Landscape Topography and Hydrology Reflection

Landscape Topography and Hydrology Reflection reflect on the specific landscape which is Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain in Gustafson Porter + Browman Hyde Park please use this as time and space to collect your own thoughts, opinions, attitudes, and reactions.

Landscape Topography and Hydrology Reflection
Landscape Topography and Hydrology Reflection

Note: remember to analyze on its topography &hydrology aspect

Following are some useful notes of the site from the lecture :

Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain, Gustafson Porter + Browman Hyde Park

Technically difficult work,

Dynamiter elevation

Relationship between architectural structure and the structure around it

Surface development: high quality generating computer model and smooth 3D model

All section cut through the landscape,

The fountain, water feature, water in down hill in 2 dirctions (reaching out and letting in)

Micro topography surface.

Settle elevation, the detail the uncommon

Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp

Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp v Natural Resources Defense Council The issue in the case of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council 435 U.S. 519 (1978) asks:

Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp

The issue in the case of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council 435 U.S. 519 (1978) asks:

Should a court have the right or power to impose procedural rule-making procedures on an agency? What did the Court decide?

Please state one important concept that you take away from the Court’s decision in this case about rule-making procedure?

Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp Module 10: Lecture

Administrative agencies created by the U.S. Constitution, Congress, state legislatures, and local lawmaking bodies manage contingencies, redress serious social problems, and manage complex matters of governmental concern. Administrative agency actions can be categorized as one of three types: Rulemaking,  Adjudication, and Investigation. Agencies have these components as well as an investigative component. We have looked at delegation so some of this may sound familiar. In the peer response, please incorporate a discussion of the rule-making procedure from the text materials.investigative component. We have looked at delegation so some of this may sound familiar.

Agency rulemaking. What is it? How is it different from adjudication both informal and formal adjudication?

  1. Rulemaking: what is it?

Administrative agencies use the rulemaking process to create, or proclaim regulations. Rule-making is also called Quasi Legislative Authority. What does this mean?

  1. Rulemaking is the agency establishment of law to implement or perform a statutory duty
  2. Frequently, agencies use rulemaking powers to fill in gaps or explain details undefined in legislation ? See pages 118-120 for an example of rulemaking delegated to the Wage and Hour Administrator regarding the Fair Labor Standards Act
  3. Regulations are subordinate to statutes but have equal weight when applied
  4. The authority to establish substantive rules must stem from an enabling statute
  5. The legislative delegation of authority must be reasonable. Unreasonable delegations will be invalidated by the courts.

Delegations that concern suspect classes or fundamental rights are subject to strict scrutiny

Authority to create substantive rules cannot be assumed by an agency

Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp

Generally, the legislature makes laws based on the policy mandates of the government. However, legislatures frequently find areas where it is impractical for lawmakers to apply a level of detail or expertise required to constitute complete standards. Then the legislatures delegate rulemaking function to administrative agencies. Agencies create detailed regulations through rulemaking. Purposes of rulemaking are to add scientific expertise, implementation details, and industry expertise. When administrative agencies make rules they are to be made flexible, because new data and technology that influence the rules emerge frequently. Administrative agencies’ rulemaking power is subject to judicial review. Hence the agencies actions should be in accordance with its enabling statutes.

Section 551(4) of the APA defines a rule as the “whole or a part of an agency statement of general or particular applicability and future effect designed to implement, interpret or prescribe law or policy or describing the organization, procedure or practice requirements of an agency”. Rules – actions intended to have a future effect

Generally directed at large groups

  1. Adjudication: Different from Rulemaking.

Adjudication is a process that investigates, declares and enforces liabilities as they stand on present or past facts and under laws supposed already to exist…” – Justice Holmes

Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp

Administrative adjudication is the exercise of judicial powers by an administrative agency. Legislative body delegates judicial powers to the agency. Generally, administrative agencies deal with disputes between individuals and government in terms of benefits sought or disabilities incurred from the government action. Generally, adjudication is for individual claims. See the Figure 6-2 in the textbook. There are due process concerns (remember what you learned in chapter 4). What might these concerns be?

Agencies may often make rules without conducting hearings

Adjudication requires notice and an opportunity to be heard

Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp

Formal adjudication involves a trial-like hearing with witness testimony, a written record and a final decision. However, under informal adjudication, decisions are made using inspections, conferences and negotiations.

With informal adjudications, an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) makes a decision based on reasoned analysis, written findings of fact, and conclusions of law. We call this Quasi-judicial authority. It is the administrative agency hearing power.

This decision is subject to appeal to the highest administrative authority of the agency. Administrative fact-findings (also called decisions) are binding on courts unless not supported by substantial evidence. Generally, judicial review of formal agency adjudication is limited to questions of law. Think about the Goldberg case here – questions of law are when the 5th and 14th amendments of the US Constitution are violated.

Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp TYPES OF RULES

There are two types of rules? Legislative rules and Procedural rules. We have spent much of this course looking at procedural rules. A legislative delegation of authority provides implicit authority to establish procedures necessary to enforce and implement the agency’s mandate Substantive Law. There is no inherent authority to create substantive rules

Congress must delegate this authority

Necessary gap-filling may be allowed if Congress’s intent is clear

Courts may not substitute their judgment for that of a substantive agency rule

You will also learn about something called “Interpretive rules”

Used to inform the public of how a rule will be implementing or enforcing a rule ? They do not declare anything new

They do not fill in gaps

They do not have the force of statutes

No express or implied delegation of authority is required to authorize an agency to issue interpretive rules

Courts generally give great weight to interpretive rules.

In essence, we are applying the Constitutional due process rules now to the system of rule-making.

Data Visualization and Geographic Information Systems

Data Visualization and Geographic Information Systems Data Visualization and GIS Solutions.

Data Visualization and Geographic Information Systems
Data Visualization and Geographic Information Systems

Research either data visualization software or GIS software available to businesses. In a paper, summarize the range of solutions available, with examples of how these might be utilized. Then identify an organization that has adopted one of these software solutions. Briefly describe the organization, and then answer these questions:

What technology (or technologies) is the organization using?

Which business units utilize the data presented by the technology?

What does a technology provider to the business? What benefits does it offer and/or what problems does it solve?

Explain the present and future impacts of such technology from a business perspective.

Identify areas in which the business might expand or improve upon using the technology. Explain what they could do and why they should do it.

 

Human Geography Comparative Report

Human Geography Comparative Report
Human Geography Comparative Report

Human Geography Comparative Report

Human Geography – Guidelines for Comparative Report
Please research and write a 4 to 5-page analytical report on a topic related to human geography. Select as your topic a specific human phenomenon having spatial variation and compare its presence between two equivalent geographic units (city, state, country, etc.). The report is worth 100 points.
The report will have two parts to it. The first part will be a description of how the phenomenon is different and/or similar in the two places (maximum 40 points). The second part will be an analysis, in which you offer three or more plausible explanations for why this difference and/or similarity exist (maximum 50 points). In this class we have learned to ask where and why about many things. Your analysis should reflect your learning in the course: It is very unlikely that there will be a single right answer. Your answer will be graded on the quality of your analysis. Furthermore, proper referencing (5 points) and organization of materials (5 points) are required.

Please follow these guidelines:
Font: 12-point font-
Spacing: Double-space
Length: Five pages
References: At the end of the report have an additional page listing at least five sources you consulted to research this topic. For the sake of your own experience, I would prefer you use at least two non-Internet sources. Materials from Wikipedia will not be accepted.

To help you better understand the nature of the assignment, here are some sample topics:
– Compare a county (or state, country) with the lowest divorce rate (or graduation rate, birth rate, etc.) with the one having the highest. (example: Within a particular state, county A has the highest divorce rate and county B has the lowest. Is this due to spatial variation in incomes, age at marriage, religious traits, etc.?)
– Compare the amount of public transportation available (or recycling, etc.) in one city with that in a similarly sized city in the same country or in another country.
– Compare the percentage of gross national product (GNP) a country spends on a particular need (defense, education, etc.) vs. the percentage spent by another country.
– Compare immigration to a country and that of another country.
– Compare infant mortality rates and the reasons behind it in a developed versus a developing country.
– Compare a variety of crop (or breed) farmers prefer in one area with the variety they prefer in another (example: one wheat hybrid may be preferred in one place, but a different wheat hybrid is preferred in another–is this due to spatial variation in climate, soil, cost, personal preference, availability of the hybrid, market for the hybrid, etc.?)
– Compare poverty levels in a developed country and that of a developing country.
– Compare urbanization in a developed country and that of a developing country.
– Compare gender inequality in a developed country and that of a developing country.
– Compare agricultural activities in a state in the U.S. compare to another state in the U.S.
-Compare maternal mortality in a developed country and that of a developing country.
-Compare environmental condition in a specific developed country and that of a specific developing country.
-Compare ethnic conflict in a particular country and that of another country.

Note: be careful not to plagiarize and try to put things in your own words as much as you can. If you quote or borrow heavily, reference your source.
If not an exact quote, but borrowing heavily (i.e. either paraphrasing someone or using that person’s idea), don’t use quotes, but at least give credit to that person

Format for reference page:
1. You may title your reference page either “References” or “Sources.”
2. Below is how I recommend you annotate your sources–
If a book:
Grimshaw, D.J. (1994). Bringing geographical information systems into business. New York: John Wiley. [one author]

Birkin, M., & Wilson, A. (2010). Urbanization in the Global South. London: Routledge [two authors]

If a newspaper:
Munny, M. (2003). “Nigerian Incomes on the Rise.” Wall Street Journal, 13 August 2003, 12B and 16B.

If a magazine:
Scully, D. (2002). “Unusual Sightings Have Idaho Town on Edge.” Newsweek, 31 October 2002, 13.

If a scholarly journal:
Hilson, G., & Clifford, M.J. (2010). Small-scale gold mining, the environment and human health: and introduction to the Ghana case. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 4(3), 185-194.

If a Website:
GeoStats website, “Country D

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Mt St Helens type and a Hawaiian type Eruptions

Mt St Helens type and a Hawaiian type Eruptions How does plate tectonics explain the difference between Mt. Saint Helen’s-type eruption and a Hawaiian-type eruption?

Mt St Helens type and a Hawaiian type Eruptions
Mt St Helens type and a Hawaiian type Eruptions

How does plate tectonics explain the difference between Mt. Saint Helen’s-type eruption and a Hawaiian-type eruption?

State the question you selected to research.

Post a synopsis, based on the results of your research, the answer to the question selected. In the synopsis, include a brief explanation of the significance of the knowledge you learned from your research on historical geology and cite the reference source of your research.

Research sources of information on the Web can include, but not limited to, books, articles, videos, and handouts.

1502 Columbia founds the Costa Rica coast

1502 Columbia founds the Costa Rica coast
1502 Columbia founds the Costa Rica coast

1502 Columbia founds the Costa Rica coast in his fourth voyage

Format: Essay format with headers (bolded). Double-spaced, 1 margins, proofread, spell checked and work cited. MLA format 10-12 pages. Turnitin: Projects must be submitted to Turnitin to be accepted(Located in ulearn). Your turnitin originality report should be a score between 15-35%.

Costa Rica Study Abroad ñ Spring 2019

TRVL3020 Ecotourism
Destination Pre-Departure Assignment (100 points)

The following project will help you to prepare for our trip abroad. Research each of the topics provide below.

1. Costa Rica
a. History (Brief description)
a. In the year 1502 Columbia founds the Costa Rica coast in his fourth voyage and then in 1563 Spanish colonists established its colony at Costa Rica. When Latin Americans were calling for independence, Costa Rica’s constitution was passed in 1949.
b. Are there states, provinces, or counties? How many? Can you name them? How are they different?
a. Costa Rica is divided into 7 provinces, with 81 counties and cities, and 421 districts.
b. Seven provinces: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, LimÛn, Puntarenas, San JosÈ
c. Climate
a. There are only two seasons: rain season and dry season. Rainy season is from April to December and the dry season (Summer) is from the end of December to April. Annual temperature is 15 ∞ C(59F) to 26∞ C(79F). For the coast area it is 21∞ C (70F)to 30∞ C(86F).
d. What are the main cities? The population? The main industries?
e. Type of currency, exchange rate with the USD
a. 1 DOLLAR= 608 COLON
b. 1 RMB=90 COLON

2. Politics and Religion
a. Name the current political leaders and their titles
a. Carlos Alvarado Quesada (President of Costa Rica)
b. How would you describe the form of government and the political process?
a. Costa Rica is a presidential, representative democratic republic, whereby the president serves as the country’s head of state and head of government.
b. Costa Rica has three branches like America: legislative, executive, and judicial.
c. What are the interest groups and how do they express their concerns?
a. Partido de Liberacin Nacional, Partido Accin Ciudadana, Movimiento Libertario, Partido Unidad Social Cristiana. (National Baath Party, Broad Front Party and all the people join the party)
b. Studies concerning Costa Rica are of two kinds: those concerned with the country’s history, which use cultural, economic, social and political indicators to draw an irreversible evolution toward an occidental democratic order; and those that take for granted the exceptional nature of the Costa Rican regime and try to enumerate the society’s distinctive features. The first type does not explain but rather commemorates, meaning that every historical event is considered as an evolutionary stage. The second type describes social features but does not explain either 2 (Dabene).
d. Is bribery a part of the government? If so, in what ways?
a. In Costa Rica, 24 percent are estimated to have used bribes for obtaining such public services, lower than the regional average, and the lowest rate in Central America, but far from stellar in a would-be healthy democracy (Anders).
e. Is politics an appropriate topic of conversation?
a. Politics and family are good conversation topics while Costa Ricans shy away from discussions about religion and personal criticisms (DigitalCavalry).
f. Is there a state religion? How many religions are represented in the country?
a. Roman Catholicism; 76.3% of Costa Ricans identify as Catholic. An additional 13.7% are Evangelical Christians, 1.3% are Jehovah’s Witness, and 0.7% are Protestant Christian. The remaining 8% either have no religion (3.2%) or are of other faiths (4.8%), including Mormonism, Judaism and Islam (Velzer).
g. What are the 5 dominant religious values in the country?
a. Although the Costa Rican Constitution establishes Catholicism as the state religion, it also assures religious freedom for all.
b. Roman Catholicism; 76.3% of Costa Ricans identify as Catholic. An additional 13.7% are Evangelical Christians, 1.3% are Jehovah’s Witness, and 0.7% are Protestant Christian. The remaining 8% either have no religion (3.2%) or are of other faiths (4.8%), including Mormonism, Judaism and Islam (Velzer).
3. Daily Life and Non-Verbal Communication (Note: 65% of meaning is communicated nonverbally)
a. How do people greet each other? Say ìgoodbyeî?
a. Handshake between men and patting or touching forearm between women.
b. Say adios.
b. Is gift giving a custom? What kind of gift for what occasion? Are there gifts you should not give?
a.
c. What is the appropriate distance between two persons?
d. What is the appropriate amount of eye contact?
e. How is time managed differently?
f. Are there any nonverbal behaviors patterns or hand gestures you use which may be offensive?

5. Education and Social Structure
a. Is Education free? Compulsory? To what age/grade level?
b. How does the education system compare to yours?(Perceived advantages/disadvantages)
c. What are the social class divisions?
d. Are there ethnic divisions?
e. Is there discrimination? Against whom?
f. Has the experience of colonialism or foreign domination affected class structure? The attitude toward foreigners?
g. Are there differences between male and female roles in the home? Business? Education? Society?

6. Business and Social Customs
a. What are some of the dominant business values?
b. Should you invite business colleagues to your home? To a restaurant?
c. Should you be on time or late for a meeting?

7. Food
a. Describe the kinds of foods that are common locally. What do locals eat for their daily meals? Are there some foods that seem strange or unusual?
b. What are the local beverages?
c. Tipping policy

8. Newspapers and Media
a. What is the government’s attitude toward the media in general?

9. Health and Safety
a. What medical facilities are available? Is it socialized or not?
b. Health and sanitation conditions, including drinking water.
c. Cautions to the traveler about the country.
d. Crime rate and most common crimes affecting tourists

10. Their Attitude toward You
a. Local population sentiment toward the US. What do they think of Americans?
b. Is there a large US expatriate community?
c. What is YOUR attitude toward these people?

Format: Essay format with headers (bolded). Double-spaced, 1 margins, proofread, spell checked and work cited. MLA format 10-12 pages. Turnitin: Projects must be submitted to Turnitin to be accepted(Located in ulearn). Your turnitin originality report should be a score between 15-35%.

Works Citation

Anders, Wendy. ìNearly 1 in 4 People in Costa Rica Paid a Bribe for Public Services in Past Year. Costa Rica Star News, 11 Oct. 2017, news.co.cr/nearly-1-4-people-costa-rica-paid-bribe-public-services-past-year/66871/.

DigitalCavalry. Etiquette Tips for Costa Rica.î Hostel Bekuo Costa Rica Hostel and Backpackers in San Jose Costa Rica Etiquette Tips for Costa Rica Comments, www.hostelbekuo.com/traveling-in-costa-rica/etiquette-for-costa-rica/.

Dabene, Olivier. Lanic.utexas.education, lanic.utexas.edu/project/etext/llilas/tpla/8801.pdf.

Velzer, Ryan Van. Religion in Costa Rica. Costa Rica, 19 June 2015, www.costarica.com/culture/religion-in-costa-rica.

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Analyzes and Evaluates of Human Geography

Analyzes and Evaluates of Human Geography ë…what people make of their places is closely connected to what they make of themselves as members of society and inhabitants of the earth.  If place-making is a way of constructing the past, a venerable means of doing human history, it is also a way of constructing social traditions and, in the process, personal and social identities.

Analyzes and Evaluates of Human Geography
Analyzes and Evaluates of Human Geography

We are, in a sense, the place-worlds we imagineí

óKeith Basso, Wisdom Sits in Places (p. 7)

As the quote above suggests, the ways in which different peoples of the Earth construct their identities is intimately linked to the processes that shape places, environments, and landscapes.  Interactions between humansí identities and their surrounding environments have of course also changed over time and across space in this region that today many calls ëThe Southwestí and ëNorthwest Mexico.í  For this essay, you are to use the different concepts you have learned in class to analyze and evaluate the changing relationships between human identity (i.e. the way humans see and understand themselves) and the places/landscapes/environments that have sustained them in the Southwest region.  Your analysis should start with the entrance of the first humans into the region and take the reader through the material we have covered so far (i.e. ending on February 21).  You should also be sure to define what you mean by the term, ëSouthwest.í

There are many ways to set up an essay.  One good way to start would be to first comb back over the material from lectures, readings, discussions, and exercises (including the museum visit) and to identify the main concepts and themes that have popped up.  From there, you can set up a timeline consisting of points in time (periods) during which different concepts, people, and places seem to hang together.  Doing this will allow you to divide up the paper into smaller, more easily digested bites and to more easily analyze and evaluate the main patterns that you see across time and space.  An example of one analytical concept that weíve used frequently is ërace.í  The idea of racial difference was certainly alive and well by the time of the Spanish conquest and its use continues into the present moment.  The history of the Southwest has been marked by tensions around this concept.  But, again, be careful with your concepts; we have no idea, for instance, whether the idea of race existed among so-called prehistoric peoples because they left no written records.  What we know of the identity of prehistoric peoples comes through the record of material objects found in different archaeological sites. After the conquest, we do have written records.  But, as you also know, those records come with the biases and agendas of the people who wrote them, so they must be used cautiously. You get the picture.

Analyzes and Evaluates of Human Geography Basic requirements

Ï 4 to 8 pages (max) ñ that is, roughly, 250 words per double-spaced page

Ï Use of proper citation form (APA, MLS, Chicago, etc.), including using quote marks and citations for all directly quoted material. When you draw from class notes, just cite it like this: (Banister Lecture 2019).  There is no need to create a bibliography.

Ï Must be turned into ëAssignmentsí folder by the due date (March 15, 11:30 pm) ñ late papers will automatically lose one letter grade and an additional letter grade for each 24-hour period that lapses after that.

Analyzes and Evaluates of Human Geography Grading Criteria

You will be graded based on how well your essay:

Ï Analyzes and Evaluates the course material:

That is, it ìexamine[s] methodically and in detail the constitution or structure of [information]Ö.for purposes of explanation and interpretation.î  To receive an ëAí grade, in other words, your paper needs to go beyond just presenting information; rather, it should assess and interpret that information and demonstrate that you comprehend it.

Ï Draws from the material we have covered so far.  This means demonstrating a firm grasp of everything weíve covered both in and outside of the classroom.

Ï Clearly expresses your thoughts ñ i.e. your essay must make sense and have a cohesive structure.

HELP: If you need help, please get in touch with me during office hours or make an appointment ASAP.  You might also take advantage of the UA Writing Center, which offers free drop-in sessions and can be of enormous help:

https://thinktank.arizona.edu/writing-center

 

Geography literature review Essay Paper

Geography literature review
Geography literature review

Geography literature review

A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area. The purpose of
it is to summarize and synthesize the arguments and ideas of others. This written document will provide the background for your study, and help direct you in your analysis. A minimum of 10 sources are required (above and beyond sources that are associated with work in this class), and please note that annotated bibliographies are not suitable. For those inexperienced with writing literature reviews, please use the following website as a guide:
http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/literature-reviews/
Also to be included in the literature review is a section on your source(s) of data. In this section
of the report you are to describe the data that you intend to use for the project. This can be
modeled after the data descriptions provided with the data sets for the assignments. In other words, it is not sufficient to list the dataset; you must describe the variables that are included in the data set. Include a discussion on the precision, accuracy, reliability and validity of the variables (these concepts were addressed in 3MB3). In total, your submission should be approximately 5 written pages (not including references), using all of the style guidelines that
are applied in all submissions in this course.

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Social Geography of a Neighborhood or a Small Town

Social Geography of a Neighborhood or a Small Town Write an essay on the social geography of a neighborhood or a small town.

Social Geography of a Neighborhood or a Small Town
Social Geography of a Neighborhood or a Small Town

For this essay, you will have to obtain secondary (published) source data that has been collected by an agency such as Statistics Canada (see the instructional content of Week 1 for the address of the StatsCan Website) or by your local town, region, or municipality. If you have problems obtaining the data, contact the government document reference librarians.

For this assignment, decide upon the data sets that you will need in order to describe the social geography of your selected area. You should include variables similar to the indicators included in Figure 15.1 in the instructional content, and the variables discussed in Week 15, for describing the social spaces of your selected area.

You should also include data relating to the same variables for the entire community (i.e., city, town, or municipality) in which your study area is located. You may then compare your study area with the entire community in terms of the selected variables. For example, if you chose to examine a neighborhood in the City of Winnipeg, you should collect data relating to both the selected variables for that neighborhood and also for Winnipeg as a whole.

Your essay must incorporate:

A brief outline of theoretical approaches (based on residential ecology) to the study of the social geography of the city.

A description of the variables that you selected for analysis.

A brief description of your selected study area including a map.

An analysis of the data using descriptive methods only (e.g., frequency distributions, percentages, means, etc.). Your descriptive data may be presented in tables and/or graphs.

A discussion of the results of your analysis.

Your essay should be structured as follows:

An introductory section that includes a statement of the objectives of the research and the overview of the theoretical approaches.

Description of the study area (including a map).

Data source(s) and a description of the data (variables) that are analyzed.

Description of the method(s) of analysis (tables/graphs) and presentation of data.

Results of the analysis.

Social Geography of a Neighborhood or a Small Town Conclusion.

In addition, the following article from the Readings Package may be consulted, particularly concerning theoretical approaches:

“Urban Social Space” (Murdie and Teixeira)

The length of the main text of this essay should be approximately 3,500 typewritten words (excluding references). The data used in the essay should be included in an appendix.

Geography-Americas Realm Essay Assignment

Geography-Americas Realm
Geography-Americas Realm

Geography-Americas Realm

Select a current country from within the Americas realms EXCLUDING THE UNITED STATES! . Research the following question: What is life like for the citizens of , or a particular cultural group in, the country you chose?

Then, write a 400 words essay containing the information you discovered in your step 2 research. State your country of choice at the beginning of your essay, as well as why you chose it. You can include illustration material such as maps and pictures if you choose, just make sure you meet the word count requirement.

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