Leadership in the business landscape

Leadership in the business landscape
Leadership in the business landscape

Leadership in the business landscape

Order Instructions:

Dear Admin,

I need an essay in the following subject:

Based on pages 3-6 of Developing a leadership strategy: journal article, what does the author mean when he implies that the future of strategy is leadership? How well does this view align with the need for leadership in today’s business environment? Give reasons for your answer.

On pages 6-7 of Developing a leadership strategy: journal article, the author identifies six strategic leadership tasks. How useful is his framework in defining the kinds of leadership required by modern companies? Give reasons for your answer.

The author of Developing a leadership strategy:journal article (pgs. 23-25) has a very specific view of Talent Sustainability. To what extent do you agree with this view? Give reasons for your answer.

The following conditions must meet in the essay:

1) I want a typical and a quality answer which should have about 1400 words.

2) The answer must raise appropriate critical questions.

3) The answer must include examples from experience or the web with references from relevant examples from real companies.

4) Do include all your references, as per the Harvard Referencing System,

5) Please don’t use Wikipedia web site.

6) I need examples from peer reviewed articles or researches.

Appreciate each single moment you spend in writing my paper

Best regards

SAMPLE ANSWER

Leadership in the business landscape

Part 1

The business landscape today is very dynamic. Traditionally, only a handful of businesses competed for resources and customers and the business that surpassed the minimum qualifications would be preferred. However, in this information age, both businesses and consumers have an avalanche of information that they sift through in order to make informed decisions. For businesses, success is dependent on how scarce resources are utilized in meeting goals and objectives at the least cost. There are many factors that should be considered. Technology has brought about many opportunities that can augment the strength of a business. However, it has also brought about threats that can magnify weaknesses as well.

In order to guarantee the profitability of a company in future, one must first of all consider the present circumstances and resources. Forecasting for the future is usually dependent on an assessment of the business position and comparing it to the desired position. Within all these, the most important ingredient is leadership. Leaders are responsible for balancing all the disparate elements that make up a business. In the wider context of businesses today, the most important resources are the human resources in which leadership falls.

Traditionally, organizations used to have bureaucratic structures that were informed by scientific management and classical leadership and management theorists. In the present however, organizational success can only be guaranteed by tapping the knowledge, skills and competencies that are possessed by human resources. The most important factor to consider is the amount of knowledge that is contained within a particular business’ workforce (Nonaka & von Krogh, 2009). If the right combination of skills, abilities and competencies is achieved, then a business can be able to capitalize on opportunities arising from within itself. Many organizations today have adopted flatter structures where every employee is given an opportunity to contribute to the overall decision making system. This empowerment is meant to foster creativity and innovation.

Since organizations have many people employed within their ranks and who have differing opinions and ideas about how to capitalize on opportunities in the market, there is need for leadership in order to appraise these ideas and settle on the most viable. The most notable knowledge firms in the world today are those that have had exceptional leaders who saw opportunities and guided them towards their capitalization (Gupta & Sushil, 2004). An example of such leaders is Steve Jobs who was credited for the reversal of fortunes of the Apple brand that was on the brink of collapse. Other charismatic leaders whose visions have driven companies forward include Bill Gates of Microsoft and Paul Allen at Oracle. These leaders were the difference between the success their companies are today and the resounding failures they would be had they not taken the opportunities that propelled them to success.

Part 2

The development of a leadership strategy entails the coalition of a number of different strategic leadership tasks. The overall leadership strategy is similar to a business strategy and requires meticulous planning while considering all the disparate elements (Miller, 1992). The leadership framework depicted in the journal article is sufficient in defining the leadership required in modern organizations on three accounts. First, the framework allows for the consideration and scanning of both the internal and external business environments. Understanding the dynamics of either environment is a first step towards accruing advantages that eventually lead to success. The framework allows for the organization and its leadership to be analyzed as a starting step. This ensures that the needs of the organization are well documented before any plans for leadership are made. Second, the framework allows for the environment in which the organization operates to be analyzed. Both of these actions allow for the organization to determine its position and the speed in which things are moving. This is important in order to predict the future outlook.

The second account is that the framework allows for strategic options to be considered. After analyzing the organization, the environment, the customers, the stakeholders and the competitors, the next logical step is brainstorming options. This entails the application of creativity tools that could help the organization acquire a competitive advantage. Opportunities and threats are also identified in the framework and problem solving mechanisms considered.

The third account is the evaluation of the leadership options chosen. Future leadership should be able to make sure that missed opportunities help the organization in learning (Gamble, Thompson & Strickland, 2010). Modern companies require are constantly evolving meaning that a solid strategy today could be obsolete in the near future. The only means of avoiding this is by constantly evaluating the options that are available to the organization and attempting to identify areas that might benefit from a new perspective. The leadership of the organization is mandated with ensuring that all options are considered at the reevaluation level. The only way of ensuring that the leadership itself is up to scratch is by reevaluating it. The framework allows for this option. If well implemented in an organization it can lead to filling of various roles with people with the right competencies, abilities, skills and talents. Since these leaders may become complacent upon realizing the first successes, the leadership framework would serve to reorient them or replace them with others possessing new ideas and ready to challenge the status quo. The major characteristic of modern organizations is that they are constantly evolving and the framework proposed in the journal ensures that the leadership evolves together with the business.

Part 3

The author illustrates 8 elements that are important for talent sustainability. The first step is attracting the talent. The management must then ensure that the talent is developed and eventually ensure that there is planning for succession. The author argues that the subject of talent is very sensitive and very important to the company for it to be left to human resources managers to manage. He asserts that talent development should be left to CEOs and other top managers. Since modern organizations require competent managers at the top who have a wide array of skills and knowledge to steer their firms into the unknown future, the most obviously place to concentrate the talent available in the organization is at the top (Wright, 2005). The human resource department is usually preoccupied with filling positions in middle management and line employees to have the required focus and time to shape an individual into the mold of a CEO.

There is a lot of emphasis that is placed on competence in the modern organization. Pasmore (2014) argues that competence development and management is individually oriented and static and that insistence on the acquisition of this competence is an information journey that is endless. He cautions that the modern organization should be more focused on organizational learning and team building so that they complement individual abilities and competencies.

The model of talent sustainability has many elements that are helpful for the company. It highlights the most important points that are required not for the daily running of the organization but for identifying opportunities in the business environment and capitalizing on them. One of the elements that exemplify this is the sourcing and recruiting of top talent. The author argues that the most sensible place to start sourcing for the right people is in identifying those that already possess the inclination to do what is required by the organization (Handfield-Jones & Beth, 2001). Many top firms believe that it is important to start by identifying the people who are the right fit for the company. Pasmore (2014) argues that many firms fail in their change endeavors since rather than seek out the talent they require to move the organizations forward, they attempt to effect changes with the leadership they already have. The author argues that some of the best talents in different organizations are bogged down by leadership roles that do not require much talent. The recommendation is that positions like that should be outsourced so that the talent that is attracted to the company is focused on effecting changes and moving the organization forward.

Talent sustainability requires the management of organizational culture to ensure that it is oriented to the goals of the company. Culture, either organizational or leadership, is a major deterrence to development and eventually the success of the organization. There is therefore need for organizations that are serious about orienting their talents to success to ensure that there is a positive organizational and leadership culture. Otherwise, a negative culture will ultimately derail the general organizational focus.

References

Gamble, A. A., Thompson, Jr., A.J. & Strickland, J. E. (2010) Crafting and executing strategy : the quest for competitive advantage : concepts and cases (17th ed. ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Gupta, J. & Sushil, S. (2004) Creating Knowledge Based Organizations. Boston: Idea Group Publishing.

Handfield-Jones, H. & Beth, A. (2001) The War for Talent. Harvard Business Press

Miller, D. (1992) ‘The generic strategy trap’, The Journal of Business Strategy, 13(1), 37-41

Nonaka, I. & von Krogh, G. (2009) ‘Tacit Knowledge and Knowledge Conversion: Controversy and Advancement in Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory’, Organization Science, 20 (3), 635–652

Pasmore, W. (2014) Developing a Leadership Strategy: A Critical Ingredient for Organizational Success. White Paper, Centre for Creative Leadership

Wright, K. (2005) ‘Personal knowledge management: supporting individual knowledge worker performance’, Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 3 (3), 156–165

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Leadership strategy Essay Assignment

Leadership strategy
Leadership strategy

Leadership strategy

Order Instructions:

Dear Admin,

I need an essay in the following subject:

Based on pages 3-6 of Developing a leadership strategy: journal article, what does the author mean when he implies that the future of strategy is leadership? How well does this view align with the need for leadership in today’s business environment? Give reasons for your answer.

On pages 6-7 of Developing a leadership strategy: journal article, the author identifies six strategic leadership tasks. How useful is his framework in defining the kinds of leadership required by modern companies? Give reasons for your answer.

The author of Developing a leadership strategy:journal article (pgs. 23-25) has a very specific view of Talent Sustainability. To what extent do you agree with this view? Give reasons for your answer.

To prepare for this essay:

Read the Required Learning Resources that are attached:Developing a leadership strategy:

The following conditions must meet in the essay:

1) I want a typical and a quality answer which should have about 830 words.

2) The answer must raise appropriate critical questions.

3) The answer must include examples from experience or the web with references from relevant examples from real companies.

4) Do include all your references, as per the Harvard Referencing System,

5) Please don’t use Wikipedia web site.

6) I need examples from peer reviewed articles or research.

Appreciate each single moment you spend in writing my paper

Best regards

SAMPLE ANSWER

Leadership strategy

Leadership is critical in an organization. A visionary leadership contributes to the success of an organization.  Many studies have been carried out in the field of leadership in quest to identify various ways that leaders can improve in their leadership style.  The author deliberates on various aspects relating to leadership.

Implication of the statement by the author of the journal, ‘Developing a leadership strategy: A critical ingredient for organizational success, ‘the future of strategy is leadership’ has various meaning.  Strategy is the means or the techniques that a leader will use to provide effective leadership.  Strategy can be a roadmap a leader will require to adopt to achieve the set goals (Pasmore 2014).  Therefore, for this strategy to have a future, it requires as leader that has the right or the best leadership skills to ensure that the strategy is adopted well (Johnstal 2013).  There can be awesome strategies that an organization may have developed but these strategies cannot be useful to that organization if the leadership has no will of adopting them and putting them into correct use. It is the leadership strategy that  provides  guidelines on  the leaders the organization wants, their characters,  where they can be found, the skills of the leaders required and their behaviours to provide leadership to ensure that the organization collectively achieves total success.

Therefore, this view aligns with the need for leadership in today’s business environment. Many business leaders have good strategies that they want to adopt to achieve success in their business. However, they do not understand the requirements they need to embrace to be able to achieve these goals (Johnstal 2013).  Because of this they end up failing therefore, it is high time that business leadership considered the qualities and attributes that are required to enable them achieve their goals through their strategies.  What they need to do is to reflect about the ingredient required for them to achieve their goals. For example, a leader should understand leadership style they use such as participative, control-oriented or laissez faire to know how they can achieve their goal.

In the journal article, the author has identified six strategic leadership tasks that leaders should consider. This framework is useful in many ways when it comes to defining the kinds of leadership required by modern companies today (Pasmore 2014).   The framework acknowledges the need to have a review of the business strategy for the business to be in a position to understand whether there is need to make changes in the leadership to ensure that the business operates successful. This is very important for the leaders of today because, it ensures that they have appropriate competencies to provide appropriate leadership in the business. For instance, an organization that has experienced negative publicity as a result of corruption, when receiving a new manager, it is important to review the business strategy to adopt a good leadership styles that will ensure that the level of confidence of customers is regained to bring the business into its normal position. Analyzing leadership capabilities requirement for current and future is important as this enable the company to prepare well and ensure that the leadership have the capabilities to spearhead the organization forward (Marx 2013).  Organizations as well keep on changing as time pass and it is important that leaders take part in initiatives that will enable them grow and develop to accommodate the ever changes. Changes such as technology advancement, competition and economic turmoil must be well addressed by a leader and this requires leadership development.   Leaders have strengths, weaknesses, and benching these strengths enable them perform well.  Furthermore, the framework as well helps leaders to evaluate the culture in which they are operating and as well nurture talents of the leaders and the upcoming leaders in the organization.

In the journal, the author has specific view of talent sustainability. I do agree with the arguments the author raise about talent sustainability.  First, talent sustainability requires commitment on the part of a leader.  Talents require hard work and determination to be able to sustain the same (Mazzarol, Clark & Reboud 2014).  A leader therefore is expected to engage in many activities to sustain their talent such as engage with others, pursue more education,   participate in various initiatives, and attend seminars on leadership and many others that enable the leader to remain effective.  It is also very important for the leader to carry out an overview of individual capability (Pasmore 2014).  Investing on ones experience and building personal, networks, and preparing of developing relationship readiness are some of the things that will enable the leader to sustain their talent.

Leadership is therefore very important for success of any entity. Developing a leadership strategy is critical for a leader but for this strategy to be of value the leaders must show commitment. The leader has a responsibility of ensuring that they carry out an evaluation also self-assessment to prepare themselves well. Talents sustainability is also very important initiatives and leaders must be committed to sustaining the talents or else they fade away.  Being a good communicator require continuous practice and access to the right information. Therefore, one must be committed and determined to work hard to ensure that they does not fail on the way or lose their talents.

Reference list

Johnstal, S 2013, ‘Successful Strategies for Transfer of Learned Leadership’, Performance Improvement, Vol. 52 no. 7, pp. 5-12.

Marx, T 2013, ‘Teaching Leadership and Strategy’,  Business Education Innovation Journal, Vol. 5 no.  2, pp. 12-19.

Mazzarol, T,  Clark, D, & Reboud, S 2014, ‘Strategy in action: Case studies of strategy,    planning and innovation in Australian SMEs’, Small Enterprise Research, Vol. 21 no.1, pp. 54-71.

Pasmore, W. (2014). Developing a leadership strategy: A critical ingredient for organizational       success. White Paper.

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Building a Strong Team Essay Assignment

Building a Strong Team
Building a Strong Team

Building a Strong Team

Order Instructions:

Building a Strong Team

As in any field, employees in public health tend to be more productive and satisfied in their work when they are part of a strong, supportive team. How do leaders help to bring about such a team?

This week you learned about several strategies for building teams that meet the needs of the organization and of the team members. These strategies include the use of the Behavioral Event Interview (BEI) when hiring, as well as the STAR method, which can be helpful in many contexts including an interview. As a reminder, “STAR” stands for:

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1.Situation: give an example of a situation you were involved in that resulted in a positive outcome

2.Task: describe the tasks involved in that situation

3.Action: talk about the various actions involved in the situation’s task

4.Results: what results directly followed because of your actions

USE THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES ONLY (DO NOT DEVIATE FROM ARTICLES)

1. Fernandez, C. (2007). Employee engagement. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 13(5), 524-526.

2. Fernandez, C. (2006). The behavioral event interview: Avoiding interviewing pitfalls when hiring. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 12(6), 590-593.

Please apply the Application Assignment Rubric when writing the Paper.

I. Paper should demonstrate an excellent understanding of all of the concepts and key points presented in the texts.
II. Paper provides significant detail including multiple relevant examples, evidence from the readings and other sources, and discerning ideas.
III. Paper should be well organized, uses scholarly tone, follows APA style, uses original writing and proper paraphrasing, contains very few or no writing and/or spelling errors, and is fully consistent with doctoral level writing style.
IV. Paper should be mostly consistent with doctoral level writing style.

For this Discussion, consider the steps you could take as a leader to build a strong team. What would you do to hire your replacement in your current job (if you work in the public health area) or to fill a public health position you hope to hold in the near future? How might you use the BEI and STAR method to help you in this hiring/interviewing process?

SAMPLE ANSWER

Employees tend to be more productive and satisfied with their work when they are part of a strong, supportive team with the help of a strong team leader. Leaders significantly influence building a strong team through application of strategies that build teams that meet organizational and team member’s needs. Fernandez (2006) argues that building a strong team is a challenging task for managers. Team selection and team building are the predictors of future derailment, while hiring the wrong employees is a common experience limiting building a strong team. As a leader, one can build a strong team through hiring the right people for the job roles. The right people should not only have technical skills to qualify as strong team members but should also possess knowledge on the job tasks to be given as well as have soft skills. Soft skills are vital for work dynamics and ultimately govern innovation, productivity and the team’s agility. Leaders can build strong teams through choosing members who have diverse backgrounds to bring a range of skills to the organization. Leaders should look for committed members who are willing to see the vision of the organization come to yield. They will guide the organization towards attaining its vision and mission. A leader should guide the team and be enthusiastic for his role to impact the team positively.

The public health sector is highly dynamic requiring strong teams to perform tasks effectively. To get the right team for public health, it is crucial to hire the right employees for the right job roles. The process of hiring and replacing employees in the public health sector, can be done through strategies like interviewing the candidates before hiring them. According to Fernandez (2006), the interview is an imperative part of letting the team manager about a candidates qualifications, attributes, competencies and traits and how consequently deciding on which candidate best suits the job vacancy. The old style of interview is typically plagued by spending time telling employees about the organization rather than the organization learning about the prospective candidates.

The BEI and STAR method can be useful for the hiring and interviewing processes. BEI is a strategy of interviewing that demonstrates efficacy based on a prospective candidates actual experience. It starts by examining the job description closely to pull out critical areas that determine the success of the candidate. This technique also has open-ended questions to examine the candidates accomplished tasks. BEI is a suitable method that can be applied to public health to list critical areas of job performance like conducting preventive medicine or disaster response programs followed by application of the epidemiological method to identify factors increasing mortality. The next step can include questions relevant to the candidate’s actual behavior like specific experience in emergency response initiatives like responding to the Ebola outbreak.

The third step can include a STAR method that represents situation, task, action and result. It guides an interviewer to a successful interview through which they answer questions regarding a situation they were involved in resulting to a positive outcome, describing tasks involved in the situation, talking about various actions involves in the situation and the task and finally the results directly followed because of actions. Using BEI and SMART techniques for interviewing employees helps build a team that has highly predictable performance in terms of Interpersonal interactions. BEI specifically predicts the future behavior through examining the past performances that are critical for future performances of the organization. Both techniques are suitable for developing appropriate methods that build strong teams

References

Fernandez, C. (2006). “The behavioral event interview: Avoiding  interviewing pitfalls when        hiring,” journal of public health management & practice, 12((6), 590-593

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Leadership & Management Essay Paper

Leadership & Management
Leadership & Management

Leadership & Management

Order Instructions:

The DEADLINE is DECEMBER 29, 2014. This is a Graduate course. Please use double-spaced format. Responses should be in APA style and must include citations and a bibliography. You are strongly advised to access a variety of information from academic journals and other scholarly works. Ensure that your answers are well-organized and that they respond to the specific question asked, display the range and depth of your learning, and demonstrate your ability to conform to the analysis, writing, and research standards of master’s level work. The question must be answered fully. Do not make your sentences too wordy. Each question needs to be 10 pages and should have at least 9 references.

Question 1

The city of Gainesville, population 54,000, has an undocumented population of immigrants totaling an estimated 3,200 people. This population is clustered largely in the southeastern portion of the city. Law enforcement is faced with the challenge of protecting this population from crime, while at the same time law enforcement is also charged with enforcing laws that prohibit illegal immigration. If law enforcement enforces the immigration policies, then the undocumented immigrants may be hesitant to call the police when they need assistance. As a result, however, crime within this area may increase. If law enforcement does not enforce these laws, then it may be neglecting its duty. What should the police department do? As a part of this, please identify the different stakeholders and constituents impacted by this policy, and assess any social, political, cultural, and ethical implications.

Question 2

What is leadership? As a part of your definition, please differentiate between leaders, managers, and followers. Explore the principles of leadership and how each of the following leadership theories can explain, shape, and improve the governance and management of public policy: Great Leader Theory; Servant Leadership; Transformational Leadership; and Situational Leadership; Be sure to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each theory explored.

SAMPLE ANSWER

PART 1

The city of Gainesville has a sizeable portion of illegal immigrants just like most places in the US. The police department is at a loss as to the action required in dealing with these people. Since they have a mandate to deal with illegal immigrants, they feel they cannot just ignore them. However, dealing with illegal immigration may cause the immigrants to refrain from sharing information with the police which is valuable for fighting crime. Once the illegal immigrants stop contacting police when they have problems, the city may become more prone to criminal activity.

The police department needs to make a choice between two sets of crime. First is illegal immigration which in itself is a violation of the laws in the country (Buchannan, 2006). Second is the lack of information on criminal activities or criminals operating in the city. Thus, the decision made should depend of solution of the greater crime. Research indicates that there is a concerted effort by many state governments in dealing with illegal immigrants. There is a consensus that this group of people is a valuable resource that can help the country develop further. There is also the need for tracking all people within the country for the purposes of planning and providing mandated services. All these factors indicate that the police department needs to consider all the facts before taking a decision.

The recommendation is that the police department overlook the fact that there are illegal immigrants and deal with the provision of security for all people. It is important that all stakeholders be involved in the decisions made and also in keeping Gainesville crime free. The mandate of the police department is to ensure that there is law and order. This can only be achieved if people within the city trust law enforcement enough to volunteer relevant information. The problem with dealing with illegal immigrants at the law enforcement level is that it alienates an important constituent that operates behind the scenes. Since illegal immigrants do not usually have the requisite documentation to operate as normal citizens, they are enlisted in an underground economy that may be a breeding ground for crime (Archibold, 2010). The people that are in that system are largely illegal immigrants making them valuable in combating crime.

There is a major consensus amongst US citizens that there is a problem of illegal immigration. However, the problem is that no one seems to have an idea of how to fix the system. There are many people that are affected by illegal immigration starting with the citizens, the government, legal immigrants and the illegal immigrants themselves. People that directly work with immigrants include lawyers, , social workers, teachers, healthcare providers, small business owners and law enforcement. The main problem that they cite is the lack of integration and assimilation of immigrant communities in the US. The illegal immigrants must seek education for their children and must have access to healthcare facilities. Thus, they divide opinions among many people since some hold that they cost more than they earn for the system. The policy of overlooking the status of illegal immigrants for the sake of maintaining security is largely based on the actions that have been witnessed in various states.

The most common sentiments by members of the American society were that there needed to be more religious tolerance, diversity, integration, citizen engagement, contribution, positive impact, defused tension and access. The society is divided into both liberal and conservative citizens. The major concern for the conservatives is how much money is spent on immigrants in addition to what they can legally do. There also seems to be a misconception about the current immigration law. There seems to be popular support for dealing with illegal immigrants. The terms that are associated with illegal immigrants are mostly about social security. For the immigrants themselves, they simply would want to be treated humanely. There seems to be a general feeling of discrimination with illegal immigrants that are well educated and rich being favoured unlike the poor and uneducated. The law enforcement and immigration officers often speak to the illegal immigrants with harshness and associate them with criminality. Several authors on immigration around the world seem to be in consensus that immigration officials have a common mindset in associating illegal immigration with criminality.

President Obama has severally stated his desire to reform the immigration sector in the US (Obama, 2012). One piece of legislation that is expected to be passed by congress is the DREAM act (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors). The act is meant to target people who immigrated to the US before they were 18 years old and who have lived for over five years before the bill was crafted. The act targets those people that have been declared as having good moral character and have graduated from high schools in the US. The people that serve for a period of two years in the military of serve two years in a four year institution of higher education qualify for a six year temporary residence with the option of making it permanent when the period lapses. Although there are many issues with legislation of immigration in the US, there is still a genuine concern that the enforcement of the DREAM act would be tricky. The first point of contention is how to determine a person’s moral character. The people that are opposed to such legislation argue that it may reward illegal immigration and insist that there must be more punitive action against illegal immigrants. There are many states in the US that already have a version of the DREAM act.

The laws that allow for illegal immigrants to access basic facilities and services are informed by the fact that illegal immigrants might be pushed to crime if they do not have access to basic amenities. In California for example, plans are underway for the illegal immigrants in the state to be awarded driving licenses. The state government thought it prudent since there were increased cases of people driving before they reach the defined age and causing many accidents. There were also increasing cases of theft of motor vehicles by people that were unknown to the system. The best way for dealing with these vices was to allow illegal immigrants access to the department of motor vehicles so that their driving is monitored. Such laws are progressive and are informed by the need of enlisting a large number of citizens in reporting crime. Thus, the best way of dealing with illegal immigrants is not by deporting them but by registering them so that they may make contributions to the societies they inhabit.

The problem with illegal immigrants is not the activities that they involve themselves in. Most people illegally immigrate to the US in search for better life for themselves and their families (Cafferty, 2007). These people are discriminated against by the citizens of the US and are accused of committing acts that they have not. Data on criminality indicates that the most likely people to commit crime are those of American decent. This data was sourced from people that are institutionalised across the country and reveals that citizens are ten times more likely to commit crime that immigrants (Ousey, & Kubrin, 2009). Therefore, the notion that illegal immigrants or immigrants in general are responsible for a lot of ills that bedevil the society is biased and is not based on fact. As a matter of fact, discrimination and negative labelling of immigrants reflects intolerance on the part of the citizens. The singular concern for many immigrants is that they be treated more humanely. However, acts of legislation like the DREAM act are not sufficient in themselves to enlist the help of immigrants in fighting crime. There must be a concerted effort on the part of individual state governments in fighting discrimination of illegal immigrants so that they can volunteer information necessary for fighting crime.

There is much emotion that is elicited whenever immigration is discussed. Partisans on both sides of the debate are usually more concerned with support their positions through conjecture and half-truths rather than with hard facts. The simple fact is that not all illegal immigrants are bad (Camarota, & Vaughan, 2009). While illegal information is in itself a crime, it is not the worst. Modern societies need not act without consideration of all facts. There are many reasons that people immigrate to the US. The major reason is that the country offers opportunities for prosperity in addition to it being a beacon of freedom and democracy. People that choose to immigrate to the US do so with the expectation of enjoying the opportunities there. Therefore, it would be unfair to assume that all those that immigrate illegally are bad. Since research has shown that the immigrants are less likely to commit crimes when compared to natives, the assumption is that they would be invaluable in reporting crimes they witness but are not participants in. what they simply need is empowerment and an equal opportunity.

Immigration as a debate is multifaceted. There are many microeconomic, macroeconomic, and humanitarian aspects that must not be overlooked. The main purpose of the data given by partisans is usually to convict or acquit immigrants in the court of public opinion. However, the fact is that there is an abundance of data that indicates that illegal immigrants are the least contributors to crime in the US. President Obama conceded that the major problem with illegal immigration is not that it makes a mockery of the people trying to immigrate legally but rather that it creates an underground economy where there are unscrupulous businesses that see the opportunity to exploit a cheap labour source (Camarota, 2006). These businesses cut corners by skirting taxes and paying illegal immigrants less than the minimum wage. There are an estimated 11 million illegal immigrants in the US today with most of them coming from Mexico (Hoefer, Rytina, & Baker, 2012). These people work in deplorable conditions where the health and safety issues are disregarded. This is a clear indication that avoiding dealing with illegal immigrants leads to breaking of numerous other laws. There is a misinformed notion among Americans that equates the underground economy brought on by illegal immigration with crime (Rumbaut, & Ewing, 2007).

There is no doubt that illegal immigration puts pressure on the system. The one area, other than income and social status that affects all stakeholders is crime. No individual is immune to criminal activity. There is thus a need of enlisting all stakeholders in combating crime. This cannot be achieved by vilifying illegal immigrants. More important however is the fact that these immigrants would be invaluable to the system as they are assimilated in all strata of the society. They are thus a rich source of information that would be important in reducing criminal activity in Gainesville.

Illegal immigration is a red hot in America and especially in the southwest. This is the region that borders Mexico. There is a debate between the two prominent political parties in the US. The democrats view immigrants and their collaborators as an important voting bloc during elections while republicans view them as social conservatives that will eventually vote for them. This political issue is usually at the heart of many discussions. Thus, the decision by the Gainesville police department to overlook the illegal status of immigrants plays into the hands of politicians. It has been reported that democrats prefer keeping the status quo since they advocate for less stiffer action against illegal immigrants thus ensuring their support during elections. However, republicans are much harsher and they advocate for deportation of illegal immigrants. Depending on the political tide in Gainesville, there are many political gains to be reaped for the existence of illegal immigrants.

Illegal immigration is a point of contention for many Americans since the immigrants are viewed as being direct competitors for available jobs with citizens. The jobs that they perform are in competition with those done by economically deprived citizens. The debate is usually between people in the low and high end income brackets in the US with those on the high end supporting illegal immigrants since they are more hardworking and require less pay. There was a shift in focus after 9/11 that made people more wary of the unsecured border with Mexico that may be a route for influx of criminals. However, this was an overreaction as not all immigrants are criminals. The events of 2006 in France made governments around the world more aware of the problems that might arise from having a large immigrant population that is impoverished.

There is uproar in the US due to the fact that the president is willing to change immigration laws to grant illegal immigrants legal status. However, the problem is that no executive action can be taken without consultation with congress. While some people, especially on the republican side feel that illegal immigrants are a burden, there is the question of ethics. One of the most fundamental factors that the police division in Gainesville should consider is that ultimately, immigration involves human beings. Thus, they should be treated in the most humane way. This does not however mean that they should be granted legal status against the rules and laws. The important thing to consider is that the lack of security is a threat to all other laws, rules and rights. The mandate of any police division is to ensure that the citizenry is well protected. This entails having the relevant information at all times in order to curb any planned and intentional action against innocent civilians.

Allowing illegal immigrants to be a source of information is not easy. This is because the citizens living around them will demand contrary action. Thus, there will be action against the police department from the legal residents of Gainesville. While this is to be expected, it is prudent to consider that any acts of insecurity will be blamed on the police department. Therefore, the police must be able to defend their actions to the public. This is no mean feat as disregarding the illegal status of illegal immigrants is tantamount to a circumvention of the law. The social impact of having illegal immigrants is minimal as the population of Gainesville is already cosmopolitan. Therefore, there is expected to be little change in any actions that the police take towards illegal immigrants since there is no way of telling the difference between legal and illegal immigrants at face value. The contrary option of demanding to see the papers of any suspected person would amount to profiling which is against the laws and ethics.

The movement of people from one place to another often results in the exchange of cultures and consequently acculturation. Gainesville is already a cosmopolitan city. The geographic dynamics of the city places it in close proximity to Mexico where most illegal immigrants originate. Thus, the cultural influence that is already prevalent in the city is of mixed origin. The population that is not Mexican will nonetheless experience a degree of influence from having illegal immigrants. One of the most fundamental aspects about culture is language. Most illegal immigrants do not speak English and hence would require effort on the part of the US citizens in communicating with them. Most illegal immigrants are employed below the minimum wage and thus are in odd jobs and those for the low in society. They include house helps and gardeners. These people rarely speak any English and thus require the citizens to learn a bit of their indigenous languages, in most cases Spanish, or the immigrants themselves learn English. The circumstances thus create a conducive environment for exchange of cultures. This is assuming that allowing illegal immigrants to stay and be a source of information for security reasons amounts to granting them legal status.

Back in 2010, the state of Arizona passed a law that required police to check the immigration status of suspected illegal aliens. The law criminalized being in the state without the necessary documentation. This law was met with numerous protests and marches around the US. These protests, organised in May, were aimed at voicing the disapproval of having draconian laws that were unfair to some people. The major source of the problem was that civilians were being victimized just for being suspected of having no legal status. The process of checking legal status would have been unfair to certain races that were suspected of not being natives. These included mostly Mexicans and blacks. This law allowed for racist acts and unfair treatment of some individuals. It exposed the need for serious reforms to the immigration sector in the US.

The immigration crisis in the US has led to initiatives by different states to try and alleviate the situation as the federal government continues to drag its feet with passing legislation that will allow for humane treatment of suspected illegal aliens in the country. Most of the opinions from different quotas argue anywhere from deporting illegal immigrants to allowing them to acquire American citizenship. One thing that is not in doubt is that regardless of the statuses of suspected illegal immigrants, there must be humane ways of treating them. This entails allowing them to have access to basic facilities and services including health, security and education. The action of the Gainesville police department to allow illegal immigrants to phone in and share information or make enquiries can be construed as allowing access to basic services. It ensures that the people are treated in a humane manner and that there genuine concerns are addressed.

The alternative action would be for the police to deny illegal immigrants access to state security. This apart from denying the police access to important information can lead to the proliferation of crime. Human beings have an inherent need of being in a community and having an identity. Thus, denying illegal immigrants’ access to the police can be construed as denying them access to the community in Gainesville. This would be counterproductive to the economy of the city as well as to the reduction in crime. The most important thing to consider is that not all illegal aliens are predisposed to commission of crime and that most of them contribute positively to the communities they live in since they do lowly jobs that many Americans prefer not to.

Illegal immigrants are a problem in many societies around the world. They have to be understood and legislated from numerous perspectives. The city of Gainesville is not alone in regards to looking for ways to deal with them. While the city is mandated to look out for the safety and security of its entire population, it must nonetheless prioritize. The integrity of the whole city can only be maintained by ensuring that no people residing within its borders are marginalized. The police division must realize that it thrives on sharing of information with the population. Therefore, it must, in principle, safeguard the opinions, information and rights of these people. This entails giving the illegal immigrants the freedom to report crime and access police services in anticipation of when the state of Florida or the entire country of the US passes legislation to comprehensively deal with the problem of illegal immigration.

References

Archibold, R.C. (2010, June 20). In Border Violence, Perception if Greater Than Crime Statistics. The New York Times, A16.

Buchannan, P. (2006). State of Emergency: The Third World Invasion Conquest of American. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

Cafferty, J. (2007). The Frauds, Bunglers, Liars, and Losers Who Are Hurting America: It’s Getting Ugly Out There. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Camarota, S. A. (2006, July 26). Immigration’s Impact on Public Coffers. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved Dec 22, 2014 from http://www.cis.org/articles/2006/sactestimony072606.html

Camarota, S. A. & Vaughan, J. (2009). Immigration and Crime: Assessing a Conflicted Issue. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved Dec 22, 2014 from http://www.cis.org

Hoefer, M., Rytina, N., & Baker, B.C. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2011. Office of Immigration Statistics Policy Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Retrieved Dec 22, 2014 from http://www.dhs.gov/elibrary/assets/statistics/publications/ill_pe_2011.pdf

Obama, B. (2012). Fixing the Immigration System for America’s 21st century. The White House: Washington. Retrieved Dec 22, 2014 from http://www.whitehouse.com/issues/fixing/immigration/

Ousey, G. C., & Kubrin, C. E. (2009). Exploring the Connection between Immigration and Violent Crime Rates in the U.S. Cities, 1980-2000. Social Problems, 56 (3), 447-473.

Rumbaut, R.G., & Ewing, W. (2007). The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates Among Native and Foreign-born Men.Washington, DC: Immigration Policy Center

PART 2

Leadership starts out with a common task that needs completion. The person responsible for the completion of the task enlists the help of others in a process of social influence referred to as leadership. To many people, a leader is the person being followed and whose influence others take to heart. The process of leadership requires an individual to lead others towards the achievement of a common purpose.

Often, people fall prey to labeling titles and other individuals. In many cases, leaders are praised whereas managers and followers are disparaged. However, the simple truth is that people that ascribe to these titles are all important to an organization. The manager has traditionally been associated with functions of administration, directing, organizing, budgeting, staffing, controlling and planning (Judge, & Piccolo, 2004). He/she is an individual charged with looking at tasks and objectives. Managers are those individuals that use head skills including financing and daily operations of an organization. They are concerned about an organization’s bottom line, stability, efficiency and other short term objectives. They are about solving problems that occur in an organization and tactical issues. They make sure that they keep emotional distance from people and use their authority and power to direct subordinates into complying with their demands. The main concern for managers is asking the how and when questions.  There is a major bone of contention in the way that people interchangeably refer to managers and leaders. There are fundamental differences between the two groups of individuals and their skills and expertise are required in equal measure for organizations to function properly.

Traditionally, leaders are charged with the functions of synthesizing, aligning, innovating, inspiring and reducing organizational boundaries. They are those people that are charged with ensuring that there are changes within an organization and the management of people. Rather than using head skills like managers, they use heart skills and are concerned with compassion, empathy, courage, character and emotional intelligence. They focus on the opportunities that may arise for a business and the possibilities available in the long term. Strategic issues, listening to other people, connecting and asking questions are also central to being an effective leader. Leaders desire for the personal and professional growth of those they lead and serve and are concerned more about asking what and why questions.

On the other hand, followers are the essential people in an organization that perform the line tasks. Engaged followers are more useful to the achievement of organizational goals than passive followers. Passive followers are characterized by being disloyal and less connected, engaged and committed to an organization. They simply follow the directions they are given and on occasion deliver the results expected of them. Passive followers prefer to work independently, are compliant, reactive and rely on their own wisdom, skills and competencies. They are mostly characterized by saying that tasks outside their job description are not theirs. Therefore, organizations much prefer having engaged followers that are loyal, engaged, committed and connected. While they take directions like passive followers, they add their own initiative. They take responsibility for the expected results and are accountable for the tasks they undertake. Good followers are those that collaborate with their managers, leaders and fellow followers. They do not react to situations but are proactive, diligent, thorough and professional in their undertakings. Rather than complain about tasks that are not in their job descriptions, they argue that their organizations are much better with their inputs where needed.

Most bureaucratic organizations have the distinct roles of managers, leaders and followers. However, more organic organizations that are keen on taking the numerous opportunities in the business environment do not have clear distinctions as their roles overlap. Modern organizations like IBM and Cisco do not follow traditional hierarchies as they understand that every individual is important to an organization. The ideal situation is for an individual to espouse all three roles of leadership, management and followership. Every role has its strengths and weaknesses and an organization benefits by having individuals that can grow into either role. Leadership is important as it is concerned with the future outlook. Management is equally important as it is concerned with short term achievements. Followership is indispensable to an organization since it allows for learning and growth.

There are many theories that deal with leadership. One of the theories is the great leader theory. This theory has its genesis in history where people believe that the greatest achievements of human beings have been as a result of great individuals more commonly referred to as heroes. These are highly influential people that had great impacts on others and history. They are those that rely on charisma, wisdom and their own personal intelligence (Hirsch, 2002). Many of the traditional great leaders used their political power in a decisive manner that had historical impacts. The great leader theory is important as it allows for individuals to use their skills and influences to impact others. However, its main weakness lies in the fact that great leaders are in themselves a result of the societies they grow up in. nowadays, collaboration is more important to the society that individual skills.

The great leader theory attempts to underline the importance of individual charisma and intelligence. It states that people that have the natural skills to lead and influence society can be important in the general outlook of a company or other form of organization (James, 2005). Public policy can benefit from such people as they would dilute bureaucracy in the public sector and get things done more promptly and effectively. The most developed societies, albeit having good social structures, can trace their successes to key individuals in their histories. Great leaders include Abraham Lincoln that emancipated the blacks from slavery (Friedman, & Langbert, 2000), Mahatma Gandhi, an immortalized leader in India and Nelson Mandela. These leaders ensured that their societies became better and were credited with the development and growth of those societies. There are many great leaders in the world today. These people have the natural skills to influence and change others. Most of these leaders are found in political spheres. However, leaders in private business that make noticeable impacts in the world are also recognized for their greatness. Bill Gates and Steve Jobs are some of the most noticeable leaders in recent times. They defined the organizations that they were associated with and created trends emulated by others. A great leader is that individual that influences others or events in a manner that is memorable.

Another theory of leadership is that of servant leadership. The concept of servant leadership has existed for many years. Most prominent however is the mention of the philosophy by Lao-Tzu, a Chinese philosopher in the Tao Te Ching between 570 BCE and 490 BCE (Wu, 2006). The greatest definition of a servant leader is the leader whose existence followers are barely aware of. Many ancient writers believed that the king, the leader in many traditional societies, considered good things as those that pleased his subjects rather than his own self. This benchmark of a good leader is founded on the concept of servant leadership. The leader in today’s society enjoys many trappings of power at the behest of followers and subjects. However, in democracies the leader must always be consciously aware that he/she is a privileged servant. The concept of servant leadership is also prominent in religious texts. The Gospel of Mark has a text that has Jesus communicating to his followers. He said that he, unlike the lords of the gentiles, was not a ruler but a servant of the people. He cautioned his disciples that if they wanted to lead people, they must first of all agree to be their servants. The greatest act according to Jesus that indicated his nature as a servant was his death for the sake of all mankind. The concept has also been embraced in other religions including Islam that considers the leader of a people as their servant.

Servant leadership can be associated with participative leadership. All other popular forms of leadership including autocratic and laissez-faire do not fully capture the concept of being a servant. A servant leader is guided by the principles of supporting, enabling and encouraging subordinates to realize their full abilities and potential (Hersey, & Blanchard, 1977). The leader encourages his followers to be active in the decision making process. Employee performance and satisfaction is maximized where leaders act as servants.

The concept of servant leadership goes beyond behaviours that are employee related. It is one that calls for a major paradigm shift in the relationship between the leader and his/her subordinates. The major point of focus is not on the leader and his/her actions but rather on the outcomes that are evidence in the way that his/her subordinates work. The overall results of an organization and the direction it takes are what evidence servant leadership.

Servant leadership is an important concept in influencing public policy. This is because public policy in itself is based on the ideas and wishes of the majority. For a leader to be effective, he/she must first be able to connect with the needs of those at the grassroot level. The best way of knowing what the needs of the people are is by experiencing them firsthand. Thus, the most effective leader is that person that can connect on a fundamental level with those at the end of a pyramid. Public policies mostly concern themselves with fulfillment of the most basic needs that individuals have. However complex the needs of individuals are, they can best be fulfilled by experiencing them. Servant leadership thus enables people in position of influence and power to be in touch with the needs of their constituents whether they are customers, subordinates or the general population.

Transformational leadership is credited with helping many organizations adopt the new global market trends. In the current society, organizations that have the desire to grow must have transformational leaders. This type of leadership is characterized by energy, passion and enthusiasm. Leaders that aspire to be transformational must have a genuine concern of the wellbeing and development of their subordinates. Transformational leadership is primarily about stimulating the intellect of others (Gupta, 2004). Thus, rather than maintain the status quo, leaders in this category prefer challenging it and creating an environment in which creativity can thrive. Followers are driven towards a direction within which they can explore new ways of doing tasks and learning.

Another characteristic of transformational leadership is individualized consideration (Joyce, & Judge, 2004).  Followers are offered support and encouragement so that they can realize their full potential. The most important aspect of this leadership style is having an open door policy that allows leaders to listen to the problems of their followers and take a genuine interest in them. The advantage of having such a policy is that leaders get new insights on different problems and plausible solutions. By taking an interest in followers, ideas are shared and the organization benefits from it.

Transformational leadership calls for inspirational motivation. Leaders ascribing to this style must be able to articulate a clear vision for their followers to follow. There must be an additional effort to not only enable followers to perform to the best of their abilities but also to motivate them towards achievement of personal and organizational goals. Leaders must have an idealized influence on their followers. This is because the leader also doubles up as a role model for his/her followers. The process of emulating a leader and internalizing his/her ideals must start by the followers being able to respect and trust that leader.

Transformational leadership is a very important style. Globalization has opened markets and has eliminated national boundaries that were prohibitive for the performance of business. States are now run as companies as competition for resources stiffens. Leaders that can articulate a shared vision for all individuals in a society or group are important. The developing nations are working hard to ensure that they catch up with developed nations. On the other hand, developed nations are expanding their influence so that they can move their goods and services and grow their societies further. Both groups of countries require transformational leaders to move them forward. The most important point to consider is that the input of all stakeholders must be considered. The leader who occupies a position of power or influence must be able to communicate a common sense of direction for all people. Transformational leadership must be considered in its entirety. The leader must have a genuine concern for his/her followers, must challenge the status quo and must have enthusiasm. Additionally, the leader must ensure that he/she communicates the enthusiasm he/she has to followers. The major strength of transformational leadership is that every person’s perspective gets to be considered. Since people are the most important resource to a society or organization, an abundance of different viewpoints gives an avenue for affecting real changes. The weakness however is that transformational leadership can be slow in effecting change due to the fact that many viewpoints have to be considered. In some instance, giving followers much leverage can be counterproductive as they may take advantage of the space they are given.

Situational leadership is another popular theory. The theory’s main point is that there is no universally best style of leadership. Depending on the task at hand and the objectives that require to be met, a leader can tweak his style accordingly (Blanchard, Zigarmi, & Zigarmi, 1985). Thus, success in leadership can be guaranteed by adaptation to prevalent conditions. A leader must be mature. This means that he/she must not only set high standards but must also take responsibility for meeting them. The leader must have the necessary educational and professional competencies in order to fulfill his/her duties and responsibilities. Maturity also reflects a leader’s ability to influence those around him/her to perform their tasks to the best of their abilities. Situational leadership demands that the leader vary his/her approach to different tasks depending on the circumstances and in consideration of all factors. The most important factors to consider are the maturity of the followers and details of the task at hand. Thus, situational leadership requires leaders at any one time to put more or less emphasis on tasks and more or less emphasis on their relationships with followers. The determinant of the choice to take must be the successful completion of a task.

The developers of the situational leadership theory argue that there are four styles of leadership. The first is telling where leaders tell their followers what they are expected to do and how they are expected to do it (Scouller, 2011). The second style is selling where the leader is expected to provide requisite information and direction for followers. In this style, there is more communication between the leader and the followers. The concept is that the leader must sell his/her concepts to followers and they in turn must buy into these ideals. The third style is participating where the leader focuses more on the relationship between him/her and the followers than on directing them. There is a sense of sharing responsibilities and decision making between the leader and his/her followers. The fourth style is delegating where the leader passes most of his/her responsibilities onto followers. The leader is less involved in the decision making process but still takes a keen interest on progress. The first and second styles are more concerned with completion of tasks whereas the latter two are concerned with increasing the capacity of followers.

Situational leadership theory has been improved by its developers and is described by use of the terms commitment and competence. The former espouses motivation and confidence while the latter entails knowledge, ability and skills. These terms are used to describe the different levels of development within the situational leadership model. The evolution of the theory views development as a stepped process. Individuals that are starting out on a new job approach it with little competence, knowledge, skills and abilities, which is compensated by presence of high enthusiasm, commitment and motivation. Development is thus the process through which people move from being rookies to being professionals in their jobs. The role of the leader is to check the level where a person is and apply the right leadership skills. This means that the leader can change his/her style depending on the perceived level of follower development.

The belief in the evolved situational leadership theory is that new task approach is characterized by low competence in terms of transferable skills but the need and energy to learn. The progression of an individual to a higher job level is determined by the experience he/she acquires and the ability of the leader to support him/her in the different levels. As the individual progresses, he/she has gained some competence but has dropped some commitment to the task due to complexity of tasks to levels higher than previously anticipated. The third level of development is characterized by a variation in competence. This fluctuates between moderate and high knowledge, transferable skills and abilities. The commitment level varies too as the individual has gained some task and role mastery. The fourth level of development is characterized by high competence and commitment.

The application of either style is dependent on the maturity of followers. Maturity is also broken down into four levels. The first level entails people at the bottom end of the maturity spectrum since they lack the skills, knowledge and confidence to function on their own. This group thus needs to be pushed for tasks to be completed. The second level entails people that are willing to work on different tasks but lack the skills and knowledge to perform them. The third level entails people that are willing and ready to help with tasks and have more skills than those in the previous level. The distinguishing factor is that this group is characterized by people with low confidence on their abilities for task completion. The last level contains people that can work on their own. These people have the skills and knowledge required and additionally have the required confidence for task completion. Thus, they are more committed.

Situational leadership is important in the formulation of public policy as it allows for leaders to change tact depending on the competencies and skills of their followers. This strength allows for different levels of progress depending on the people being led. Thus, organizations and societies develop at constant pace regardless of the people being led. The weakness however is that the style does not consider mixed groups of people with varying levels of competence and skills. The theory also assumes that all people in leadership positions have the capacity to tweak their approaches at different turns which is too simplistic. The determination of the competence levels of employees is not a one-time approach and requires collection and collation of relevant data which is a long process that might make the change from one style to another redundant if factors change before determination of maturity is completed.

References

Blanchard, K.H., Zigarmi, P., & Zigarmi. D. (1985). Leadership and the One Minute Manager: Increasing Effectiveness through Situational Leadership. New York: Morrow

Friedman, H.H., & Langbert, M. (2000).Abraham as a Transformational Leader. Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(2), 88-95

Gupta, V. (2004). Impact of Socialization on Transformational Leadership: Role of Leader Member Exchange. South Asian Journal of Management.

Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1977). Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources (3rd ed.) New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Hirsch, E.D. (2002). The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (Third Edition). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company

James, W. (2005). Great Men and Their Environment. Kila, MT: Kessinger Publishing

Joyce, E., & Judge, T.A. (2004). Personality and Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 901-910.

Judge, T.A., & Piccolo, R.F. (2004). Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 755-68.

Scouller, J. (2011). The Three Levels of Leadership: How to Develop Your Leadership Presence, Knowhow and Skill. Cirencester: Management Books

Wu, J.H.C. (2006). Lao Tzu, Tao Teh Ching (translation). Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala

We can write this or a similar paper for you! Simply fill the order form!

Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence

Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence Order Instructions: As Dr. Claudia Fernandez and Dr. David Steffen explained in this week’s video program, leadership models offer a helpful blueprint for your growth as a leader, but there is no one model that is right for everyone.

Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence
Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence

Instead, you must find the model that resonates best with you.
Review this list of 13 books on leadership models, and find out more about each one by reading summaries or reviews online or by browsing in a bookstore.
•Leadership Models Book List
As you do this search, reflect on which style of leadership resonates with you the most and why. Select the book that resonates with you and interests you the most, and read sections of it to get a better sense of its theories and approaches. You will be asked to read this book and write a book report on it for your Week 8 Application Assignment.
Week 3: Leadership Models Book List
The books in this list include some of the most influential models of leadership in recent years.
For your Week 3 Application, you will read summaries and/or reviews of each of the books to get a sense of their approaches, and then select the book that most closely resonates with your outlook. For your Week 8 Application, you will read and evaluate and the book you selected. See Week 3 and Week 8 Application areas for further instructions on these assignments.

Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence Readings

Burns, J., & MacGregor, J. (2004). Transforming leadership: A new pursuit of happiness. New York: Grove Press.
Chrislip D. D., & Larson, C. E. (1994). Collaborative leadership: How citizens and civic leaders can make a difference (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Collins, J. (2005). Good to great and the social sectors: A monograph to accompany good to great (1st ed.). New York: Harper Collins. (Note: If you select this monograph, which is only 42 pages, you must also read the author’s earlier book, which describes many of the principles referred to in the monograph: Collins, J. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap…and others don’t (1st ed.). New York: Harper Collins.)
Cross, R. (2004). The hidden power of social networks: Understanding how work really gets done in organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.
Gardner, J. W. (1993). On leadership. New York: The Free Press.
Goldsmith, S., & Eggers, W. (2004). Governing by the network: The new shape of the public sector. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2004). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Greenleaf, R. (2002). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness (25th-anniversary ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.
Gunderson, G. (2004). Boundary leaders: Leadership skills for people of faith. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress.
Heifetz, R. (1998). Leadership without easy answers (1st ed.). Boston: Harvard University Press.
Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (2007). The leadership challenge (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Linsky, M., & Heifetz, R. A. (2002). Leadership on the line: Staying alive through the dangers of leading (1st ed.). Boston: Harvard Business School.
Rowitz, L. (2008). Public health leadership: Putting principles into practice (2nd ed.). Mississanga, Ontario, Canada: Jones & Bartlett.
For this week’s Application, however, answer the following questions based on what you know about the book so far as well as on your Learning Resources this week about the effectiveness of leadership styles:
Answer the following Questions:
1. Identify the book you have chosen and why you chose it.

2. In what ways do the author’s theories or approaches seem to resonate with your perspective of leadership?

3. Select one of the public health leaders mentioned in this week’s video program or readings, and identify a leadership style that you think describes him or her, explaining why you think so. (This need not be the same leadership style as in the book you have selected.)

4. In what ways would this individual’s leadership style be effective or ineffective in public health? Provide support for your views.

5. What criteria would you use to assess the effectiveness of that style in that situation? Describe the criteria.
I HAVE SELECTED THIS BOOK

1. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2004). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Please apply the Application Assignment Rubric when writing the Paper.
I. The paper should demonstrate an excellent understanding of all of the concepts and key points presented in the texts.
II. Paper provides significant detail including multiple relevant examples, evidence from the readings and other sources, and discerning ideas.
III. The paper should be well organized, uses scholarly tone, follows APA style, uses original writing and proper paraphrasing, contains very few or no writing and/or spelling errors, and is fully consistent with the doctoral level writing style.
IV. The paper should be mostly consistent with the doctoral level writing style.

This Application Assignment should be 2–3 pages

Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence Sample Answer

This paper discusses Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2004) book titled Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. This book has been chosen since it has relevant information regarding the importance of emotional intelligence which I value. The choice of this book is informed by the fact that the information contained therein is not fully ventilated by management authors. One thing that stands out is that the leader’s mood and feelings affect the moods, attitudes, and behavior of the subordinates. This in turn affects the productivity of these subordinates and that of the entire organisation. The book is aware of all the intricacies of dealing with the emotional wellbeing of people in power. Top management is rarely corrected. This means that the negative and toxic moods that a top manager may bring into the workplace may decrease productivity or improve it depending on other attendant factors.

An example is given of Bill Gates, the leader of Microsoft, as one that has a mood problem. However, his mood and emotional wellbeing do not seem to affect the performance of the organisation. Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2004)argue that Microsoft recruits from a pool of the most talented and competent individuals meaning that they do not rely on the boss for every single decision. In fact, the company is in the business of adding value to its products which requires autonomous working environments in order to spur creativity and innovativeness. This means that the mood of a manager is an important factor where the organisation is dependent on him or her for key decisions or on the daily running of events. Unfortunately, most organisations in the world today require the constant attention of the manager and his/her emotional wellbeing is therefore an important factor.

Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence References

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2004). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Leadership Style Journal Entry Assignment

Leadership Style Journal Entry
Leadership Style Journal Entry

Leadership Style Journal Entry

Order Instructions:

As Dr. Claudia Fernandez and Dr. David Steffen explained in this week’s video program, leadership models offer a helpful blueprint for your growth as a leader, but there is no one model that is right for everyone. Instead, you must find the model that resonates best with you.

Review this list of 13 books on leadership models, and find out more about each one by reading summaries or reviews online or by browsing in a bookstore.

The book that resonates with you and interests you the most, and read sections of it to get a better sense of its theories and approaches.

Leadership Models Book List

Address the following Questions:

1. Reflect on the leadership style that resonates with you and why.

2. Relate the leadership style to specific attention to the congruence of values and motivators between the leadership model and your own.

Please use this Book from the list:

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2004). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Please apply the Application Assignment Rubric when writing the Paper.

I. Paper should demonstrate an excellent understanding of all of the concepts and key points presented in the texts.
II. Paper provides significant detail including multiple relevant examples, evidence from the readings and other sources, and discerning ideas.
III. Paper should be well organized, uses scholarly tone, follows APA style, uses original writing and proper paraphrasing, contains very few or no writing and/or spelling errors, and is fully consistent with doctoral level writing style.
IV. Paper should be mostly consistent with doctoral level writing style.

SAMPLE ANSWER

Leadership Style Journal Entry

There are various leadership styles suitable for different individuals and situations. These leadership styles play a key role in the growth of the leader and the organization. Effective leaders adopt the right style that meets the needs of the organization.

Among the six ‘emotional intelligence’ styles of leadership, the leadership style that resonates with me is visionary. I am a person that always wants to take the organization forward. Many organizations require a sense of direction at various situations and this requires that a leader be visionary to be able to achieve the set goals (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2004). I believe that giving people an opportunity in an organization to be creative and innovate will propel the organization to achieving its goals and objectives.

This leadership style requires a leader to have specific values and motivators. The leader is expected to be positive when addressing changes and challenges that come in their way.  The leaders must as well be a go-getter and a risk taker to stir the organization forward to achieve the goals set.  The leaders must as well exhibit good behaviors by leading as role models (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2004).  The goals and aims of the organization need to be stated and should be clear to provide direction for the organization. Other leadership models have some relationship with visionary style I embrace in my Leadership. One of the models is the three skills approach. Three skills approach including technical, conceptual and human skills.

A leader is required to be a good problem solver and have the ability to assess situations and make appropriate decisions (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2004). Furthermore, a leader must have human skills to create conducive working conditions in an organization. The relationship between various stakeholders is important to triggering achievement of an entity. The model therefore rhymes with the visionary leadership styles, as it as well requires that leaders use their skills and capabilities to provide leadership and move the organization forward.

Reference

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2004). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. Harvard Business Review, 79(11): 42-51.

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Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus

Grand Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus Description of the grand strategies of cost leadership differentiation and focus.

Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus
Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus

The aim of this essay is to demonstrate understanding key concepts in strategic management and capacity to craft a professional document.

Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus Essay Requirements

You are asked to:

First part
. choose a concept/model in strategic management. Examples of concepts are: core competencies, generic strategies, mergers and acquisitions, alliances, CSR, blue ocean strategy, etc…
. define this concept
. present the history of the concept: when was it discussed first, how did it evolve?
. discuss how/if the concept is relevant or not to today’s business challenges.

The first part should include a minimum of 10 academic references: books and/or articles from academic journals. It excludes textbooks and articles from business magazines that you can use also if needed.
All sources should be adequately referenced as for any professional academic document.

In the second part, you are asked to:

. present a real life application of the concept. You can use your own company or a company of your choice. This section should be like a mini-case study where you will present the situation of a company, the issues faced and how the concept was used to solve the issues and raise the general performance of the firm.
Approximately 2000 words should be dedicated to the first part and 1000 words to the second part.

Do not use external sources without referencing them. Do not cut and paste!

SAMPLE ANSWER

PART I

Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus Introduction

All commercial enterprises face competition for customers and raw materials from other firms operating in the same industry.  A firm’s profitability is primarily determined by the attractiveness of the industry it operates in but its secondary determinant is its strategic position in the industry (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012). A company can report superior performance even in low growth industries if its positioning strategy is superior to its competitors.  In order to survive in any industry each firm must therefore formulate and implement a strong business strategy that would enable it to generate a distinct competitive advantage (BORDEAN, BORZA and GLASER-SEGURA 2011).  A strong business strategy is formulated after a firm undertakes an analysis of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) and factors in the external environment that have a potential to shape its business strategy.  Factors in the external environment that have a bearing on a firm’s business strategy are categorized into political, economic, social, technological, ecological and legal factors.  Firms carry out a SWOT analysis that enable them to identify resources and competences that they can use to respond to the external environment (BORDEAN, BORZA and GLASER-SEGURA 2011). A Harvard University professor, Michael Porter, published an article in the Harvard Business Review in which he postulated three generic strategies of cost leadership, differentiation and focus some thirty years ago. He noted that any firm that pursues any of the three strategies can obtain competitive advantage to survive. The three strategies were referred to as “generic” because they could be applied in any firm, can be used as standalone strategies or as a combination with other business strategies. Many strategic analysts have noted that firms that pursue any of these strategies are able to beat their competitors in the market place. The generic strategies are not industry or firm dependent as they can be applied to firms in each industry in an economy (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012).

Description of the strategies of cost leadership differentiation and focus

Cost leadership is a generic strategy that, for a given quality of a product or service, achieves the lowest cost in production. The firm can then sell its products below the average market price to get a higher market share or sell at average market price to generate more profits.   A firm pursuing cost leadership can report some profits even if a price war erupts between firms in the industry (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012). Even when the industry matures and prices go down, a firm pursuing cost leadership will remain profitable for a while. This strategy is most suited for products that aim at serving the mass market.  A firm can achieve cost leadership in many ways. One of the methods that a firm can use is by improving efficiency in its internal processes in totality (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012). A firm pursuing this strategy could achieve it by improving its production processes thus eliminating wastages and saving money. A firm could also carry out value chain analysis to eliminate processes that do not add value from input stage, production stage to the marketing stage (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012).  Another method that firms use to achieve cost leadership is by gaining access to large cheaper sources of inputs. This ensures that a company is able to reduce the unit cost of production. A firm could also achieve cost leadership by making optimal vertical integration or outsourcing decisions.  A firm that makes optimal outsourcing decisions is able to reduce it costs by outsourcing costly processes to more efficient suppliers. In the case of vertical integration, a firm can reduce costs by either producing its raw materials and or participating actively in the distribution of the products to the end users. Application of either or all of these methods could yield cost leadership for a firm in a given industry.  The cost leadership strategy generates competitive advantage is competing firms are unable to lower costs with similar margins as the company pursuing this generic strategy (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012).

Cost leadership strategy is possible for firms that possess several unique strengths.  The first strength is that such firms must be able to access adequate financial resources to invest in enhancing their production capacities to ensure they are able to supply the mass market (BORDEAN, BORZA and GLASER-SEGURA 2011).  This is because cost leadership is a strategy that is suited for the large market and small segments of the market. The enhanced production capacity and related assets provides a huge barrier to entry that new entrants into the industry find hard to overcome to join the industry and compete. Firms that are able to achieve cost leadership in this manner are able to generate sustainable competitive advantage as long as competitors cannot access similar financial resources to enhance their production capacities to supply the mass market at similar costs (BORDEAN, BORZA and GLASER-SEGURA 2011).

The second strength that a firm wishing to pursue cost leadership must possess is unique skills to design products for efficient manufacturing to cut unit costs. The firm must be able to design new products that can be produced in large quantities at lower unit costs that what the competitors are able to achieve.  This skill must be valuable, rare, inimitable and substitutable to assist in achieving the cost leadership strategy (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012).  The skill must be valuable in enhancing efficiency in production or in creating new high quality products than what competitors are able to achieve. The skill must also be rare in that competitors in the industry must be unable to access such a skill to design products for efficient products. It the skill is not rare then the competitors will quickly design products for efficient manufacturing and wipe out the competitive advantage created (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012).  The skill must be inimitable and not substitutable for it to achieve cost leadership that generates sustainable competitive advantage. A firm that possesses high level expertise in manufacturing process reengineering can implement cost leadership strategy (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012). This is because such a firm can reengineer its manufacturing processes to eliminate wastage, enhance production efficiency or produce high quality products at relatively lower cost than competitors.  A firm that possesses efficient distribution channels can also become a cost leader. This is because the firm is able to cut costs of distribution of its products into the market (NIE and KOSAKA 2014).

Cost leadership is a strategy that has a certain risks. A firm’s competitors, due to the fast changing nature of technology, could access the latest technology that could enhance their production efficiencies and achieve low unit production costs (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012). This eventuality would wipe out the competitive advantage created by the cost leadership strategy implemented by a firm. Additionally firms pursuing focus strategy could achieve cost leadership due to inherent efficiencies thus wiping out any competitive advantage that a company possesses (MONAHAN and RAHMAN 2011).      Differentiation is a generic strategy that is able to create sustainable competitive advantage for a firm.  A firm pursuing differentiation strategy manufactures products with certain attributes valued by customers and customers perceive the products as more valuable or different from what competitors offer.  In this strategy a firm charges a premium price due to the value added attributes in the product or service.  The premium price should be enough to compensate for the extra costs that the firm incurs for the additional attributes added to the product or service.  Even if firms’ suppliers increase the prices for the various products or services, the firms can easily pass the costs to consumers since the products or services cannot be easily substituted (NANDAKUMAR, GHOBADIAN and O’REGAN 2011).

Firms that implement differentiation strategy successfully possess certain internal strengths.  Such firms possess scientific research capabilities to design and produce new products with unique attributes. The firms have a well established research and development department to spearhead development of new products and services that are better than what competitors have (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012). Even if a firm does not possess scientific research capabilities it should be able to access such capabilities. This will ensure the company is constantly designing new products and services with unique attributes that customers value and which makes its products better than what competitors are able to offer.  Firms that pursue differentiation strategy to create competitive advantage must have an innovative and creative team of professionals.  These employees constantly research and design new products and services with enhanced attributes that customer’s value (FENECH 2013). Firms pursuing this generic strategy must have as its strength an internal sales team that is able to effectively communicate the enhanced product or service attributes to customers to ensure they understand them well. This enables customers to fully appreciate the enhanced attributes of the firm’s products and differentiate them from those offered by competitors (FENECH 2013).  A firm pursuing this strategy must also have a corporate reputation for innovation and producing high quality products and services. This is because the perception that customers have for the firm’s products and services is very important.  The company’s positioning is very important in ensuring that the company achieves this generic strategy (FENECH 2013). However, differentiation strategy is very risky since competitors may find it easy to imitate to create similar products that would effectively compete with the firm’s products. Customer tastes and preferences might change rendering the generic strategy useless. If customer tastes and preferences change, the firm will find itself holding products that customers do not want. This will make the strategy to fail. Firms pursuing this strategy must constantly monitor the environment to identify threats to its strategic positioning and develop mitigating strategies for any threats to its strategic positioning (AGYAPONG and BOAMAH 2013).

The last generic strategy that firms use to create sustainable competitive advantage is focus.  Focus is a generic strategy that concentrates on serving a narrow segment of a larger market segment through cost leadership or differentiation strategic positioning. Focus strategy is of the assumption that the needs of a particular segment of customers are best met by focusing on the segment to the exclusion of the wider market (FENECH 2013). Customers are discouraged from venturing into the segment because focus strategy achieves high levels of customer satisfaction and creates customer loyalty. In this strategy customers are offered individualized service from firm’s employees. Firms pursuing such strategies have less bargaining power from supplies since they push lesser products as compared to firm’s pursuing cost leadership. In this generic strategy firms are able to modify their products and services to meet the needs of a smaller market that they understand very well. Changes in the target market such as changing consumer needs might easily render the generic strategy useless (FENECH 2013). Imitation is another threat to this strategy since firms that are able to effectively imitate a firm’s products could focus on the same narrow segment and wipe out the firm’s competitive advantage.  The other disadvantage of this strategy is that it tends to limit a firm’s ability to grow since it focuses on just a small section of a large market. A competitor pursuing cost leadership and with amble resources can easily outperform the firm in its chosen market (FENECH 2013).

The generic strategies are not necessarily compatible with one another as the implementation of one strategy may easily make the other one impractical to pursue. If for instance a company is pursuing cost leadership it may find it difficult to implement differentiation strategy since the strategy will involve incurring more costs to enhance product attributes (LEITNER and GÜLDENBERG 2010).  In order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage a firm should seek to pursue one of these strategies as pursuing multiple generic strategies could confuse customers and make the strategy unworkable (AGYAPONG and BOAMAH 2013).

Historical evolution of the generic strategies  and Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus

In the 1970’s the dominant view on strategy was pursuit of market share in terms of size and scale which was a view the experience curve held sway over.  Research showed that firms with high and low market share could still be profitable.  However firms with moderate market share were not successful because they did not have a strategy that they pursued (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012).  Michael Porter, a Harvard professor postulated the three generic strategies in an influential article that he wrote in the Harvard Business Review in 1980.  The article explained the reason why firms with a high or low market shares were profitable and why firms with a moderate market share were not profitable (JARADAT, ALMOMANI and BATAINEH 2013).  Michael Porter noted that forms with a high market share pursued cost leadership and hence were successful. Firms with a moderate market share were unprofitable because they were stuck in the middle that is they were not pursuing any particular generic strategy. However firms with a low market share were profitable because they pursued focus or differentiation strategies. The only combination that is viable is combining market segmentation or focus strategy with differentiation strategy. The potential conflict of additional cost of value-added differentiation and cost minimization in cost leadership made it hard to combine cost leadership and differentiation strategy.  Analysts have argued that cost leadership is a strategy that is not viable to implement because it leads to price wars (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012). These analysts urge the best cost strategy be considered over cost leadership. Best cost strategy urge firms provide best value for best relatively low price which will not result in price wars (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012). Recent developments have seen new strategic thinkers modify or enhance the generic strategies.  Some analysts have modified the strategies to operational excellence, customer intimacy and product leadership as strategies to achieving sustainable competitive advantage.  Other advancements were proposed by W.Chan Kim who proposed that firms should look outside of themselves using the blue ocean strategy to find new value propositions that could generate competitive advantage (LO 2012).

The relevance of the generic strategies to today’s business challenges in relation to Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus 

           The generic strategies still offer valuable solutions to today’s challenges facing firms. The current operating environment is characterized by a turbulent environment characterized by fast changing technology, increased competition, homogeneous consumer tastes and preferences etc. In developing and emerging economies cost leadership is a strategy that could easily create sustainable competitive advantage (CHUN and LEE 2013).  These economies are characterized by high unemployment rates, falling consumer purchasing power, a growing middle class and high incidences of absolute poverty. Cost leadership which ensures products and services are offered at relatively affordable prices will create sustainable competitive advantage (ADINOLFI, DE ROSA and TRABALZI 2011). This strategy may however not be applicable in first world countries that are looking for high quality products with price not taking informing the decision but the quality. In such an operating environment differentiation could work well (CHUN and LEE 2013).  The strategies could also be applicable depending on the target market, their tastes and preferences and income brackets. Luxurious products targeting high income consumers are more likely to use differentiation and focus strategies whereas products targeting low income consumers prefer cost leadership (CHUN and LEE 2013).

PART II

Application of cost leadership strategy by Wal-Mart and Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus

Wal-Mart is one multinational corporation that has made use of cost leadership to generate sustainable competitive advantage and achieve a leadership position in its industry.  Wal-Mart Stores, Inc is a multinational retail corporation based in the United States of America. The corporation operates a large chain of ware house stores and discount department stores. The corporation has its headquarters in Bentonville in Arkansas (http://help.walmart.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/6). The corporation currently has over 11,000 stores spread in about 27 countries of the world.    The corporation operates under different brand names in different countries.  The corporation is the world largest by revenues according to Fortune Global 500 list. It is also the largest employer in the world with over two million employees.  The multinational corporation has managed grown to the giant it is now by applying cost leadership generic strategy that has enabled it to generate competitive advantage (http://help.walmart.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/6).

The company’s motto “Save money. Live better” says it all. The corporation ensures that it maintains its prices lower than those of any other stores in the areas it operates.  The company has been able to achieve this cost leadership strategy by ensuring that it is efficient in the management of its supply chain (SCHIFF and SCHIFF 2009).  The corporation applies a reliable and efficient supply chain management system which ensures product data is tracked from the store shelf, warehouse and manufacturer which ensures product losses from inefficient product management are completely eliminated (SCHIFF and SCHIFF 2009). The corporation ensures that its distribution and operation strategies are as efficient as they can get (AGYAPONG and BOAMAH 2013). The corporation clusters stores in small areas to cut on distribution costs. The corporation ensures that its operations are as efficient as possible to cut costs which enable it to cut the prices of its goods.  The corporation also ensures that it obtains its products from manufacturers at the lowest possible cost achievable.  The corporation buys in bulk or makes high volume purchases to benefit from huge discounts which it passes to consumers in terms of low prices (SCHIFF and SCHIFF 2009). The bargaining power of suppliers is weak because they depend on the discount retailer to make most of their sales. Wal-Mart is therefore able to push for low prices for the products that they buy from them. The purchasing power of buyers is also weak since the corporation is able to attract a large number of customers due to its distribution network and good reputation (PERUCIC and RAGUZ 2012).

Strategies of Cost Leadership Differentiation and Focus References

ADINOLFI, F., DE ROSA, M. and TRABALZI, F., (2011). Dedicated and generic marketing

strategies. British Food Journal, 113(3), pp. 419-435.

AGYAPONG, A. and BOAMAH, R.B., (2013). Business Strategies And Competitive Advantage

Of Family Hotel Businesses In Ghana: The Role Of Strategic Leadership. Journal of Applied Business Research, 29(2), pp. 531-543.

BORDEAN, O., BORZA, A. and GLASER-SEGURA, D., (2011). A COMPARATIVE

APPROACH OF THE GENERIC STRATEGIES WITHIN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY: ROMANIA VS. USA. Management & Marketing, 6(4), pp. 501-514.

CHUN, Y. and LEE, K., (2013). Life Cycle-Based Generic Business Strategies for Sustainable

Business Models. Journal of Sustainable Development, 6(8), pp. 1-15.

FENECH, B., (2013). Emerging Organisational Forms: Leadership Frames and Power, , 11

2013, Academic Conferences International Limited, pp. 76-83.

JARADAT, S., ALMOMANI, S. and BATAINEH, M.,( 2013). The Impact of Porter Model’s

Five Competence Powers on Selecting Business Strategy: “An Empirical Study on Jordanian Food Industrial Companies”. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 5(3), pp. 457-470.

http://help.walmart.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/6

MONAHAN, M. and RAHMAN, S., (2011). Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies: How

Appalachian Businesses Use Them to Compete. Competition Forum, 9(1), pp. 26-37.

LEITNER, K. and GÜLDENBERG, S.,( 2010). Generic strategies and firm performance in

SMEs: a longitudinal study of Austrian SMEs. Small Business Economics, 35(2), pp. 169-189.

LO, Y.,( 2012). Back to Hotel Strategic Management 101: An examination of hotels?

implementation of Porter?s generic strategy in China. Journal of International Management Studies, 7(1), pp. 56-69.

NANDAKUMAR, M.K., GHOBADIAN, A. and O’REGAN, N., (2011). Generic strategies and

performance – evidence from manufacturing firms. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 60(3), pp. 222-251.

NIE, Y. and KOSAKA, M., (2014). A New Perspective on Leadership for Achieving

Servitization of Business. Journal of Management Research, 6(4), pp. 50-62.

PERUCIC, D., PHD. and RAGUZ, I.V., PHD.,( 2012). ENHANCING COMPETITIVENESS

OF CRUISE DESTINATION BY IMPLEMENTING PORTER’S GENERIC STRATEGIES, , Jun 2012, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics and Business, pp. 1268-1279.

SCHIFF, J.B., C.M.A. and SCHIFF, A.I., (2009). Cost Leadership for the Current

 

Leadership Term Paper Assignment Available

Leadership
Leadership

Leadership

Order Instructions:

Prepare for this Discussion by choosing a leader you know and admire. Ideally this will be someone in public health, but it may be a leader in another sector such as business, academia, or health care. Reflect on what you have discovered about him or her in light of the leadership traits and styles you learned about this week.

The purpose of this interview is to discover this person’s “leadership story.” That is, you should ask them how they got where they are, what they value, and any other questions you think would help you identify their strengths and assets as leaders and any challenges they overcame. To help you formulate your interview questions, review this week’s Learning Resources, including the video program on Leadership Models.

Answer the following Questions:
1. Describe the strengths or assets that public health leaders in general need for success in leading in this field, and explain why these attributes are necessary.
2. Briefly describe the leader you interviewed and why you chose him or her.
3. What are the most important lessons you learned about leadership from this interview?
4. To what degree does he or she demonstrate the attributes of effective public health leaders?

Article:

1. George, B., Sims, P., McLean, A., & Mayer, D. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 1291-1338.

This article discusses leadership traits and characteristics. It focuses on “authentic” leadership and how leaders developed their leadership abilities.

2. Ancona, D., Malone, T. W., Orlikowski, W. J., & Senge, P. M. (2007). In praise of the incomplete leader. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 92-100.

This article discusses the analysis of four believed criteria found in all good leaders: sense making, relating, visioning, and inventing. Case studies representing best practices and utilization of each factor are reviewed.

3. Quinn, R. (2005). Moments of greatness. Harvard Business Review, 83(7/8), 740-83.

This article outlines Robert Quinn’s fundamental state of leadership theory. By achieving maximum leadership performance, leaders place themselves in a zen-like or maximum realm of productivity. Once the state is exited, leaders inadvertently have the ability to increase the overall performance of all those in contact with the effort.

4. Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, 78(2), 78–90.

This article discusses newly identified field research indicating that effective leaders establish and master a multifaceted approach to leadership to be effective. The six styles of leadership discussed in this article are: coercive, authoritative, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting, and coaching.

Please apply the Application Assignment Rubric when writing the Paper.

I. Paper should demonstrate an excellent understanding of all of the concepts and key points presented in the texts.

II. Paper provides significant detail including multiple relevant examples, evidence from the readings and other sources, and discerning ideas.

III. Paper should be well organized, uses scholarly tone, follows APA style, uses original writing and proper paraphrasing, contains very few or no writing and/or spelling errors, and is fully consistent with doctoral level writing style.

IV. Paper should be mostly consistent with doctoral level writing style.

SAMPLE ANSWER

Leaders need strengths and assets for success in leading their fields. These attributes are crucial as they differentiate them from others and set them apart from the ordinary to extra-ordinary people.  Born in Stowe and started out his first business venture as a student paper, Richard Branson is a remarkable role model to millions. As a school dropout at the age of 16 and from a humble beginning, Richard grew to become a prominent and one of the most sought after entrepreneurs and leaders of our times. Being the figurehead of Virgin Atlantic airways, he is the mind behind more than 200 different businesses linked to the title virgin group (Dearlove, 2007).

Richard Branson is a charismatic and transformational leader in every aspect. He is visionary, an agent of change and loves investing in people. For him, people are the greatest assets and it is for the value he has placed on people that they have greatly rewarded him.

The most important lessons I learnt about his leadership from this interview is that leadership is inborn. You can mould leaders but cannot make them like George et al. (2007). The most successful leaders are transformational leaders like Branson. They posses wisdom and capabilities beyond studies that drive them to excel in all they put their mind to do.

Branson demonstrates the attributes of an effective public leader to a large extent. Like the trait, theory of leadership describes leaders and effectiveness, Branson stands out as an exceptional leader who gets results (Goleman, 2000). He is a high achiever with high ambition levels, is driven by motivation, values honesty and integrity, self-confident, has wisdom coupled with cognitive ability, emotional stability and business acumen.

References

Dearlove, D. (2007). The Richard Branson Way, Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK

George, B. Sims, P. McLean, A. & Mayer, D.(2007). “Discovering your authentic leadership,” Harvard business review, 85(2), 1291-1338

Goleman, D. (2000). “Leadership”

We can write this or a similar paper for you! Simply fill the order form!

Nursing Leaders as Change Agents

Nursing Leaders as Change Agents
Nursing Leaders as Change Agents

Nursing Leaders as Change Agents at the Public Policy Table

Order Instructions:

This paper is basically the conclusion of the policy change proposal paper so it is important that writer respond to the question below base on that assumption that she is an advance nurse practitioner. follow the question carefully and respond to the questions below detaily.

Throughout the policy change proposal paper, you have had many opportunities to debate public policy related to health reform. As an advance practicing nurse, explain how you see your role as a public policy change agent. Has your thinking changed since you started written your policy change paper from the first week, and if so, how?

SAMPLE ANSWER

Nursing Leaders as Change Agents at the Public Policy Table

Reforms are part of the public policy initiatives aimed at improving provision of healthcare. As an Advance Nurse Practitioner, I can say that my role as a public policy change agent has been beyond approach. I have participated in the reforms by providing information and suggestions on the best decisions to ensure that reforms benefit the target members of the society (Benton, 2012).  Most of the time I have, depended on evidence based research to gather information about the need for reforms and the best strategies to inform the same.

My role as a policy change agent has been as a leader. I took a leading role in guiding the team members and providing a conducive environment for the team to deliberate on the best options and decisions.  This opportunity to me has opened my scope of thinking and understanding about public policy and the need to championing reforms in healthcare to ensure that quality care is accessed by all the people (Lockett et al., 2014).

This opportunity to write a policy paper has not only allowed me to explore on the public health challenges but it has changed my thinking in many ways. From the onset of the paper from the first week, I must attest that it has been a fulfilling experience. The opportunity has enabled me to think deeper and to analyze more information on the topic. This analysis allowed me widened my scope of thinking.  Through brainstorming and closer interrogation of various literatures, it was possible to come up with different strategies that allowed me to come up with appropriate tactics and strategies to formulate and institute policy change at manageable cost (Jadelhack, 2012).

This experience has therefore, to greater magnitude helped me to have a deeper understanding of reforms in public policy and the appropriate strategies to implement the reforms to ensure success.

References

Benton, D. (2012). Advocating Globally to Shape Policy and Strengthen Nursing’s Influence.      Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 17(1): 1-1.

Jadelhack, R. (2012). Health promotion in nursing and cost-effectiveness.  Journal of Cultural      Diversity, 19(2): 65-68

Lockett, A. et al., (2014). The influence of social position on sensemaking about organizational     change.  Academy of Management Journal, 57(4): 1102-1129.

We can write this or a similar paper for you! Simply fill the order form!

A Leading Strategic Decision Making

Leading Strategic Decision Making Order Instructions: I have an assignment and just need to make sure it goes back to the same writer since she said she will do it and I wrongfully accused her.

Leading Strategic Decision Making
Leading Strategic Decision Making

I am sorry.

Leading Strategic Decision Making Sample Answer

Leading Strategic Decision-Making

End of Module Coursework Assessment

 This graded assessment accounts for 90% of your final grade and comprises two separate assessment exercises: Part A & Part B which are both weighted equally at 45% of your final grade.

You need to use this cover sheet for your assignment.

PART B

In Part B, we require you to write an essay on the following topic.

Essay Topic:

Roe (2014) argues that according to the leader-member exchange theory, followers who experience high quality relationships with the leader are in receipt of higher tangible rewards, such as pay, bonuses and more challenging assignments.

Critically assess whether leader member exchange theory provides an effective framework for assessing the relationships between leaders and followers.

Marking schedule for Part B:

10% of marks are allocated to the presentation of the essay. The student’s work should be typed with the lear use of paragraphs and headings. Typographical and spelling errors should be avoided.

10% of marks are allocated to appropriate referencing of content. Students should familiarise themselves and make use of the Harvard referencing system and should cite and reference material properly. Students should make use of a range of resources (books, journal articles etc) and the literature used should be appropriate to the arguments made.

60% of marks are allocated to the analysis presented in the essay. Students should examine appropriate theoretical concepts and frameworks. Students should demonstrate an awareness of the wider context and present an in-depth discussion of current issues. Better students will demonstrate critical analysis skills and communicate their arguments in a clear and coherent manner.

20% of marks are allocated to the conclusions drawn. The conclusions should identify the key themes or issues under consideration.  Conclusions should be well supported from the analysis and highlight the significance of arguments, evidence and insights

 Leading Strategic Decision Making Guidance Notes on Part B

You must refer to relevant literature throughout the essay. This can be in the form of textbooks, journal articles, or relevant web-based material. Student are directed in particular to the following databases which they may find useful in developing their essay:

  • Emerald
  • ABI Inform Complete (Proquest)
  • Ingenta
  • Science Direct
  • Sage Online, In particular, the following journals may be helpful to you in relation to the prescribed topic:
  • Leadership Quarterly (Available on Science Direct)
  • Leadership and Organisation Development Journal (Available on Emerald)
  • Team Performance Management (Available on Emerald)
  • Journal of Management Development (Available on Emerald)
  • Group and Organisation Management (Available on Sage Online)

You may wish to refer to relevant theory or you may wish to cite relevant research or examples to support your arguments. Remember all material cited must be referenced using the Harvard Referencing system. Also please refer to the University guidance notes on the avoidance of Plagiarism.

Please remember to structure your essay appropriate. You should use headings – and include an introduction, main body and conclusion/recommendations sections.

While we do not specify a particular number of references/citations to be included, you should include at least a minimum of 15 different citations/references from books and journal articles in your essay.

Please answer the topic posed. Your essay should NOT be a summary of leadership theories. You need to specifically address the topic and question posed.

Minimum Essay Length: 2000 words

Maximum Essay Length: 2500 words

Aside from the reference list, your essay (Part B) should not include any appendices.

Please note that whilst the submission deadline is Friday 29thAugust at 11.59pm (UK time), you are free to make your submission at any time before this date. You do not need to wait until this day, or the day before or the week before.

Important Note:

Please ensure that Part A and Part B are submitted as separate documents. The documents should clearly be marked Part A and Part B and your matriculation number and module code should be clearly marked on the submission.

Coursework Assessment Feedback

Matriculation No. Date of Submission:
Module: Leading Strategic   Decision-Making
Part B: Essay Cohort:

           

Category                      Comment
 

Presentation of the essay. Clear use of paragraphs and   headings and the text is free from typographical and spelling errors.

(10%)

 

Referencing   of content. Consistent use of Harvard Referencing throughout the essay with   adequate citation support for arguments being made.

(10%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis.

Comprehensive   examination of appropriate theoretical frameworks and models. Strong   arguments presented with critical insights and good communication skills in   evidence.

(60%)

 

Conclusions.

Clear   identification of key themes and issues. Synthesis of core arguments and   formulation of insights and recommendations as appropriate

(20%)

 

 

General Comments:

 

Overall Grade: Marker:

N.B. the percentages are shown as indications of the relative importance of each section and should not be taken as a precise indication of the marking scheme.