but most of them are able bodied and can perform meaningful jobs however they are reluctant to take over menial jobs that are low paying or jobs that they are not trained in as they will be compensated as unskilled employees.

The government policies on employment generally provide for five working days in a week which is against the Bible teaches that all human beings should work six days a week and only rest on the seventh day or the Sabbath which falls on a Sunday for most religious denominations. The government is not following some doctrines of the Bible, especially when formulating its economic or financial planning. However, the issues on taxation and the welfare system are genuinely for the good of the society despite their shortcomings.

Government Overstepped Biblical Principles in Economy References

Pear, R. (2011) Democrats Seek Tax on “Richest,” Aiming Gauntlet at G.O.P., The New York Times, October 6, 2011; http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/06/us/politics/democratic-leaders-propose-millionaires-tax-to-pay-for-jobs-plan.html?

Sullivan, A. and Sheffrin, S.M. (2003) Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. P.502. ISBN 0-13-063085-3

Incorporating Theory Research Paper Available

Incorporating Theory
Incorporating Theory

Incorporating Theory

Order Instructions:

Identify a theory that can be used to support your proposed solution.

Write a summary (250 words) in which you:

Describe the theory and your rationale for selecting the theory.
Discuss how the theory works to support your proposed solution.
Explain how you will incorporate the theory into your project.


Incorporating Theory

Various theorists have developed different theories to help understand the concept of nursing. The theories aim to add value on nursing to promote quality. One of the theories the paper deliberates on and which supports my proposed solution is Virginia Henderson’s Need Theory.

The theory was developed by Virginia Henderson, who defined nursing as the duty to help individuals, either sick or not, to perform various activities that aids their recovery or helps them to a peaceful death (Wills & McEwen, 2002).  These are the activities that the individual may not perform without assistance because the one lacks strength, knowledge, and will.  This assistance is essential in helping the patient/individuals to gain independence quickly (Afaf, 1997). Therefore, a nurse has the duty to work with the person, provide needed help, and do some roles for the person to achieve independence.

The reason for choosing this theory is that it expounds the roles of a nurse. Nurses must be able to assist the individuals to enhance recovery, as they require attention to make them strong to stand on their own.

This theory works to support the solution through its various assumptions. One of the assumptions is that nurses provide care to patients until they are in a position to care for themselves (Taylor & Lillis, 2001). The second assumption is that nurses have a desire and are willing to devote themselves night and day to provide care for the patients (Delaune & Ladner, 2002). Therefore, these assumptions and the roles that nurse do jointly enhance the quality of care. Patients must be assisted to make them independent to resume to their normalcy.

One of the reasons why I would incorporate the theory in my practice is that it impacts on the health of the patients. Nurses have a role to help their patients in becoming independent. This is a very important aspect in the field of nursing and nurses must always be committed and dedicated to providing better care to their patients.


Afaf, M.  (1997). Theoretical Nursing: Development & Progress, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott.

Delaune, C., & Ladner, K. (2002). Fundamental of nursing, standard and practice, 2nd edition, Thomson, NY.

Taylor, C., & Lillis, C.  (2001). The Art & Science Of Nursing Care, 4th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott.

Wills, M., & McEwen, M. (2002). Theoretical Basis for Nursing Philadelphia. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Critical Evaluation of Contingency Theories of Leadership

Critical Evaluation of Contingency Theories of Leadership A critical evaluation of the group of contingency theories of leadership fully referenced. This must include an improved version of your formative assessment

Critical Evaluation of Contingency Theories of Leadership
Critical Evaluation of Contingency Theories of Leadership

task. 1,500 words – 50%
Remember it is the group you are evaluating, not each one as part of the group. So, you will perhaps use a number of them at different points to illustrate
your argument. This should answer the question of how many theories should I include.
I am not asking for a report. I want a simple essay with headings. Introduction, a middle bit in which you construct your critical evaluation and a short
I will be looking for depth of argument, good critical evaluation (description is not good enough) and plenty of academically valid references (avoid most
websites and use textbooks for general points and journal articles for specific points)

Romantic love involves a kind of illusion

Romantic love involves a kind of illusion
Romantic love involves a kind of illusion

Schopenhauer and Atkinson both hold that romantic love involves a kind of illusion. Explain each theorist’s account of this illusion and its role in romantic love(Schopenhauer and Rapaport).

Write in your own words using your own ideas. Refer to philosophers by their surnames, not first names. Base your paper on readings in the textbook. Secondary sources are not recommended or required. If you use them, must provide APA format. The title of the textbook is Philosophical Perspectives on Sex and Love Edited by Robert M.Stewart. The 2 reading passages in this textbook recommended for the essay is Arthur Schopenhauer’s The Metaphysics of the Love of the Sexes and Elizabeth Rapaport’s On the Future of Love: Rousseau and the Radical Feminists.

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The Leader Member Exchange Theory

The Leader Member Exchange Theory
The Leader Member Exchange Theory

The Leader Member Exchange Theory as a Framework for Assessing Leader-Follower Relationships

Order Instructions:

In Part B, we require you to write an essay on the following topic.

Essay Topic:
Roe (2014) argues that according to leader member exchange theory, followers who experience high quality relationships with the leader are in receipt of higher tangible rewards, such as pay, bonuses and more challenging assignments.
Critically assess whether leader member exchange theory provides an effective framework for assessing the relationships between leaders and followers.

Marking schedule for Part B:
10% of marks are allocated to the presentation of the essay. The student’s work should be typed with clear use of paragraphs and headings. Typographical and spelling errors should be avoided.
10% of marks are allocated to appropriate referencing of content. Students should familiarise themselves and make use of the Harvard referencing system and should cite and reference material properly. Students should make use of a range of resources (books, journal articles etc) and the literature used should be appropriate to the arguments made.
60% of marks are allocated to the analysis presented in the essay. Students should examine appropriate theoretical concepts and frameworks. Students should demonstrate an awareness of the wider context and present an in-depth discussion of current issues. Better students will demonstrate critical analysis skills and communicate their arguments in a clear and coherent manner.
20% of marks are allocated to the conclusions drawn. The conclusions should identify the key themes or issues under consideration. Conclusions should be well supported from the analysis and highlight the significance of arguments, evidence and insights

Guidance Notes on Part B:
You must refer to relevant literature throughout the essay. This can be in the form of textbooks, journal articles, or relevant web-based material. Student are directed in particular to the following databases which they may find useful in developing their essay:
• Emerald
• ABI Inform Complete (Proquest)
• Ingenta
• Science Direct
• Sage Online

In particular, the following journals may be helpful to you in relation to the prescribed topic:
• Leadership Quarterly (Available on Science Direct)
• Leadership and Organisation Development Journal (Available on Emerald)
• Team Performance Management (Available on Emerald)
• Journal of Management Development (Available on Emerald)
• Group and Organisation Management (Available on Sage Online)

You may wish to refer to relevant theory or you may wish to cite relevant research or examples to support your arguments. Remember all material cited must be referenced using the Harvard Referencing system. Also please refer to the University guidance notes on the avoidance of Plagiarism.
Please remember to structure your essay appropriate. You should use headings – and include an introduction, main body and conclusion/recommendations sections.
While we do not specify a particular number of references/citations to be included, you should include at least a minimum of 15 different citations/references from books and journal articles in your essay.
Please answer the topic posed. Your essay should NOT be a summary of leadership theories. You need to specifically address the topic and question posed.

Minimum Essay Length: 2000 words
Maximum Essay Length: 2500 words
Aside from the reference list, your essay (Part B) should not include any appendices.

Submission deadline: Friday 29thAugust 2014, 11.59pm (UK time)
Please note that whilst the submission deadline is Friday 29th August at 11.59pm (UK time), you are free to make your submission at any time before this date. You do not need to wait until this day, or the day before or the week before.

Important Note:

Please ensure that Part A and Part B are submitted as separate documents. The documents should clearly be marked Part A and Part B and your matriculation number and module code should be clearly marked on the submission.

Coursework Assessment Feedback
Matriculation No. Date of Submission:
Module: Leading Strategic Decision-Making
Part B: Essay Cohort:

Category Comment

Presentation of the essay. Clear use of paragraphs and headings and the text is free from typographical and spelling errors.

Referencing of content. Consistent use of Harvard Referencing throughout the essay with adequate citation support for arguments being made.

Comprehensive examination of appropriate theoretical frameworks and models. Strong arguments presented with critical insights and good communication skills in evidence.

Clear identification of key themes and issues. Synthesis of core arguments and formulation of insights and recommendations as appropriate

General Comments:

Overall Grade: Marker:


The Leader Member Exchange Theory as a Framework for Assessing Leader-Follower Relationships


The leader member exchange (LMX) theory does not qualify as an effective framework for assessing the relationship between leaders and followers. Roe (2014) in defining the LMX theory postulates that followers whose relationship with leaders are of high quality tend to receive higher tangible rewards including pay, bonuses and superior assignments. While this theory is praised for being the only leadership theory that brings dyadic relationship as a core of the leadership process and thus explains how people relate with each other and with leaders within organisations, it fails to explain how the leader-member relationships are created and what underlies how respect, trust and obligations are built. The theory is also denigrated because it tends to only support privileged groups within the organisation and therefore appears discriminatory and unfair. In this paper, the LMX theory is critically assessed with an objective of demonstrating that it is not an effective framework to assess leader-follower relationships.

Understanding the leader member exchange theory

The LMX theory was first introduced by Dansereau, Graen, and Haga (1975) and is based on the idea that leadership is built based on dyadic relationships between a leader and his/her followers (Sparrowe and Liden, 1997). According to Graen and Uhl-Bien (1995), leaders tend to create higher quality relationships with selected followers; who are consequently accorded higher tangible rewards and more superior assignments. This can be explained by the formation of in-groups and out-groups which represent those with higher quality relationships versus those with lower quality relationships respectively (Van Breukelen, Konst and Van Der, 2002).

A closer look at the application of LMX theory

The LMX theory has in the past received an almost equal share of support and criticism as far as its ability to assess leader-follower relationships is concerned. This is mostly pegged to its potential to promote effective relationships and consequently lead to a productive workforce (Jones, 2009).


A number of strengths are associated with the LMX theory. To begin with, it is the sole theory that explains leadership based on dyadic relationships (Chen, Lam and Zhong, 2007). Secondly, it establishes the importance of communication in the organisation and consequently validates our understanding of why people and leaders interact as they do within organisations (Fix and Sias, 2006). Thirdly, the LMX theory can be used to explain how leadership networks are created by individuals within the organisation and how these translate into future working relationships. The LMX theory is applicable in different types of organisations and at all management levels (Becker, Halbesleben and O’Hair, 2005). Lastly, the LMX theory has been found to influence surbodinates’ level of creativity, motivation and positive organizational outcomes. In a study of 26 project teams in high-technology firms however, the frequency of negative LMX was as high as that of positive LMX (Tidd and Bessant, 2011). This denotes that it may either enhance or undermine the sense of competence and self-determination among subordinates.


The LMX theory has been criticised over its ability to create meaningful relationships, with questions being raised as to how members of the in-group are selected and whether personal interests could challenge professionalism where this theory is applied (Murph and Eshner, 1999). Secondly, the theory is seen to be discriminatory as it tends to alienate members of the out-group; given that the most important tasks, assignments and rewards go to the in-group (Becker, Halbesleben and O’Hair, 2005; Chen, Lam and Zhong, 2007). Thirdly, the LMX theory does not address the question of personal characteristics and how they could affect relationships. In this relation, it has been established that such characteristics may affect the nature of relationships due to differences in perception, interaction and communication exchanges (Chen, Lam and Zhong, 2007). LMX theory according to Sherony and Green (2002) could have a significant impact on the level of trust, respect and openness in the organization; leading to hoarding of resources by employees who do not feel appreciated. Lastly, culture plays an imperative role in determining the nature and quality of relationships; yet this is not addressed in the LMX theory (Graen, G. B.; Uhl-Bien, 1995).

Why the LMX theory is not effective in explaining leader-follower relationships

The discussion above establishes that LMX theory has its pros and cons as far as assessing leader-follower relationships is concerned. A majority of the strengths however dwell on the validation of the theory itself as opposed to its application in relationship development. In essence, the LMX theory can be considered ineffective in explaining leader-follower relationships. This section is a discussion of the weaknesses of LMX theory outlined above; with an objective of demonstrating its ineffectiveness in explaining leader-follower relationships.

The question of how the high quality relationships between leaders and members are developed is among the most debated about factor in this theory. The LMX theory fails to illustrate any guidelines that would ensure that the strong relationships are based on a high the level of professionalism (Sparrowe and Liden, 1997). Are the relationships based on performance where the leader tends to build better relationships with high performers? Is it at a personal level where the leader creates good relationships with people they know or who are easy to deal with depending on personality compatibility? Or is it at an intellectual level where individuals get along because they have common interests? These questions point to the fact that there is no effective means of establishing how these relationships are created (Sherony and Green, 2002; Tierney, Farmer and Graen, 1999).

. Furthermore, it is difficult to determine whether such relationships are authentic and professional; given that human beings tend to have better relationships with people who are considered ‘useful’ in their lives (Sagie, 1996). This again leads to the issue of followers who do not have qualities that the leader would ‘admire’ and this implies the possibility of poor relations with this group (Sherony and Green, 2002).

Based on the above argument, the plight of the out group who do not have close links with the leader is not addressed in the LMX theory. This brings out the theory as discriminatory as it only concentrates on members who have a higher quality relationship with leaders (Fix and Sias, 2006). The LMX theory does not address issues associated with unfairness and distributive justice and how these could impact on the overall relationship situation in the organisation (Becker, Halbesleben and O’Hair, 2005). Does this mean that the leader does not strive to establish good relationships with other followers? Is there a possibility that the low quality relationship are likely to deteriorate further because the followers in this group are not well motivated? The LMX theory according to Murphy and Ensher (1999) tends to favour the group with the higher quality relationships; such that they get all the superior privileges and this raises the question on whether the other group receives similar attention. It appears as though followers who do not enjoy good relationships with the leaders are unimportant and is hence highly discriminatory. Consequently, it is only natural that the remaining group will feel left out and demotivated; which may further degrade the leader-follower relationship and create tension within the organisation (Becker, Halbesleben and O’Hair, 2005). Using the LMX theory to assess leader-follower relationships thus creates room for matters of inequality to cast doubt on the effectiveness of the theory.

The theory fails to illustrate how personal characteristics could affect the relationship between leaders and followers. George and Jones (2008) seeks to explain why some employees may appear to have better relationships with supervisors while others have low quality relationships and narrows this down to the role of personality and personal characteristics in influencing communication exchanges. They note that such characteristics may impact on the nature of interaction, perceptions of one another and interpersonal communication.

In an example demonstrating a link between personality traits and communication, Schaubroeck, Lam and Cha (2007) compare extroverts and introverts. They note that extroverts are more outgoing, open to interaction, assertive, accommodative to arguments and have a higher tolerance for disagreement; while the opposite is true for introverts. This could explain why different forms of relationships are likely to emerge based on personal traits. The LMX theory does not bring into consideration such traits and how they are likely to impact on the quality of leader-follower relationships; yet they would serve as the utmost predictor of the quality of LMX between leaders and followers (Tierney, Farmer and Graen, 1999). It would be natural for example for a leader to have better relationships with followers who are outgoing and aggressive as opposed to those who are reserved and quiet. This means that the latter not only fail to enjoy a good relationship with their leaders but their potential may also go unnoticed (Sparrowe and Liden, 1997). The LMX theory therefore appears incomplete and does not form a good basis for analysing relationships between leaders and followers.

The LMX theory fails to address the importance of trust, respect and openness in building relationships and how the leader can effectively maintain the trust of the ‘out-group’. According to Tidd and Bessant (2013), these values exist where there is emotional safety; such that everyone in the organisation is free to air their ideas and opinions. They further note that where trust and openness are too low, the possibility of people hoarding resources including information is high. Given that the LMX theory has been criticized for creating trust, respect and openness issues among employees who feel alienated, how then does a leader ensure that he can bring out the best out of each employee based on the LMX theory? (Zaccaro, Rittman and Marks, 2001). A critical look at the theory would therefore indicate that the theory has a significant level of gaps; especially in how the leader manages relationships to ensure that trust levels are maintained within the organisation and that the potential of all employees is utilised (Taggar, 2001).

Research has shown that some dyads experience difficulty in forming high quality LMX relationships; given their cultural characteristics. Cultural aspect not only determine the kind of relationship a person has with others Jones (2009), use gender dissimilarity as a means to explain this phenomenon; arguing that members of the same gender are more likely to have high quality exchange relationships than when the opposite is true. This denotes a skewed position and further questions the factors underlying the development of relationships within organisations. The LMX theory fails to illustrate how gender similarity may influence the nature of relationships and how this would impact on the organizational outcomes (Jones, 2009). The same is applicable for other cultures where members of one culture are likely to have common interests, understand each other better and even tolerate each other (Sparrowe and Liden, 1997).Van Breukelen, Konst and Van Der (2002) note that individual interactions are driven by common bonds such as cultural characteristics, beliefs, religious and gender orientation among others and that people from the same cultural affiliation are likely to enjoy better relationships because they understand each other better. This has a significant implication on the nature of relationships in the organisation; yet the LMX theory fails to address the influence of culture in its theoretical framework. The theory is thereby ineffective in assessing leader-member relationships.


The LMX theory inadvertently favours the development of privileged groups in the organizational setting and therefore appears discriminatory. This gives rise to a significant number of issues which the LMX theory does not address as far as relationship building is concerned. Issues arise on the underlying procedure of how relationships are created, whether they are out rightly professional and whether personal traits, cultural characteristics and gender similarity among others have an impact on the kind of relationships created within the organisation. These are conspicuously ignored in the theory despite their significance in determining the nature of relationships within groups. There is also the possibility of straining relationships within the workplace as members who have lower quality relationships begin to feel the alienation. Lastly, the LMX theory fails to explain how a leader can maintain healthy relationships with all members and thus eliminate the possibility of trust issues emerging within the organisation. Despite the strengths identified for the LMX theory, these mostly explain application of the theory but do little in providing a framework that effectively assesses relationships in the workplace setting. In conclusion, it is possible to affirm that the leader member exchange (LMX) theory does not qualify as an effective framework for assessing the relationship between leaders and followers


Becker, J. A. H., Halbesleben, J. R. B., & O’Hair, D. H. (2005). Defensive communication and burnout in the workplace: The mediating role of leader-member exchange. Communication Research Reports, 22, 143-150.

Chen, Z., Lam, W., & Zhong (2007). Leader-member exchange and member performance: A new look at individual-level negative feedback-seeking behavior and team-level empowerment culture. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 202- 212.

Fix, B., & Sias, P. M. (2006). Person-centered communication, leader-member exchange, and employee job satisfaction. Communication Research Reports, 23, 35-44.

George, J. M., & Jones, G. R. (2008). Understanding and managing organizational behavior  (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Graen, G. B.; Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). “The Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of LMX theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level, multi-domain perspective”. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2): 219–247

Jones, J. A. (2009). Gender Dissimilarity and Leader-Member Exchange: The Mediating Effect of Communication Apprehension. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2 (1), 3-16.

Murphy, S. E., & Ensher (1999). The effects of leader and subordinate characteristics in the development of leader-member exchange quality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 29(7), 1371-1394.

Sagie, A. 1996. Effects of leader’s communication style and participative goal setting on performance and attitudes. Human Performance, 9, 51-64.

Schaubroeck, J., Lam, S. S. K., & Cha, S. E. 2007. Embracing transformational leadership: Team values and the impact of leader behavior on team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1020-1030.

Sherony, K. M. Green, S. G. (2002). Coworker exchange: Relationships between coworkers, leader-member exchange, and work attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 542-548.

Sparrowe, R. T. & Liden, R. C. (1997). Process and structure in leader-member exchange.

Academy of Management Review, 22, 522-552.

Taggar, S. (2002). Individual creativity and group ability to utilize individual creative resources:

A multilevel model. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 315-330.

Tidd, J. & Bessant, J. (2013). Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and  Organizational Change. Edinburgh, Scotland: CAPDM Limited.

Tierney, P., Farmer, S. M., & Graen, G. B. (1999). An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel Psychology, 52, 591-620.

Van Breukelen, W., Konst, D. & van der Vlist, R. (2002). Effects of LMX and differential treatment on work unit commitment. Psychological Reports, 91, 220-230.

Zaccaro, S. J., Rittman, A. L., & Marks, M. A. (2001). Team leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 12: 451-483

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Leadership taxonomy template Assignment

Leadership taxonomy
Leadership taxonomy

Leadership taxonomy Template

Order Instructions:

•Review this Module’s Learning Resources. Select four leadership theories for this Assignment. Search for additional peer-reviewed scholarly resources about your selected leadership theories. You should use both the articles in the Learning Resources and additional scholarly resources to develop your analysis. You must use proper paraphrasing techniques when completing your analysis. Avoid using direct quotes by paraphrasing as appropriate. Include proper APA citations. Submit your paper through Turnitin and Grammarly, and include your Grammarly results with your paper submission

•A 1-page taxonomy that follows the Leadership Theory Taxonomy Template available in this Module’s Learning Resources to the Assignment Part 1 – Module 2 link.
•A 4- to 6-page (not including cover page or references) Leadership Theory Taxonomy paper that explains in detail each theory listed in the taxonomy, by synthesizing multiple scholarly references and examples. This paper will be submitted to the Assignment Part 2 Turnitin – Module 2 link. Be sure to include the following in your paper:
•Five peer-reviewed scholarly resources in addition to those offered by the Learning Resources
•Specific examples of two of the four theories drawn from personal experiences or scholarly literature


Leadership taxonomy template

Trait theory (1930s-1940s)

Authors: Ralph Stogdill

Years: 1948

Description: It is based on the assumption that all good leaders have a specific set of personal characteristics or personality traits that make them good leaders. However, Stogdill concluded that the traits that one was born with were not the only requirement for good leadership, but rather that these traits must be relevant to the particular leadership situation for one to be an effective leader.

Behavioral theory (1940s-1950s)

Author: Kurt Levin

Years: 1939-1940s

Description: a framework for classification of leaders based on their actions, which divided leaders into three groups; these groups consisted of autocratic leaders, democratic leaders and laissez-faire leaders.

Contingency or situational theories (1960s)

Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory

Author: Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard

Years: 1970s

Description: It is based on four leadership styles that correspond to the four maturity levels of those being led.

Power and influence theories

French and Raven’s five forms of power

Authors: John French, Bertram Raven

Year: 1959

Description: clearly articulates the five forms of power that leaders execute, which are legitimate, coercive, reward, referent and expert power.

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Theories of Positivism and Social constructionism

Theories of Positivism and Social constructionism
Theories of Positivism and Social constructionism

Theories of Positivism and Social constructionism

Compare and contrast the theories of positivism and social constructionism in health studies, paying close attention to which, if any, you find most useful.

ESSAY 1500 words (allowed to exceed by 100 words max)?

  1. Demonstrate ability to describe and explore the positivism and social constructionism in terms of their pros and cons
  2. Demonstrate capacity to outline similarities and differences between the two theories clearly
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of the usefulness, if any, of the two theories
  4. Demonstrate ability to show how the theories shed light on concepts of health and illness
  5. Demonstrate ability to write clearly and show understanding of the theories.

Your work must be:-

  • Word processed / typed
  • Size 12 font e.g. Times New Roman or Arial
  • Double line spaced
  • Right hand margin 20 mm / 0.75”
  • Left hand margin 40mm / 1.5”
  • Double sided
    Page numbered from the title page in the format ‘Page 1 of 1’
  • Reference list – single line spacing
  • Appendices – single line spacing if possible
  • Sources for essay: Please use contemporary research from reputable journals and books. Please use Harvard open referencing

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Stakeholder theory Essay Assignment

Stakeholder theory
Stakeholder theory

In 250 words write how stakeholder theory is linked with Corporate social responsibility IN TESCO. With CRITICAL THINKING showing in your writing
you should include the application of Tesco to CSR AND Stakeholder theory

YOU writing should shows critical thinking on the topic.

Use at least three (3) quality references Note: Wikipedia and other related websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

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